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  1. 1. Bioethanol<br />Roselen, Wanxi, Eugenia <br />
  2. 2. CONTENTS<br />What is bioethanol?<br />Bioethanol Production<br />Feedstocks<br />Fuel Properties<br />Application<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages and Concerns<br />Ethanol Controversy<br />Comparison of Bioethanol and Biodiesel<br />Case study [Brazil]<br />Future development<br />
  3. 3. What is bioethanol?<br /><ul><li>Colourless and clear liquid
  4. 4. Used to substitutepetrol fuel for road transport vehicles
  5. 5. One of the widely used alternative automotive fuel in the world (Brazil & U.S.A are the largest ethanol producers)
  6. 6. Much more environmentally friendly
  7. 7. Lower toxicity level </li></li></ul><li>Bioethanol Production<br />Wheat/Grains/Corn/Sugar-cane can be used to produce ethanol. (Basically, any plants that composed largely of sugars)<br />Main method : Sugar fermentation<br />3 methods of hydrolysis :(extraction of sugars out of bio-mass wastes)<br />concentrated acid hydrolysis<br />enzymatic hydrolysis <br />dilute acid hydrolysis<br />
  8. 8. Bioethanol Production<br />(1) Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis<br />~77% of sulfuric acid is added to the dried biomass to a 10% moisture content.<br />Acid to be added in the ratio of 1/25 acid :1 biomass under 50°C. <br />Dilute the acid to ~30% with water and reheat the mixture at100°C for an hour. <br />Gel will be produced and pressed to discharge the acid sugar mixture.<br />Separate the acid & sugar mixture by using a chromatographic column . <br />
  9. 9. Bioethanol Production<br />(2) Enzymatic Hydrolysis (Not popular)<br />(3) Dilute Acid Hydrolysis <br />oldest, simplest yet efficient method<br />hydrolyse the bio-mass to sucrose <br />hemi-cellulose undergo hydrolysis with the addition of 7% of sulfuric acid under the temperature 190°C.<br />to generate the more resistant cellulose portion, 4% of sulfuric acid is added at the temperature of 215°C<br />
  10. 10. Bioethanol Production<br />Wet milling process<br />corn kernel is soaked in warm water <br />proteins broken down<br />starch present in the corn is released (thus, softening the kernel for the milling process)<br />microorganisms, fibre and starch products are produced. <br />In the distillation process, ethanol is produced. <br />
  11. 11. Bioethanol Production<br />Dry milling process<br />Clean and break down the corn kernel into fine particles<br />Sugar solution is produced when the powder mixture (corn germ/starch and fibre) is broken down into sucrose by dilute acid or enzymes. <br />Yeast is added to ferment the cooled mixture into ethanol.<br />
  12. 12. Bioethanol Production<br />Sugar fermentation<br />Hydrolysis process breaks down the biomass cellulosic portion into sugar solutions which will then be fermented into ethanol.<br />Yeast is added and heated to the solution.<br />Invertase acts as a catalyst and convert the sucrose sugars into glucose and fructose. (both C6H12O6).<br />
  13. 13. Bioethanol Production<br />Chemical reaction 1<br /><ul><li>The fructose and glucose sugars react with zymase to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.</li></ul>Chemical reaction 2<br /><ul><li>Fermentation process requires 3 days to complete and is carried out at a temperature of between 250°C and 300°C.</li></li></ul><li>Bioethanol Production<br />Fractional Distillation Process<br />After the sugar fermentation process, the ethanol still does contain a significant quantity of water which have to be removed.<br />In the distillation process, both the water and ethanol mixture are boiled.<br />Ethanol has a lower boiling point than water, therefore ethanol will be converted into the vapour state first  condensed and separated from water. <br />
  14. 14. Feedstocks<br />Sugar is required to produce ethanol by fermentation. <br />Plant materials (grain, stems and leaves) are composed mainly of sugars<br />almost any plants can serve as feedstock for ethanol manufacture<br />Choice of raw material depends on several factors <br />ease of processing of the various plants available<br />prevailing conditions of climate<br />landscape and soil composition<br />sugar content <br />
  15. 15. Feedstocks<br />R&D activities on using lignocellulosic (woody materials) as feedstock <br />Lignocellulosic biomass is more abundant and less expensive than food crops<br />higher net energy balance<br />accrue up to 90% in greenhouse gas savings, much higher than the first generation of biofuel<br />However, more difficult to convert to sugars due to their relatively inaccessible molecular structure<br />
  16. 16. Fuel Properties<br />Energy content<br />Bioethanol has much lower energy content than gasoline <br />about two-third of the energy content of gasoline on a volume base<br />
  17. 17. Fuel Properties<br />Octane number<br />Octane number of ethanol is higher than petrol<br />hence ethanol has better antiknock characteristics<br />increases the fuel efficiency of the engine<br />oxygen content of ethanol also leads to a higher efficiency, which results in a cleaner combustion process at relatively low temperatures<br />
  18. 18. Fuel Properties<br />Reid vapour pressure (measure for the volatility of a fuel)<br />Very low for ethanol, indicates a slow evaporation<br />Adv: the concentration of evaporative emissions in the air remains relatively low, reduces the risk of explosions<br />Disadv: low vapour pressure of ethanol -> Cold start difficulties<br />engines using ethanol cannot be started at temp < 20ºC w/o aids<br />
  19. 19. Application<br />transport fuel to replace gasoline<br />fuel for power generation by thermal combustion<br />fuel for fuel cells by thermochemical reaction<br />fuel in cogeneration systems<br />feedstock in the chemicals industry<br />
  20. 20. Application<br />Blending of ethanol with a small proportion of a volatile fuel such as gasoline -> more cost effective <br />Various mixture of bioethanol with gasoline or diesel fuels<br />E5G to E26G (5-26% ethanol, 95-74% gasoline)<br />E85G (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline)<br />E15D (15% ethanol, 85% diesel)<br />E95D (95% ethanol, 5% water, with ignition improver)<br />
  21. 21. Advantages<br />Exhaust gases of ethanol are much cleaner<br />it burns more cleanly as a result of more complete combustion<br />Greenhousegases reduce<br />ethanol-blended fuels such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) reduce up to 37.1% of GHGs<br />Positive energy balance, depending on the type of raw stock <br />output of energy during the production is more than the input<br />Any plant can be use for production of bioethanol<br />it only has to contain sugar and starch<br />Carbon neutral <br />the CO2 released in the bioethanol production process is the same amount as the one the crops previously absorbed during photosynthesis<br />
  22. 22. Advantages<br />Decrease in ozone formation <br />The emissions produced by burning ethanol are less reactive with sunlight than those produced by burning gasoline, which results in a lower potential for forming ozone<br />Renewable energy resource<br />result of conversion of the sun's energy into usable energy<br />Photosynthesis -> feedstocks grow -> processed into ethanol<br />Energy security<br />esp. Countries that do not have access to crude oil resources<br />grow crops for energy use and gain some economic freedom<br />Reduces the amount of high-octane additives<br />Fuel spills are more easily biodegraded or diluted to non toxic concentrations<br />
  23. 23. Disadvantages and Concerns<br />Biodiversity<br />A large amount of arable land is required to grow crops, natural habitats would be destroyed<br />Food vs. Fuel debate<br />due to the lucrative prices of bioethanol some farmers may sacrifice food crops for biofuel production which will increase food prices around the world<br />Carbon emissions (controversial) <br />During production of bioethanol, huge amount of carbon dioxide is released<br />Emission of GHGs from production of bioethanol is comparable to the emissions of internal-combustion engines<br />
  24. 24. Disadvantages and Concerns<br />Not as efficient as petroleum<br />energy content of the petrol is much higher than bioethanol<br />its energy content is 70% of that of petrol<br />Engines made for working on Bioethanolcannot be used for petrol or diesel<br />Due to high octane number of bioethanol, they can be burned in the engines with much higher compression ratio<br />Used of phosphorous and nitrogen in the production<br />negative effect on the environment<br />Cold start difficulties<br />pure ethanol is difficult to vaporise<br />
  25. 25. Disadvantages and Concerns<br />Transportation<br />ethanol is hygroscopic, it absorbs water from the air and thus has high corrosion aggressiveness<br />Can only be transported by auto transport or railroad<br />Many older cars unequipped to handle even 10% ethanol<br />Negatively affect electric fuel pumps by increasing internal wear and undesirable spark generation<br />
  26. 26. Ethanol Controversy<br />
  27. 27. Is it justifiable?<br />..to use agriculture land to grow energy crops instead of food crops when there are so many starving people in the world. In the developed countries that is not a problem, but in the developing ones where we have a large number of people living below the poverty this may lead to a crisis.<br />
  28. 28. Ethanol Controversy<br />Is burning biofuel more environmentally friendly than burning oil?<br />Fact that producing biofuel is not a "green process“<br />requires tractors and fertilisers and land<br />With the increase in biofuel production, more forests will be chopped down to make room for biofuel, ↑ CO2<br />Better alternative suggested by scientists..<br />steer away from biofuel and focus on reforestation and maximising the efficiency of fossil fuels instead<br />
  29. 29. Comparison of Bioethanol and Biodiesel<br />
  30. 30. Case study [Brazil]<br />Brazil the first to produce the cheapest ethanol in the world.<br />WHY BRAZIL?<br />Favourable conditions<br />Tradition of culturing sugarcane<br />Sugarcane being the most efficient raw materials for production of ethanol<br />
  31. 31. Case study [Brazil]<br />The FACTS<br />Brazil second biggest producer of ethanol in the world (20 billion litres)<br />Fuel used in 45 % of Brazilian vehicles is ethanol<br />Feedstocks: sugarcane bagasse and straw (rich in cellulose and turning entire sugarcane biomass to be used with no wastage)<br />1 tonne of bagasse produce 186 litres of ethanol<br />
  32. 32. Case study [Brazil]<br />In 1930s<br />Brazil’s ethanol industry started<br />Government directed sugarcane into ethanol production<br />Made addition of ethanol to gasoline compulsory<br />In 1973<br />International oil crisis doubled Brazil’s expenditure on oil imports<br />Government was forced to consider alternative sources of energy to decrease its dependency and spending on fossil fuels.<br />In 1975<br />Increase ethanol production as a substitute for gasoline<br />Invested in increasing agricultural production<br />Modernising and expanding distilleries<br />Establish new production plants<br />Introduce subsidies to lower prices and reduce taxes for ethanol producers<br />
  33. 33. Case study [Brazil]<br /><ul><li>Over 15 years, production of ethanol escalated from 0.6 billion litres in 1975 to 11 billion litres in 1990.
  34. 34. Progress further with Bioethanol establishments:</li></ul>1975 to 1978<br />One part of ethanol was added to four parts of gasoline.<br />Additional processing stage to remove water from the fuel<br />1979<br />Production streamlined to focus on hydrous ethanol<br />Ethanol which contains 5% water that could be used in cars fuelled entirely by ethanol<br /><ul><li>Researchers in Aerospace Technology in Sao Paulo, developed alloys to protect the internal parts of gasoline-powered engines and fuel tanks from corrosion by ethanol. 1986 to 1989, 90% of all new vehicles sold in the domestic market were ethanol-fuelled.</li></li></ul><li>Case study [Brazil]<br />PROBLEMS faced:<br />Waste!!<br />VINASSE – a corrosive liquid byproduct of ethanol distillation<br />Being dumped in rivers causing environmental damage<br />Bagasse – leftover sugarcane fibre<br />
  35. 35. Case study [Brazil]<br />SOLUTIONS:<br />Vinasse was found to be a good fertiliser.<br />Transportation system was developed<br />Combination of trucks, pipes and ducts to carry Vinasse from the distilleries to the fields<br />Bagasse was collected<br />Produce energy, building on existing methods of burning the bagasse to power steam turbines for electricity generation<br />Developed cauldrons under greater pressure<br />More energy could be produced allowing ethanol plants to become more autonomous in terms of energy<br />CONTRIBUTIONS IS TO KEEP ETHANOL PRODUCTION COSTS LOW<br />
  36. 36. Case study [Brazil]<br />Social impacts<br />Created jobs for locals (mainly in rural areas)<br />Brazilian sugarcane industry has a particularly poor record in respecting worker’s rights<br />Expansion in sugar cane cultivation may increase food prices. This would leave the poor with a harder survival.<br />Although the ethanol industry has greatly increased the wealth of the sugar and alcohol sector’s industries, the poor have to be the one handling the negative impacts.<br />
  37. 37. Future development<br />For bioethanol to become more sustainable to replace petrol, production process has to be more efficient<br />Reducing cost of conversion<br />Increasing yields <br />Increase the diversity of crop used<br />As microbes are use to convert glucose into sugar which is ferment in bioethanol<br />Microbiology and biotechnology will be helpful in the genetic engineering <br />
  38. 38. Thank You!<br />