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Code Switching

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Code switching

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Code Switching

  1. 1. Code Switching Sociolinguistics
  2. 2. An introduction to Code Switching  There are some phenomena of language occur in societies to make the communication more effective and meaningful.  One of these phenomenon is code switching which we can observe mostly in second/foreign language classrooms. It refers to the use of two languages within a sentence or discourse.
  3. 3. The Definition of Code Switching is the use of more than one language, variety, or style by a speaker within an utterance or discourse, or between different interlocutors or situations (Romaine, 1992:110).
  4. 4. Examples about code switching:  If you know him ‫علميني‬ ‫امر‬ ‫ماعليك‬  ‫مررره‬ ‫هالقطعه‬nice ‫و‬ elegant
  5. 5.  Speakers of more than one language are known for their ability to code switch or mix their language during their communication.  People switch code within a domain or social situation  The switch will be clear, when there is an obvious change in the situation ( Example)
  6. 6. A speaker may similarly switch to another language as a signal of group membership and shared ethnicity with an addressee.
  7. 7.  Such switches are often very short that it is called emblematic switching or tag switching and they are made primarily for social reasons.  The tag served as an ethnic identity maker or solidarity maker  For example: 1- Günaydìn girls, did you study for today’s quiz? (Switch between English and Turkish)  2- ‫أي‬ ‫عندك‬ question? (Switch between Arabic and English)
  8. 8. Situational switching refers to the tendency in a bilingual or multilingual community to use different languages or language varieties in different social situations. It may be based on the topic, on the addressee, the institution, or on any specific combination of situational factors.
  9. 9. o Code switching in multilingual communities For example: in the shops, salespeople often switch to the language of their customers o Bilinguals find it easier to discuss particular topics in one code rather than another.
  10. 10.  when a speaker switches code to quote a person or give a proverb For example: 1) My father used to say to “ ‫الجد‬ ‫مع‬ ‫سهل‬ ‫يصير‬ ‫شي‬ ‫كل‬ ، ‫بالحياه‬ ‫صعب‬ ‫شي‬ ‫مافي‬ ‫واالجتهاد‬” 2) some people used to postpone doing their work and they ended up wasting their time without achieving anything. Arabic proverb said “‫الغد‬ ‫الى‬ ‫اليوم‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫تؤجل‬ ‫”ال‬
  11. 11. The functions of Code Switching ① To show identity with a group to stress the fact that they all belong to this group ② Lack of Facility ; switch when they cannot find an appropriate expression or vocabulary item . ③ Lack of Register; : When speakers are not equally competent in two languages . ④ To attract attention ; shows that in advertisements (in both, written as well as in spoken) in India, code switching is used to attract the attention of the readers/listeners
  12. 12. ⑤ language switch from L to H can signal disapproval . We switch to express anger using different styles of English ⑥ used for amusement and dramatic a fact by telling joke for expressing emotions.
  13. 13. Metaphorical Switching  A type of code switching where each of the code represents or symbolizes a set of social meanings. just as using a metaphor. it requires being skillful. ‫حقه‬ ‫حق‬ ‫ذي‬ ‫كل‬ ‫اعطي‬ Give the devil his due ‫تقع‬ ‫اشكالها‬ ‫على‬ ‫الطيور‬ Birds of a feather flock together
  14. 14. Lexical borrowing  Lexical borrowing is the adoption of individual words or even large sets of vocabulary items from another language or dialect.  Lexical borrowing is results from the lack of vocabulary and it is motivated by lexical need.
  15. 15.  When speaking a second language, people will often use a term from their first language because they don't know the appropriate word in their second language.
  16. 16. People pronounced and used grammatically as if they were part of the speaker's first language. Examples Borrowing words ‫بالس‬‫ت‬‫يك‬ ‫اتوماتيك‬ ‫تنس‬ English origin Plastic Automatic Tennis
  17. 17. linguistic constraints  There are very general rules for switching. These rules are universal.  The switches occur within sentences( intra-sentential switching) when there is
  18. 18.  1/ Linguistic equivalence between the two codes, meaning when there is a point where the grammars of both codes match each other. English French Possible switch point Red boat Bateau rouge No Big house Grande maison Yes
  19. 19.  2/ The matrix language frame (MLF) which imposes structural constraints on code switched utterances. So all system morphemes (such as tense and aspect inflections) will come from this matrix, and any switch will be determined or governed by this matrix. For example:‫المحاضره‬ ‫كنسلت‬ ‫األستاذه‬
  20. 20.  3/ the level of proficiency in each code of the people switching.  less-proficient people will tend to switch at sentence boundaries (inter-sentential switching) or use only short phrases or tags at the end of the sentence for example : ‫بليز‬ ‫كتابك‬ ‫عطيني‬
  21. 21. Attitudes to code-switching  People are often unaware of the fact that they code- switching.  When their attention is drawn to this behaviour ,many tend to apologize for it .  For Example: among Mexican Americans the derogatory term Tex Mex is used to describe rapid code-switching between Spanish and English .
  22. 22.  Reaction to code-switching styles are negative in many communities .  Despite the fact that proficiency in intra sentential code-switching requires a good control of both codes . In conclusion, code switching is a phenomenon that is inevitable in bilingual communities. It occurs mostly in second/foreign language teaching and it can be used beneficially in classroom activities.
  23. 23. In Conclusion  The definition of Code Switching  Tag switching ( very short switches)  The first type of code switching which is the situational switching  The second type of code switching which is the metaphorical switching  The functions of code switching ( 7 functions)  Definition of Lexical borrowing  Why we use Lexical borrowing  General rules for switching and examples.  Attitudes to code-switching