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Project management-planning and scheduling

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Project management-planning and scheduling

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Project management-planning and scheduling

  1. 1. PLANNING
  2. 2. PLANNING  Planning involves deciding in advance . . . What is to be done ? How it is to be done ? What order . . . ? In order to achieve the objectives.  Planning aims at deciding upon future course of action whereas schedule depicts when the planned activities are to be carried, it puts the plan on calendar.
  3. 3. PLANNING Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.
  4. 4. PLANNING Planning for construction projects  Planning means “looking ahead”  Should take into consideration the past failure, present needs and future utilities.  Ensure proper utilization of human and material resources.  Ensure proper arrangement of repair of machinery and equipment.  Flow of funds.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING  Plan should provide information.  Plan should be realistic. Plan should be flexible. Plan should serve as a basis for project monitoring & controlling  Plan should be comprehensive. 5 P L A N N I N G F O R C O N S T R U C T I O N P R O J E C T S PLANNING
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF PLANNING 1. Advantages to the Contractors  Cost control  Supply of labour  Actual work  Work Schedule  Preconceived plan for the whole job 6 P L A N N I N G F O R C O N S T R U C T I O N P R O J E C T S
  7. 7. 2. Advantages to the Clients  Duration of the project  Project Budget
  8. 8. PLANNING
  9. 9. PLANNING PLANNING CONSTRUCTION WORK FORCE  Manpower planning primarily focuses on determining the size of the project work force, its structuring into functional groups and workers teams and scheduling the manpower recruitment to match the task requirement.  Identify skill required, establishing productivity standards to determine the number of workers needed to perform a given job in the specified time, forecasting of the workers requirements for accomplishing the project work and finally organising the planned work force into operating work teams having assigned programmed tasks.
  10. 10. PLANNING PLANNING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS  Efficient material management for integrated approach covering materials planning and programming, material purchasing, store keeping, materials transportation and handling at the site and disposal of surpluses.  Provide material of right quantity, right quality, right price from right source and at right time.
  11. 11. PLANNING PLANNING CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT  Production task needing equipment include excavating, handling, transporting, filling, compacting, hoisting, concreting, precasting, plastering, finishing, trenching and laying of pipes and cables.  Construction equipment is indispensable in the execution of modern high cost, time bound massive construction projects.  Its saves manpower, which is becoming even more costly and demanding.  It improves the productivity, quality and safety  Acquisition of equipment ; initial heavy investment but in the whole, it adds to profitability by reducing the overall costs, provided it is properly planned, economically procured and effectively managed.
  12. 12. PLANNING PLANNING CONSTRUCTION COST  A project budget reflects the financial plan of operation with specified goals and the costs expected to be incurred for achieving these.  The primary purpose of having a budget is to assign financial targets and resources to each functional group so as to establish some basis for controlling their performance and to make participants plan with cost.  The basis of budget is the project plan and its schedule of work.  The budget preparation involves structuring of the project functioning organisation into production, service and administration responsibility centres, assigning resources with the budgeted cost necessary to achieve the assigned goals.
  13. 13.  Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental property of intelligent behaviour. This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of a plan, or integration of it with other plans, that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them. An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds with forecasting. PLANNING
  14. 14. CO-ORDINATION & INTERACTION OF THE CONSTRUCTION TEAM OWNER PROJECT MANAGER ARCHITECTS/ CONSULTANTS CONTRACTORMUTUAL CO-ORDINATION 14 P L A N N I N G F O R C O N S T R U C T I O N P R O J E C T S
  15. 15. Client Project sponsor Project manager Engineer Specialist Design co-ordination Construction co-ordination of supply chain Project team Design team leader Construction team QS Architect Specialist Specialist Communication link Contractual link Project Structure Diagram – Executive Project Management Model
  16. 16. SCHEDULING
  17. 17.  Scheduling means putting the plan on calender basis.  A project network shows the sequence and interdependencies of activities, their time, duration and the earliest and the latest completion time, but this needs to be scheduled to determine commencement and termination dates of each activity, using optimum resource or working with resource constraints.  A time schedule outlines the project work programme; it is the time table of work.  Network scheduling methodology is suitable for all types of project. SCHEDULE
  18. 18. PREPARATION OF SCHEDULE  Project divided into number of operations.  Sequence of these operations derived after knowing their relationship.  Quantity of work has to be calculated.  By quantity of work in each operation, time required for activities calculated. SCHEDULE
  19. 19. Construction scheduling is a graphical representation which shows the phasing rate of construction activities with the starting and completion dates and the sequential relationship among the various activities or operations in a project so that work can be carried out in an orderly and effective manner. DEFINITION OF SCHEDULING
  20. 20. .PREPARATION OF CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULES The project is divided into number of operations and the sequences of these operations can be derived after knowing their relationship properly. The quantity of work involved in each operation has to be calculated. The time required for completion of the project as well as the different activities are to be calculated. This can be done from the quantity of work involved and the rate of performing each work. SCHEDULE
  21. 21. SCHEDULE USES OF SCHEDULING It gives the quantity of work involved, labour, materials and equipment for each stage of work. The actual progress of the work can be checked. The project can be carried out in a systematic manner using scheduling.
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES OF SCHEDULING  By studying the schedule of any work and the many alternative methods of execution, we can choose the best one.  It gives a clear idea regarding the required men, materials and equipment at different stages of the work.  Since the starting time of each work is known, proper arrangements and requirements can be done prior to the starting of the work.
  23. 23. ADVANTAGES OF SCHEDULING Resource utilisation is optimised. Actual progress of the work is monitored with the actual plan. If there is any delay, proper remedial measures can be taken to avoid such delays. Inter-relationship of various activities at different stages is known; thus we will be able to fix them according to their priority. Total duration of the complete project is known.
  24. 24. METHODS OF SCHEDULING Scheduling can be done by different methods depending on the size of the project. METHODSOF SCHEDULING BAR CHARTS OR GANTT CHARTS MILESTONE CHART NETWORK ANALYSIS
  25. 25. BAR CHART / GANTT CHART A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally.
  26. 26. BAR CHART / GANTT CHART These types of charts were introduced by Henry Gantt around 1900 A.D. A bar chart consists of two co-ordinate axes - one representing the jobs or activities to be performed and the other representing the time elapsed. Each bar represents one specific job or activity of the project. The beginning and end of each bar represents the time of start and time of finish of that activity. The length of the bar represents the time required for the completion of that job or activity.
  27. 27. The following steps are involved in preparing the bar chart 1. Divide the project into many activities. 2. List out the activities 3. Find the inter relationship among these activities 4. Arrange the activities in a systematic way 5. Calculate the quantity of work and the time required 6. Draw it according to scale
  28. 28. LIMITATIONS OF BAR CHARTS (i) They can be used only for small projects. (ii) It does not show the interdependencies between the various activities in the project. This is a serious limitation of the bar chart. (iii) The progress of the work in the project cannot be monitored scientifically. (iv) Delays in the work cannot be detected. (v) It does not indicate the critical activities of the project. (vi) It gives some idea about the physical progress of the project, but the financial aspect involved is not known i.e., whether the project cost is within the estimated one or exceeded. (vii) Bar chart cannot be used as a controlling device by the project manager to take any timely action.
  29. 29. MILESTONE CHARTS The milestone chart is a modification over the original bar chart. In every activity, there are certain key events which are to be carried out for the completion of the activity. Such key events are called milestones and they are represented by a square or circle. These events are those which can be easily identified over the main bar representing the activity. It has been noticed that when a particular activity represented by a bar is very long, the details will be lacking.  If, however, the activity is broken into a number of sub-activities or key events, each one of which can be recognised during the progress of the project, controlling can be done easily and also some interrelationship between the activities established.
  30. 30. Milestone chart shown The activity or Job A is divided into 4 key events or milestones, Job B into 3 milestones and so on. Each milestone can be considered to be a specific event along the job and is represented by a square. FIG: MILESTONE CHART
  31. 31. LIMITATIONS OF MILESTONE CHART Though controlling can be better achieved with the help of the milestone chart, still it possesses the some deficiency as the bar chart i.e.; the interdependencies between the milestones is not shown. Within an activity, the relationship between two specific milestones is revealed by the milestone chart but the relationship between and among milestones contained in different activities is not indicated.
  32. 32. A project has seven distinct activities - A, B, C, D, E, F and G which are to be performed for its timely and successful completion. The time required for the completion of these activities are 11, 6, 11, 8, 6, 9 and 16 units respectively. 1. Draw a bar chart for the project. 2. Calculate the total time required to complete the project. SOLVE: The relationship of the activities are as follows: 1. Activities A and B can start simultaneously, since they are independent of each other. 2. Activity C can start only when activity B is completed. 3. Activity D is independent of C. It starts earlier than C and is also completed earlier. 4. Activity E starts only when D is completed. 5. Activity F starts when B is completed. 6. Activity G is the last activity and is dependent on the completion of D.
  33. 33. Fig. shows a bar chart for a project which has seven distinct activities viz; A, B, C, D, E, F and G which are to be performed for its timely and successful completion. The times required for the completion of these activities are 11, 6, 11, 8, 6, 9 and 16 units of time respectively. BAR CHART 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 A B C D E F G J O B A C T I V I T I E S T I M E ( U n i t s D a y s ) 11 units 6 units 8 units 11 units 9 units 6 units 16 units
  34. 34. 2-5-8 3-5-13 2-4-6 4-7-16 7-10-13 1 2 3 7 8 4 6 5
  35. 35. 2 1 2 4 6 7 9 5 3 85 3
  36. 36. 1 2 3 7 4 5 10 9 6 8 11 15 12 13 14 5 3 1 2 2 4 10 9 6 4 4 6 2 6 2 9 2

Project management-planning and scheduling

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