Charophyceae, class of green algae (Division: Charophyta)
commonly found in fresh water.
Members can be unicellular, filamentous, colonial or
multicellular and plant like.
Many species have flagellated cells and store starch in
It is commonly known as Stoneworts or Brittleworts.
Chlorokybales atmosphiticus is a rare soil
It is composed of small clusters of cells
It produces one zoospore per cell, with
two laterally inserted flagella associated
with a groove.
Unlike other charophytes that produce
• The Klebsormidiales (roughly 15 species) are fresh water or terrestrial
• It is composed of unbranched filaments that may dissociate into short
segments called hormogonia.
• They are common on rocks and concrete in moist climates.
• It can often be found forming a green film near drinking fountains,
hose spigots, and in permanently shaded areas.
Example: Klebsormidium sp.
The Coleochaetales (roughly 30 species) are microscopic but structurally complex
algae found exclusively in freshwater.
They are composed of branched filaments, which may be arranged in a three-
dimensional cushion or two-dimensional disk.
Asexual reproduction is by the formation of zoospores.
Sexual reproduction in coleochaete is oogamous, and the zygote is retained on the
The Charales (roughly 300
species) are large, structurally
It is found primarily in fresh
water, but also in brackish, and
The size ranges from few
millimetres to over a meter in
Internodes are unicellular.
Examples: - Chara braunii
- Nitella tenuissima
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
The Zygnematales (roughly 3800
species) are either unbranched
filaments or unicellular.
There are no flagella stages, but
some are capable of gliding mobility.
Sexual reproduction occurs through
a process of conjugation.
Example: Spirogyra maxima
The plant body shows very much complexity in their structure.
They remain attached with the substratum rhizoids.
The main axis is differentiated into Nodes and Internodes.
Each node bears a number of branches of limited growth and
sometimes single branches of unlimited growth.
The branches of limited growth are also differentiated into nodes and
Each node bears both the sex organs (Nucule i.e., female & Globule
i.e., male) and secondary laterals.
Vegetative reproduction – takes place by means of
specialized star-like, tuber-like and protonema-like
Sexual reproduction – It is of oogamous type. The
Nucule is oval-shaped and very much protected,
which contains one egg and globule is round and
develops many antherozoids.
Zygote is produced after sexual reproduction. It
shows very much elaborate post-fertilization
During germination, zygote under meiosis and
gradually it forms the plant body of Chara.