Psychoanalytic Therapy

Submitted to:
Prof. Agnes Montalbo
Rizal Technological University
Submitted by:
Toni Rose Gomez
PSYCHOANALYTIC
THERAPY
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
The Originator and Father
of Psychoanalysis
What is Psychoanalytic Therapy?
Psychoanalytic Therapy looks at how
the unconscious mind influences
thoughts and behaviors.
Psychoanalysis frequently involves
looking childhood experiences in order to
discover how these events might have
shaped the individual and how they
contribute to current actions.
View of Human Nature
The Freudian view of human nature
was naturally deterministic.
According to Freud, our behavior is
determined by irrational forces,
unconscious motivation, biological and
instinctual drives as these evolve
through key psychosexual stages.
INSTINCTS
Life Instincts
It serves as the
purpose of the survival
of the individual and
the human race; they
were oriented toward
growth, development
and creativity.
Death Instinct
It accounts for the
aggressive drive. At
times, people manifest
through their behavior
an unconscious wish to
die or to hurt
themselves or others.
Structure of Personality
According to
Psychoanalytic view, the
Personality consists of
three systems:
The ID is the Biological
component
The EGO is the
Psychological component
The SUPEREGO is the
Social component
THE ID ( The Spoiled brat
of the Personality)
Ruled by the pleasure
principle, which is aimed at
reducing tension, avoiding
pain and gaining pleasure.
The id never matures
and it does not think but
only wishes or acts. The id is
largely unconscious, or out
of awareness.
THE EGO ( “Traffic cop”)
It is the “executive”
that governs, controls and
regulates the personality.
Ruled by the reality
principle the ego does
realistic and logical
thinking and formulates
plans for action for
satisfying needs.
THE SUPEREGO (Judicial
Branch of Personality)
It includes a person’s
moral code, the main concern
being whether an action is good
or bad, right and wrong. It
represents the ideal rather than
the real not for pleasure but for
perfection.
The superego, then as the
internalization of standards and
the society.
Conscious and Unconscious
Consciousness
It is a thin slice of the total
mind. Like the greater part of the
iceberg that lies below the surface
of the water, the larger part of the
mind exists below the surface of
awareness.
Unconsciousness
The unconscious cannot be studied
directly but is inferred by behavior.
Clinical evidence for postulating the
unconscious includes the following:
1. Dreams- which are symbolic representations
of unconscious needs and, wishes and
conflicts.
2. Slips of the tongue and forgetting(ex.
familiar name)
3. Posthypnotic suggestions
4. Material derived from free association
techniques
5. Material drive from Projective Technique
6. Symbolic Content of psychotic symptoms
Anxiety
It is the feeling of
dread that results from
repressed feelings,
memories and desires and
experience that emerge to
the surface of awareness.
The function of
anxiety is to warn of
impending danger.
Three Kinds of Anxiety
Reality anxiety is the fear of danger of the external
world and the level of such anxiety is proportionate to
the degree of real threat.
Neurotic anxiety is the fear that the instincts will get
out of hand and cause no one to do something for
which will one will be punished.
Moral anxiety is the fear of one’s own consciousness.
Ego-Defense Mechanism
It helps the individual cope with anxiety
and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed.
The defenses employed depend on the
individual’s development and degree of
anxiety.
Two characteristics of Defense Mechanism
They either deny or distort reality.
They operate in unconscious level.
Repression
Threatening or painful
thoughts and feelings are
excluded are excluded
from awareness.
Freud explained it as
an involuntary removal of
something from
consciousness.
Denial
“Closing one’s eyes”
to the existence of a
threatening aspect of
reality.
It is a way of
distorting what the
individual thinks, feels,
or perceives in a
traumatic situation,
Reaction Formation
Actively expressing the opposite
impulse when confronted with a
threatening impulse.
Projection
Attributing to others one’s own
acceptable desires and impulses. This
is a mechanism of self deception.
Displacement
Directing
energy toward
another object
or person when
the original
object or person
is inaccessible.
Rationalization
Manufacturing
“good” reason to explain
away a bruised ego.
It helps justify
specific behaviors, and it
aids in softening the blow
connected with
disappointments.
Sublimation
Diverting
sexual aggressive
energy into
socially
acceptable and
sometimes even
admirable
channels.
Regression
Going back
to an earlier
phase of
development
when there
were fewer
demands.
Introjection
Taking in and “swallowing” the
values and standards of others.
Identification
Identifying with
successful causes,
organizations, or
people in the hope
that you will be
perceived as
worthwhile.
Compensatio
n
Masking
perceived
weakness or
developing
certain positive
traits to make up
for limitations.
Development of the Personality
Importance of early development:
A significant contribution of the
psychoanalytic model is delineation of the
stages of psychosexual refers to the Freudian
chronological phases of development
beginning infancy and the psychosocial stages
refers to Erickson’s basic psychological and
social tasks to be mastered from infancy
through old age.
Prepared by: Rolando Hiteroza
Erikson’s Psychosocial
Perspective
Erikson’s Psychosocial Perspective
Erik Erikson
(1963) built on
Freud’s ideas and
extended his theory
by stressing the
psychosocial aspects
of development
beyond early
childhood.
He describes development in terms
of the entire life span, divided by specific
crises to be resolved.
According to Erikson, a crisis is
equivalent to a turning point in life when
we have the potential to move forward or
to regress.
Erikson is often credited with bringing
an emphasis on social factors to
contemporary psychoanalysis.
Classical psychoanalysis is grounded on id
psychology, and it holds that instincts and
intrapsychic conflicts are the basic factors
shaping personality development (both
normal and abnormal).
Contemporary psychoanalysis tends to be
based on ego psychology, which does not
deny the role of intrapsychic conflicts but
emphasizes the striving of the ego for
mastery and competence throughout the
human life span.
Ego psychology deals with both the early and
the later developmental stages, for the
assumption is that current problems cannot
simply be reduced to repetitions of
unconscious conflicts from early childhood.
Erikson believed Freud did not go far enough
in explaining the ego’s place in development
and did not give enough attention to social
influences throughout the life span.
COMPARISON OF FREUD'S
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
AND ERIKSON'S
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES
First Year of Life Infancy
Freud Erikson
Oral Stage Trust vs. Mistrust
Infant needs to get
basic nurturing, or
later feelings of
greediness and
acquisitiveness may
develop.
If significant others
provide for basic
physical and
emotional needs,
infant develops a
sense of trust.
Ages 1–3 Early Childhood
Anal Stage Autonomy vs.
Shame &Doubt
Main developmental
tasks include learning
independence,
accepting personal
power, and learning
to express negative
feelings such as rage
and aggression.
Basic struggle is
between a sense of
self-reliance and a
sense of self-doubt.
Child needs to explore
and experiment, to
make mistakes, and to
test limits.
Age 3-6 Pre-school Age
Phallic Stage Initiative Vs. Guilt
Basic conflict centers
on unconscious
incestuous desires that
child develops for
parent of opposite sex
and that, because of
their threatening
nature, are repressed.
If children are given
freedom to select
personally meaningful
activities, they tend to
develop a positive
view of self and follow
through with their
projects.
Ages 6-12 School Age
Latency Stage Industry vs.
Inferiority
Sexual interests
are replaced by
interests in school,
playmates, sports,
and a range of new
activities.
Child needs to expand
understanding of
world, continue to
develop appropriate
gender-role identity,
and learn the
basic skills required for
school success.
Age 12-18 Adolescence
Genital Stage Identity Vs. Role
Confusion
Even though there are
societal restrictions
and taboos,
adolescents can deal
with sexual energy by
investing it in various
socially acceptable
activities.
A time of transition
between childhood
and adulthood. A time
for testing limits, for
breaking dependent
ties, and for
establishing a new
identity.
Ages 18-35 Young Adulthood
Genital Stage
continues
Intimacy vs.
Isolation
Core characteristic of
mature adult is the
freedom “to love and to
work.” This move toward
adulthood involves
freedom from parental
influence and capacity
to care for others.
Developmental task
at this time is to
form intimate
relationships.
Ages 35-60 Middle Age
Genital Stage
continues
Generativity vs.
Stagnation
There is a need to go
beyond self and family and
be involved in helping the
next generation. This is a
time of adjusting to the
discrepancy between one’s
dream and one’s actual
accomplishments.
Age 60+ Later Life
Genital Stage
continues
Integrity vs. Despair
If one looks back on
life with few regrets
and feels personally
worthwhile,
ego integrity results.
Counseling Implication
By taking a combined psychosexual
and psychosocial perspective counselors
have a helpful conceptual framework for
understanding developmental issues as
they appear in therapy
Prepared by: Roxanne Gonzales
THE THERAPEUTIC
PROCESS
Therapeutic Goals
To make unconscious
conscious and to
strengthen the ego so
that behavior is based
more on reality and less
on instinctual cravings
or irrational guilt.
Therapist’s
Function
and Role
What is Therapeutic Process?
Refers to the act of diagnosing an
illness, identifying a treatment plan,
and implementing the plan in an
effective manner.
“Blank screen approach”
• They engage in every little self-
disclosure and maintain a sense of
neutrality to foster a transference
relationship.
• Central functions of analysis is to help
clients acquire the freedom to love,
work, and play.
• Dealing with anxiety in a realistic
way; and in gaining control over
impulsive and irrational behavior.
• Includes providing a comfortable
safe environment and establishing
a warm, caring therapeutic culture.
• To facilitate the awareness, growth and
psychological development of the
patient.
• Establish a working relationship with
the client.
• The analyst Listen, learns, and decides
• The therapist is responsible for
building rapport with the patient
through empathic listening, caring
and warmth.
Client’s
Experience
in Therapy
Clients interested in traditional or
classical psychoanalysis must be willing
to commit themselves to an intensive
and long-term therapy process. After
some face to face sessions with the
analyst, clients lie on a couch and
engage in free association.
Psychodynamic therapy emerged
as a way of shortening and simplifying
the lengthy process of classical
Psychoanalysis.
Relationship
between the
Therapist and
the Client
• The classical analyst stands outside the
relationship, comments on it, and
offers insight producing
interpretations.
• Contemporary relational
psychoanalysis, the therapist does not
strive for a detached and objective
stance.
• Contemporary Psychoanalytic theory and
practice highlights the importance of the
therapeutic relationship as a therapeutic
factor in bringing about change.
• The Relational model of Psychoanalysis
regards transference as being an interactive
process between the client and the
therapist. A client has a variety of feelings
and reactions to a therapist.
Prepared by: Laiza D. Aguilar
Therapeutic Techniques and
Procedures
Application:
Psychoanalytic Therapy
Maintaining
the Analytic
Framework
Maintaining the Analytic Framework
Refers to a whole range of procedural
and stylistic factors, such as the
regularity and consistency of
meetings, and starting and ending the
sessions on time.
FREE
ASSOCIATION
Free Association
Is one of the basic tools used to open
the doors to unconscious wishes,
fantasies, conflicts, and motivations.
“ Listening with the third ear”
- hear not only the surface content
but also the hidden meanings.
Interpretation
Interpretation
Consists of the analyst’s pointing out,
explaining, and even teaching the
client meanings of behavior that is
manifested in dreams.
Making an Appropriate Interpretation
• The therapist uses the client’s
readiness to consider it.
• The therapist uses the client’s
reactions as a gauge.
• It is important that interpretations
be well timed.
General Rule
1st- is that interpretation should presented
when the phenomenon to be interpreted is
close to conscious awareness.
2nd- is that interpretation should always start
from the surface and go only as deep as the
client is able to go.
3rd- is that it is best to point out a resistance
or defense before interpreting the emotion
or conflict that lies beneath it.
Dream Analysis
Dream Analysis
Is an important procedure for
uncovering unconscious material and
giving the client insight into some
areas of unresolved problems.
Dreams
“Royal Road to the Unconscious”
Two levels of content
1. Latent Content
2. Manifest Content
Analysis and
Interpretation to
Resistance
Analysis and Interpretation of Resistance
A concept fundamental to the practice
of psychoanalysis, is anything that
works against the progress of therapy
and prevents the client from producing
previously unconscious material.
Analysis and
Interpretation of
Transference
Analysis and Interpretation of Transference
The analysis of transference it allows
clients to achieve here-and-now
insight into the influence of the past
on their present functioning.
Interpretation of the transference
relationship enables clients to work
through old conflicts that are keeping
them fixated and retarding their
emotional growth.
Prepared by: Renz Paula B. Maravilla
Jung’s Perspective on the
Development of Personality
Jung’s Analytical Psychology
It is an elaborate explanation of
human nature that combines ideas
from history, mythology, anthropology,
and religion.
Jung’s pioneering work places central
importance on the psychological changes
that are associated with midlife. He
maintained that at midlife we need to let
go of many of the values and behaviors
that guided the first half of our life and
confront our unconscious.
Jung made a choice to focus on the
unconscious realm in his personal life,
which also influenced the
development of his theory of
personality. However, he had a very
different conception of the
unconscious than did Freud.
Jung (1961) recalled Freud’s words to him:
“My dear Jung, promise me never to abandon
the sexual theory.
This is the most essential thing of all. You see,
we must make a dogma of it, an unshakable
bulwark”.
Jung became convinced that he could no longer
collaborate with Freud because he believed
Freud placed his own authority over truth.
He subsequently developed a spiritual approach
that places great emphasis on being impelled to
find meaning in life in contrast to being driven
by the psychological and biological forces
described by Freud.
Jung maintained that we are not merely
shaped by past events (Freudian
determinism), but that we are influenced
by our future as well as our past.
For Jung, our present personality shaped
both by who and what we have been and
also by what we aspire to be in the future.
His theory is based on the assumption that
humans tend to move toward the fulfilment
or realization of all of their capabilities.
Achieving individuation—the harmonious
integration of the conscious and
unconscious aspects of personality—is an
innate and primary goal.
Archetypes
Persona
Animus
Anima
Shadow
Jung agreed with Freud that dreams
provide a pathway into the
unconscious, but he differed from Freud
on their functions. Jung wrote that
dreams have two purposes.
They are prospective; that is, they help
people prepare themselves for the
experiences and events they anticipate
in the near future.
They also serve a compensatory
function, working to bring about a
balance between opposites within the
person. They compensate for the
overdevelopment of one facet of the
individual’s personality
Jung viewed dreams more as an
attempt to express than as an attempt
to repress and disguise. Dreams are a
creative effort of the dreamer in
struggling with contradiction,
complexity, and confusion.
The aim of the dream is resolution and
integration.
According to Jung, each part of the dream can
be understood as some projected quality of the
dreamer. His method of interpretation draws on
a series of dreams obtained from a person,
during the course of which the meaning
gradually unfolds.
Archetypes
Psychoanalytic Approaches
(Ainslie, 2007)
Object-Relation Theory
Self-Psychology
Interpersonal
Relational Model
SUMMARY STAGES OF
DEVELOPMENT
A central influence of contemporary
object relations theory is Margaret
Mahler.
A pediatrician, who emphasized
the observation of children.
Her studies focused on the
interaction between the child and the
mother first 3 years of life.
Mahler’s Psychological
Development
Normal Infantile
Symbiosis
Separation-Individualization
Prepared by: Jinky D. Andres
Treating Borderline and
Narcissistic Disorder
Narcissistic
Personality Disorder
Borderline
Personality Disorder
Borderline and Narcissistic Disorder
• Traumas
• Developmental Disturbances
• Separation- individuation phase
• Early Adulthood
Borderline and narcissistic symptoms
such as splitting ( a defensive process of
keeping incompatible perceptions
separate) and notions of grandiosity are
behavioral manifestation of
developmental tasks that were disturbed
or not completed earlier ( St Clair, 2004).
Among the most significant theorist in
this area are:
• Kernberg
( 1975, 1976, 1997)
• Kohut
( 1971, 1977, 1984)
• Masterson
(1976)
Kohut( 1984) Maintains
that people are their
healthiest and best
when they can feel both
independence and
attachment, taking joy
in themselves and also
being able to idealize
others.
SOME DIRECTIONS OF
CONTEMPORARY PSYCHODYNAMIC
THERAPY
Strupp (1992) maintains that the
various contemporary modification
of psychoanalysis have infused
psychodynamic psychotherapy
with renewed vitality and vigor.
• Increased attention is being given to
disturbances during childhood and
adolescence.
• The emphasis on treatment has shifted
from the “classical” interest in curing
neurotic disorders to the problems of
dealing with therapeutically with chronic
personality disorders, borderline
conditions, and narcissistic personality
disorder.
• Increased attention is being paid to
establishing a good therapeutic
alliance early in therapy. A
collaborative working relationship is
now viewed as a key factor in a
positive therapeutic outcome.
• There is a renewed interest in the
development of briefer forms of
psychodynamic therapy, largely due
to societal pressures for
accountability and cost-
effectiveness. The indication are
that limited- dynamic therapy will
be used more in the future.
THE TREND TOWARD BRIEF, LIMITED
PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY
THERE ARE DIFFERENT APPROACHES
TO BRIEF PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY,
Prochaska and Norcross (2007)
BELEIVE THEY ALL SHARE THESE
COMMON CHARACTEREISTICS:
• Work within the frame work f time
limited therapy.
• Target a specific interpersonal
problem during the initial session.
• Assumes a less neutral therapeutic
stance than is true of traditional
analytic approaches.
• Establish a
strong working
alliance
• Use
interpretation
relatively early in
the therapy
relationship.
In keeping with the context of brief, time-
limited therapy, Messer and Warren (2001)
describe brief psychodynamic therapy
(BPT) as a promising approach.
• Principles of psychodynamic theory
• Therapy to treating selective disorders
• Generally 10 to 25 sessions
BPT makes use of key psychodynamic
concepts such as:
• Enduring Impact of psychosexual,
psychosocial
• Object relational stages of development
• The existence of unconscious processes and
resistance
• The usefulness of interpretation
• The importance of working alliance
• Re-enactment of the client’s past emotional
issues in relation to the therapist.
Messer and
Warren state that the
objective of BPT is “To
understand and treat
people’s problem in
the context of their
current situation and
earlier life experience”
In writing about the characteristics of
time limited dynamic psychotherapy
(TLDP) , Levenson (2007) emphasizes
that the aim of therapy is not simply
symptom reduction but changing a
client’s ingrained, repetitive patterns
of interpersonal relatedness.
Prepared by: Ma. Ellaine Miaco
Psychoanalytic from
Multicultural Perspective
Strengths From Diversity Perspective
Psychoanalytically oriented therapy
can be made appropriate for culturally
diverse populations.
Therapists can help their clients review
environmental situations at the various
critical turning points in their lives.
Stresses the value of psychotherapy
as part of the training of therapists.
Awareness of therapists of their
sources of countertransference.
Shortcomings From a Diversity Perspective
Traditional Psychotherapy are costly and
psychoanalytic therapy is generally
perceived as being based on upper- and
middle-class values.
Ambiguity inherent in most psychoanalytic
approach.
• Atkinson, Thompson, and Grant (1993)
underscore the need for therapists to
consider possible external sources of
clients’ problems.
• Difficulty in applying psychoanalytic
approach with low-income clients.
*Smith (2005) contends that
psychotherapists’ willingness and
ability to work with low-income clients
is compromised
Some Major Concepts of
Psychoanalytic Theory include:
• Dynamics of understanding
conscious and its influence on
behavior
• The role of anxiety
• Understanding of transference and
countertransference
• Development of personality at
various stages in the life cycle
*Psychoanalytic Therapy consists
largely of using methods to bring out
unconscious material that can be
worked through.
Most important techniques that are
typically employed in psychoanalytic
practice are:
Maintaining analytic framework
Free association
Interpretation
Dream analysis
Analysis of resistance
Analysis of transference
UNLIKE Freudian theory, Jungian
theory is NOT REDUCTIONIST.
To become what they are capable of
becoming, individuals must explore the
unconscious aspects of their personality,
both the personal unconscious and the
collective unconscious.
Jungian Therapy- therapist assists
the client in tapping his or her
own wisdom.
GOAL: Not merely the resolution
of the problem but the
transformation of personality.
Contemporary Trends in
Psychoanalytic Theory
Ego Psychology
Object-Relations Approaches
Self Psychology
Relational Psychology
Contributions of the
Psychoanalytic Approach
Understanding Resistances
Understanding that unfinished business can
be worked through
Understanding the value and role of
transference
Understanding how the overuse of ego
defenses can keep clients from functioning
effectively
Contributions of Modern
Psychoanalytic Theorists
Marmor (1997) demonstrate an
openness toward integrating various
methods: “I try to avoid putting every
patient on a Procrustean bed of a
single therapeutic method but rather
adapt my approach to the patient’s
own unique needs.”
They are concentrating on the
development of the ego, are paying
attention to the social and cultural
factors that influence the differentiation
of an individual from others, and are
giving new meaning to the relational
dimensions of therapy.
Limitations and criticisms of the
Psychoanalytic Approach
• In general, considering factors such
as Time, Expense, and Availability of
trained psychoanalytic therapists,
the Practical applications of many
psychoanalytic techniques are
limited.
*A factor limiting the Practical
application of classical psychoanalysis
is that many severely disturbed clients
lack the level of ego strength needed
for this treatment.
A major limitation of traditional
psychoanalytic therapy is the relatively
long time commitment required to
accomplish analytic goals.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy evolved
from traditional analysis to address the
need for treatment that was not so
lengthy and involved. (Luborsky et al.,
2008)
Strupp (1992) assumes that
psychoanalytic therapy will remain a
luxury for most people in our society.
A potential limitation of the
psychoanalytic approach is the
anonymous role assumed by the
therapists.
*The classical technique of
nondisclosure can be misused in short-
term individual therapy and
assessment.
Yalom (2003) contends that therapists
anonymity is not a good model for
effective therapy
Enns (1993) notes that object-relations
approach has been criticized for its
emphasis on the role of the mother-child
relationship in determining later
interpersonal functioning.
Linehan’s (1993a, 1993b) dialectal
behavior therapy (DBT), is an eclectic
approach that avoids mother bashing
while accepting the notion that the
borderline client experienced a
childhood environment that was
“invalidating.”
Luborsky, O’Reilly-Landry and Arlow
(2008) note that psychoanalytic
therapies have been criticized for
being irrelevant to contemporary
culture and being appropriate only to
an elite, highly educated clientele.
“Psychoanalysis is a continually evolving
field that has been revised and altered
by psychoanalytic theorists and clinicians
ever since its origin. This evolution began
with Freud himself, who often rethought
and substantially revised his own ideas.”
REPORTERS:
TONI ROSE GOMEZ
ROLANDO HITEROZA
ROXANNE GONZALES
LAIZA AGUILAR
RENZ PAULA MARAVILLA
JINKY ANDRES
MA. ELLAINE MIACO
The End.
1 von 138

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Psychoanalytic Therapy

  • 1. Submitted to: Prof. Agnes Montalbo Rizal Technological University Submitted by: Toni Rose Gomez PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY
  • 2. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The Originator and Father of Psychoanalysis
  • 3. What is Psychoanalytic Therapy? Psychoanalytic Therapy looks at how the unconscious mind influences thoughts and behaviors. Psychoanalysis frequently involves looking childhood experiences in order to discover how these events might have shaped the individual and how they contribute to current actions.
  • 4. View of Human Nature The Freudian view of human nature was naturally deterministic. According to Freud, our behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivation, biological and instinctual drives as these evolve through key psychosexual stages.
  • 5. INSTINCTS Life Instincts It serves as the purpose of the survival of the individual and the human race; they were oriented toward growth, development and creativity.
  • 6. Death Instinct It accounts for the aggressive drive. At times, people manifest through their behavior an unconscious wish to die or to hurt themselves or others.
  • 7. Structure of Personality According to Psychoanalytic view, the Personality consists of three systems: The ID is the Biological component The EGO is the Psychological component The SUPEREGO is the Social component
  • 8. THE ID ( The Spoiled brat of the Personality) Ruled by the pleasure principle, which is aimed at reducing tension, avoiding pain and gaining pleasure. The id never matures and it does not think but only wishes or acts. The id is largely unconscious, or out of awareness.
  • 9. THE EGO ( “Traffic cop”) It is the “executive” that governs, controls and regulates the personality. Ruled by the reality principle the ego does realistic and logical thinking and formulates plans for action for satisfying needs.
  • 10. THE SUPEREGO (Judicial Branch of Personality) It includes a person’s moral code, the main concern being whether an action is good or bad, right and wrong. It represents the ideal rather than the real not for pleasure but for perfection. The superego, then as the internalization of standards and the society.
  • 12. Consciousness It is a thin slice of the total mind. Like the greater part of the iceberg that lies below the surface of the water, the larger part of the mind exists below the surface of awareness.
  • 13. Unconsciousness The unconscious cannot be studied directly but is inferred by behavior. Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious includes the following:
  • 14. 1. Dreams- which are symbolic representations of unconscious needs and, wishes and conflicts. 2. Slips of the tongue and forgetting(ex. familiar name) 3. Posthypnotic suggestions 4. Material derived from free association techniques 5. Material drive from Projective Technique 6. Symbolic Content of psychotic symptoms
  • 15. Anxiety It is the feeling of dread that results from repressed feelings, memories and desires and experience that emerge to the surface of awareness. The function of anxiety is to warn of impending danger.
  • 16. Three Kinds of Anxiety Reality anxiety is the fear of danger of the external world and the level of such anxiety is proportionate to the degree of real threat. Neurotic anxiety is the fear that the instincts will get out of hand and cause no one to do something for which will one will be punished. Moral anxiety is the fear of one’s own consciousness.
  • 17. Ego-Defense Mechanism It helps the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed. The defenses employed depend on the individual’s development and degree of anxiety. Two characteristics of Defense Mechanism They either deny or distort reality. They operate in unconscious level.
  • 18. Repression Threatening or painful thoughts and feelings are excluded are excluded from awareness. Freud explained it as an involuntary removal of something from consciousness.
  • 19. Denial “Closing one’s eyes” to the existence of a threatening aspect of reality. It is a way of distorting what the individual thinks, feels, or perceives in a traumatic situation,
  • 20. Reaction Formation Actively expressing the opposite impulse when confronted with a threatening impulse.
  • 21. Projection Attributing to others one’s own acceptable desires and impulses. This is a mechanism of self deception.
  • 22. Displacement Directing energy toward another object or person when the original object or person is inaccessible.
  • 23. Rationalization Manufacturing “good” reason to explain away a bruised ego. It helps justify specific behaviors, and it aids in softening the blow connected with disappointments.
  • 25. Regression Going back to an earlier phase of development when there were fewer demands.
  • 26. Introjection Taking in and “swallowing” the values and standards of others.
  • 27. Identification Identifying with successful causes, organizations, or people in the hope that you will be perceived as worthwhile.
  • 29. Development of the Personality Importance of early development: A significant contribution of the psychoanalytic model is delineation of the stages of psychosexual refers to the Freudian chronological phases of development beginning infancy and the psychosocial stages refers to Erickson’s basic psychological and social tasks to be mastered from infancy through old age.
  • 30. Prepared by: Rolando Hiteroza Erikson’s Psychosocial Perspective
  • 31. Erikson’s Psychosocial Perspective Erik Erikson (1963) built on Freud’s ideas and extended his theory by stressing the psychosocial aspects of development beyond early childhood.
  • 32. He describes development in terms of the entire life span, divided by specific crises to be resolved. According to Erikson, a crisis is equivalent to a turning point in life when we have the potential to move forward or to regress.
  • 33. Erikson is often credited with bringing an emphasis on social factors to contemporary psychoanalysis. Classical psychoanalysis is grounded on id psychology, and it holds that instincts and intrapsychic conflicts are the basic factors shaping personality development (both normal and abnormal).
  • 34. Contemporary psychoanalysis tends to be based on ego psychology, which does not deny the role of intrapsychic conflicts but emphasizes the striving of the ego for mastery and competence throughout the human life span.
  • 35. Ego psychology deals with both the early and the later developmental stages, for the assumption is that current problems cannot simply be reduced to repetitions of unconscious conflicts from early childhood. Erikson believed Freud did not go far enough in explaining the ego’s place in development and did not give enough attention to social influences throughout the life span.
  • 36. COMPARISON OF FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES AND ERIKSON'S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES
  • 37. First Year of Life Infancy Freud Erikson Oral Stage Trust vs. Mistrust Infant needs to get basic nurturing, or later feelings of greediness and acquisitiveness may develop. If significant others provide for basic physical and emotional needs, infant develops a sense of trust.
  • 38. Ages 1–3 Early Childhood Anal Stage Autonomy vs. Shame &Doubt Main developmental tasks include learning independence, accepting personal power, and learning to express negative feelings such as rage and aggression. Basic struggle is between a sense of self-reliance and a sense of self-doubt. Child needs to explore and experiment, to make mistakes, and to test limits.
  • 39. Age 3-6 Pre-school Age Phallic Stage Initiative Vs. Guilt Basic conflict centers on unconscious incestuous desires that child develops for parent of opposite sex and that, because of their threatening nature, are repressed. If children are given freedom to select personally meaningful activities, they tend to develop a positive view of self and follow through with their projects.
  • 40. Ages 6-12 School Age Latency Stage Industry vs. Inferiority Sexual interests are replaced by interests in school, playmates, sports, and a range of new activities. Child needs to expand understanding of world, continue to develop appropriate gender-role identity, and learn the basic skills required for school success.
  • 41. Age 12-18 Adolescence Genital Stage Identity Vs. Role Confusion Even though there are societal restrictions and taboos, adolescents can deal with sexual energy by investing it in various socially acceptable activities. A time of transition between childhood and adulthood. A time for testing limits, for breaking dependent ties, and for establishing a new identity.
  • 42. Ages 18-35 Young Adulthood Genital Stage continues Intimacy vs. Isolation Core characteristic of mature adult is the freedom “to love and to work.” This move toward adulthood involves freedom from parental influence and capacity to care for others. Developmental task at this time is to form intimate relationships.
  • 43. Ages 35-60 Middle Age Genital Stage continues Generativity vs. Stagnation There is a need to go beyond self and family and be involved in helping the next generation. This is a time of adjusting to the discrepancy between one’s dream and one’s actual accomplishments.
  • 44. Age 60+ Later Life Genital Stage continues Integrity vs. Despair If one looks back on life with few regrets and feels personally worthwhile, ego integrity results.
  • 45. Counseling Implication By taking a combined psychosexual and psychosocial perspective counselors have a helpful conceptual framework for understanding developmental issues as they appear in therapy
  • 46. Prepared by: Roxanne Gonzales THE THERAPEUTIC PROCESS
  • 47. Therapeutic Goals To make unconscious conscious and to strengthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt.
  • 49. What is Therapeutic Process? Refers to the act of diagnosing an illness, identifying a treatment plan, and implementing the plan in an effective manner.
  • 50. “Blank screen approach” • They engage in every little self- disclosure and maintain a sense of neutrality to foster a transference relationship. • Central functions of analysis is to help clients acquire the freedom to love, work, and play.
  • 51. • Dealing with anxiety in a realistic way; and in gaining control over impulsive and irrational behavior. • Includes providing a comfortable safe environment and establishing a warm, caring therapeutic culture.
  • 52. • To facilitate the awareness, growth and psychological development of the patient. • Establish a working relationship with the client. • The analyst Listen, learns, and decides
  • 53. • The therapist is responsible for building rapport with the patient through empathic listening, caring and warmth.
  • 55. Clients interested in traditional or classical psychoanalysis must be willing to commit themselves to an intensive and long-term therapy process. After some face to face sessions with the analyst, clients lie on a couch and engage in free association.
  • 56. Psychodynamic therapy emerged as a way of shortening and simplifying the lengthy process of classical Psychoanalysis.
  • 58. • The classical analyst stands outside the relationship, comments on it, and offers insight producing interpretations. • Contemporary relational psychoanalysis, the therapist does not strive for a detached and objective stance.
  • 59. • Contemporary Psychoanalytic theory and practice highlights the importance of the therapeutic relationship as a therapeutic factor in bringing about change. • The Relational model of Psychoanalysis regards transference as being an interactive process between the client and the therapist. A client has a variety of feelings and reactions to a therapist.
  • 60. Prepared by: Laiza D. Aguilar Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures Application:
  • 63. Maintaining the Analytic Framework Refers to a whole range of procedural and stylistic factors, such as the regularity and consistency of meetings, and starting and ending the sessions on time.
  • 65. Free Association Is one of the basic tools used to open the doors to unconscious wishes, fantasies, conflicts, and motivations. “ Listening with the third ear” - hear not only the surface content but also the hidden meanings.
  • 67. Interpretation Consists of the analyst’s pointing out, explaining, and even teaching the client meanings of behavior that is manifested in dreams.
  • 68. Making an Appropriate Interpretation • The therapist uses the client’s readiness to consider it. • The therapist uses the client’s reactions as a gauge. • It is important that interpretations be well timed.
  • 69. General Rule 1st- is that interpretation should presented when the phenomenon to be interpreted is close to conscious awareness. 2nd- is that interpretation should always start from the surface and go only as deep as the client is able to go. 3rd- is that it is best to point out a resistance or defense before interpreting the emotion or conflict that lies beneath it.
  • 71. Dream Analysis Is an important procedure for uncovering unconscious material and giving the client insight into some areas of unresolved problems.
  • 72. Dreams “Royal Road to the Unconscious” Two levels of content 1. Latent Content 2. Manifest Content
  • 74. Analysis and Interpretation of Resistance A concept fundamental to the practice of psychoanalysis, is anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the client from producing previously unconscious material.
  • 76. Analysis and Interpretation of Transference The analysis of transference it allows clients to achieve here-and-now insight into the influence of the past on their present functioning.
  • 77. Interpretation of the transference relationship enables clients to work through old conflicts that are keeping them fixated and retarding their emotional growth.
  • 78. Prepared by: Renz Paula B. Maravilla Jung’s Perspective on the Development of Personality
  • 79. Jung’s Analytical Psychology It is an elaborate explanation of human nature that combines ideas from history, mythology, anthropology, and religion.
  • 80. Jung’s pioneering work places central importance on the psychological changes that are associated with midlife. He maintained that at midlife we need to let go of many of the values and behaviors that guided the first half of our life and confront our unconscious.
  • 81. Jung made a choice to focus on the unconscious realm in his personal life, which also influenced the development of his theory of personality. However, he had a very different conception of the unconscious than did Freud.
  • 82. Jung (1961) recalled Freud’s words to him: “My dear Jung, promise me never to abandon the sexual theory. This is the most essential thing of all. You see, we must make a dogma of it, an unshakable bulwark”.
  • 83. Jung became convinced that he could no longer collaborate with Freud because he believed Freud placed his own authority over truth. He subsequently developed a spiritual approach that places great emphasis on being impelled to find meaning in life in contrast to being driven by the psychological and biological forces described by Freud.
  • 84. Jung maintained that we are not merely shaped by past events (Freudian determinism), but that we are influenced by our future as well as our past. For Jung, our present personality shaped both by who and what we have been and also by what we aspire to be in the future.
  • 85. His theory is based on the assumption that humans tend to move toward the fulfilment or realization of all of their capabilities. Achieving individuation—the harmonious integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality—is an innate and primary goal.
  • 87. Jung agreed with Freud that dreams provide a pathway into the unconscious, but he differed from Freud on their functions. Jung wrote that dreams have two purposes.
  • 88. They are prospective; that is, they help people prepare themselves for the experiences and events they anticipate in the near future.
  • 89. They also serve a compensatory function, working to bring about a balance between opposites within the person. They compensate for the overdevelopment of one facet of the individual’s personality
  • 90. Jung viewed dreams more as an attempt to express than as an attempt to repress and disguise. Dreams are a creative effort of the dreamer in struggling with contradiction, complexity, and confusion.
  • 91. The aim of the dream is resolution and integration. According to Jung, each part of the dream can be understood as some projected quality of the dreamer. His method of interpretation draws on a series of dreams obtained from a person, during the course of which the meaning gradually unfolds.
  • 92. Archetypes Psychoanalytic Approaches (Ainslie, 2007) Object-Relation Theory Self-Psychology Interpersonal Relational Model
  • 94. A central influence of contemporary object relations theory is Margaret Mahler. A pediatrician, who emphasized the observation of children. Her studies focused on the interaction between the child and the mother first 3 years of life.
  • 96. Prepared by: Jinky D. Andres Treating Borderline and Narcissistic Disorder
  • 98. Borderline and Narcissistic Disorder • Traumas • Developmental Disturbances • Separation- individuation phase • Early Adulthood
  • 99. Borderline and narcissistic symptoms such as splitting ( a defensive process of keeping incompatible perceptions separate) and notions of grandiosity are behavioral manifestation of developmental tasks that were disturbed or not completed earlier ( St Clair, 2004).
  • 100. Among the most significant theorist in this area are: • Kernberg ( 1975, 1976, 1997) • Kohut ( 1971, 1977, 1984) • Masterson (1976)
  • 101. Kohut( 1984) Maintains that people are their healthiest and best when they can feel both independence and attachment, taking joy in themselves and also being able to idealize others.
  • 102. SOME DIRECTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY Strupp (1992) maintains that the various contemporary modification of psychoanalysis have infused psychodynamic psychotherapy with renewed vitality and vigor.
  • 103. • Increased attention is being given to disturbances during childhood and adolescence.
  • 104. • The emphasis on treatment has shifted from the “classical” interest in curing neurotic disorders to the problems of dealing with therapeutically with chronic personality disorders, borderline conditions, and narcissistic personality disorder.
  • 105. • Increased attention is being paid to establishing a good therapeutic alliance early in therapy. A collaborative working relationship is now viewed as a key factor in a positive therapeutic outcome.
  • 106. • There is a renewed interest in the development of briefer forms of psychodynamic therapy, largely due to societal pressures for accountability and cost- effectiveness. The indication are that limited- dynamic therapy will be used more in the future.
  • 107. THE TREND TOWARD BRIEF, LIMITED PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY THERE ARE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO BRIEF PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY, Prochaska and Norcross (2007) BELEIVE THEY ALL SHARE THESE COMMON CHARACTEREISTICS:
  • 108. • Work within the frame work f time limited therapy. • Target a specific interpersonal problem during the initial session. • Assumes a less neutral therapeutic stance than is true of traditional analytic approaches.
  • 109. • Establish a strong working alliance • Use interpretation relatively early in the therapy relationship.
  • 110. In keeping with the context of brief, time- limited therapy, Messer and Warren (2001) describe brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT) as a promising approach. • Principles of psychodynamic theory • Therapy to treating selective disorders • Generally 10 to 25 sessions
  • 111. BPT makes use of key psychodynamic concepts such as: • Enduring Impact of psychosexual, psychosocial • Object relational stages of development • The existence of unconscious processes and resistance • The usefulness of interpretation • The importance of working alliance • Re-enactment of the client’s past emotional issues in relation to the therapist.
  • 112. Messer and Warren state that the objective of BPT is “To understand and treat people’s problem in the context of their current situation and earlier life experience”
  • 113. In writing about the characteristics of time limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP) , Levenson (2007) emphasizes that the aim of therapy is not simply symptom reduction but changing a client’s ingrained, repetitive patterns of interpersonal relatedness.
  • 114. Prepared by: Ma. Ellaine Miaco Psychoanalytic from Multicultural Perspective
  • 115. Strengths From Diversity Perspective Psychoanalytically oriented therapy can be made appropriate for culturally diverse populations. Therapists can help their clients review environmental situations at the various critical turning points in their lives.
  • 116. Stresses the value of psychotherapy as part of the training of therapists. Awareness of therapists of their sources of countertransference.
  • 117. Shortcomings From a Diversity Perspective Traditional Psychotherapy are costly and psychoanalytic therapy is generally perceived as being based on upper- and middle-class values. Ambiguity inherent in most psychoanalytic approach.
  • 118. • Atkinson, Thompson, and Grant (1993) underscore the need for therapists to consider possible external sources of clients’ problems. • Difficulty in applying psychoanalytic approach with low-income clients.
  • 119. *Smith (2005) contends that psychotherapists’ willingness and ability to work with low-income clients is compromised
  • 120. Some Major Concepts of Psychoanalytic Theory include: • Dynamics of understanding conscious and its influence on behavior • The role of anxiety • Understanding of transference and countertransference • Development of personality at various stages in the life cycle
  • 121. *Psychoanalytic Therapy consists largely of using methods to bring out unconscious material that can be worked through.
  • 122. Most important techniques that are typically employed in psychoanalytic practice are: Maintaining analytic framework Free association Interpretation Dream analysis Analysis of resistance Analysis of transference
  • 123. UNLIKE Freudian theory, Jungian theory is NOT REDUCTIONIST. To become what they are capable of becoming, individuals must explore the unconscious aspects of their personality, both the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious.
  • 124. Jungian Therapy- therapist assists the client in tapping his or her own wisdom. GOAL: Not merely the resolution of the problem but the transformation of personality.
  • 125. Contemporary Trends in Psychoanalytic Theory Ego Psychology Object-Relations Approaches Self Psychology Relational Psychology
  • 126. Contributions of the Psychoanalytic Approach Understanding Resistances Understanding that unfinished business can be worked through Understanding the value and role of transference Understanding how the overuse of ego defenses can keep clients from functioning effectively
  • 127. Contributions of Modern Psychoanalytic Theorists Marmor (1997) demonstrate an openness toward integrating various methods: “I try to avoid putting every patient on a Procrustean bed of a single therapeutic method but rather adapt my approach to the patient’s own unique needs.”
  • 128. They are concentrating on the development of the ego, are paying attention to the social and cultural factors that influence the differentiation of an individual from others, and are giving new meaning to the relational dimensions of therapy.
  • 129. Limitations and criticisms of the Psychoanalytic Approach • In general, considering factors such as Time, Expense, and Availability of trained psychoanalytic therapists, the Practical applications of many psychoanalytic techniques are limited.
  • 130. *A factor limiting the Practical application of classical psychoanalysis is that many severely disturbed clients lack the level of ego strength needed for this treatment.
  • 131. A major limitation of traditional psychoanalytic therapy is the relatively long time commitment required to accomplish analytic goals. Psychodynamic psychotherapy evolved from traditional analysis to address the need for treatment that was not so lengthy and involved. (Luborsky et al., 2008)
  • 132. Strupp (1992) assumes that psychoanalytic therapy will remain a luxury for most people in our society.
  • 133. A potential limitation of the psychoanalytic approach is the anonymous role assumed by the therapists. *The classical technique of nondisclosure can be misused in short- term individual therapy and assessment.
  • 134. Yalom (2003) contends that therapists anonymity is not a good model for effective therapy Enns (1993) notes that object-relations approach has been criticized for its emphasis on the role of the mother-child relationship in determining later interpersonal functioning.
  • 135. Linehan’s (1993a, 1993b) dialectal behavior therapy (DBT), is an eclectic approach that avoids mother bashing while accepting the notion that the borderline client experienced a childhood environment that was “invalidating.”
  • 136. Luborsky, O’Reilly-Landry and Arlow (2008) note that psychoanalytic therapies have been criticized for being irrelevant to contemporary culture and being appropriate only to an elite, highly educated clientele.
  • 137. “Psychoanalysis is a continually evolving field that has been revised and altered by psychoanalytic theorists and clinicians ever since its origin. This evolution began with Freud himself, who often rethought and substantially revised his own ideas.”
  • 138. REPORTERS: TONI ROSE GOMEZ ROLANDO HITEROZA ROXANNE GONZALES LAIZA AGUILAR RENZ PAULA MARAVILLA JINKY ANDRES MA. ELLAINE MIACO The End.