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Anatomy of kidney By M.Adil

  1. Presentation By: M.Adil
  2. INTRODUCTION Of Kidney: SYNONYMS : 1. Renal 2. Excretory Organ 3. Urinary Organ Definition: “The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart.”
  3. Anatomical Position: • The kidneys lie retroperitoneally (behind the peritoneum) in the abdomen, either side of the vertebral column. • Right kidney is slightly lower than the left because the liver occupies considerable space on the right side superior to the kidney. • The adrenal glands sit immediately superior to the kidneys within a separate envelope of the renal fascia.
  4. • They typically extend from T12 to L3, although the right kidney is often situated slightly lower due to the presence of the liver. Each kidney is approximately three vertebrae in length.
  5. HEIGHT & WEIGHT: • Each kidney is 11 cm (4-5”) long, 6 cm (2-3”) broad and 3cm(1”) thick, weight 150g in males and 135g in females. 3 Cm 11 Cm 6 Cm
  6. Kidney Structure: • The kidneys are encased in complex layers of fascia and fat. They are arranged as follows (deep to superficial): • Renal capsule – tough fibrous capsule. • Perirenal fat – collection of extraperitoneal fat.
  7. • Renal fascia (also known as Gerota’s fascia or perirenal fascia) – encloses the kidneys and the suprarenal glands. • Pararenal fat – mainly located on the posterolateral aspect of the kidney.
  8. Anatomical Relations: The kidneys sit in close proximity to many other abdominal structures which are important to be aware of clinically: Left Kidney Anterior Posterior • Suprarenal gland • Spleen • Stomach • Pancreas • Left colic flexure • Jejunum • Diaphragm • 11th and 12th ribs • Psoas major, quadratus lumborum and transversus abdominis • Subcostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
  9. Right Kidney Anterior Posterior • Suprarenal gland • Liver • Duodenum • Right colic flexure • Diaphragm • 12th rib • Psoas major, quadratus lumborum and transversus abdominis • Subcostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
  10. The kidneys are retroperitoneal.Certain areas of each kidney are covered in anteriorly by peritoneum whereas others are "bare“. Peritoneal relations:
  11. Internal Structure of the Kidney:
  12. Protection of the Kidneys • 3 layers of connective tissue: – Inner layer- Renal capsule – Middle layer- Adipose capsule – Outer layer-Renal fascia Renal cortex Retroperitoneal space 15
  13. 3 layers of tissue surrounds the each kidney DEEP LAYER ( RENAL CAPSULE )is a smooth transparent sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that continous with the outer coat of the ureter. It serves as barrier against trauma and helps to maintain the shape of kidney.
  14. • Middle layer: the adipose capsule : is a mass of fatty tissue surrounding the renal capsule. it also protects the kidney from trauma. • Superficial layer: renal fascia is another thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue that covers surrounding structures and to the abdominal wall.
  15. GROSS STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY Longitudinal section there are 3 areas. 1. Fibrous capsule 2. Cortex 3. Medulla
  16. Renal Fibrous capsule • It surrounds the kidneyandmadeupofdense connectivetissue
  17. Cortex And Medulla • the kidneys have an intricate and unique structure. The renal parenchyma can be divided into two main areas – the outer cortex and inner medulla. The cortex extends into the medulla, dividing it into triangular shapes – these are known as renal pyramids.
  18. • The apex of a renal pyramid is called a renal papilla. Each renal papilla is associated with a structure known as the minor calyx, which collects urine from the pyramids. Several minor calices merge to form a major calyx. Urine passes through the major calices into the renal pelvis, a flattened and funnel-shaped structure. From the renal pelvis, urine drains into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder for storage. • The medial margin of each kidney is marked by a deep fissure, known as the renal hilum. This acts as a gateway to the kidney – normally the renal vessels and ureter enter/exit the kidney via this structure.
  19. Arterial And Venous Supply Of Kidney
  20. Lymphatics Of Kidney • Lymph from the kidney drains into the lateral aortic (or para-aortic) lymph nodes, which are located at the origin of the renal arteries.
  21. Innervation of the kidney • The renal plexus is located around the renal artery and contains postganglionic fibers from the sympathetic nervous system (Th10 to L2). The nerve fibers from the plexus enter the kidney with the branches of the renal artery and regulate the vascular tone and the secretion of renin. • The renal function is not dependent of the above mentioned innervation, as shown with the renal function after renal transplantation (complete transsection of the innervation). Most of the renal functions are regulated by hormones.
  23. Functions Of Kidney 1. Urine Formation. 2. Excretion Of Waste Products. 3. Regulation of electrolytes. 4. Regulation of Acid and Base 5. Control of water balance 6. Control of Blood Pressure 7. Renal Clearance 8. Regulation of blood cell production 9. Synthesis of Vitamin D to Active form 10. Secretion of Prostaglandins
  25. Kidney Disorders And Renal Failure • Glomerulonephritis • Pyelonephritis • Polycystic kidney disease • Urinary tract infections • Kidney Stones and Renal Failure
  26. Treatment Of Renal Failure 1. Dialysis.(the clinical purification of blood by dialysis,as a substitute for the normal function of the kidney.) 2. Kidney Transplant.
  27. Kidney And COVID-19 • Coronavirus directly attacks the kidneys • Coronavirus infiltrates the body by binding to a type of receptor on cells called ACE2 • These special receptors are found not only in cells in the heart and lungs, but also in kidneys • ACE2 Receptors docking sites for the virus • Body is unable to deliver enough oxygen to organs • The damage could also be the result of the virus's effects on the blood, which can lead to clots. • Kidneys filter blood through thousands of tiny capillaries, which are highly susceptible to clots.
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