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BY ADIL ASLAM
By Adil 2
 Database
• An organized collection of logically related data.
 Data
• A stored representation of objects and events tha...
 Types of data :
Data
Structured Unstructured
By Adil 4
 Structured Data
• Structured data are facts concerning
objects and events.
• The most important structured data are
nume...
 Unstructured Data
• Unstructured data are multimedia data such as
documents, photographs, maps, images,
sound, and video...
 Information :
• Data processed to increase knowledge in the
person using the data.
• Data that has been processed to mak...
Data
 Raw facts
 No context
 Just numbers and
text
Information
 Data with context
 Processed data
 Value-added to da...
 Difference between data and information
with example
 5/10/07
 1$
 5/10/07 date of your final exam
 1$ Price of suga...
Data Information
 6.34
 6.45
 6.39
 6.62
 6.57
 6.64
 6.71
 6.82
 7.12
 7.06
By Adil 10
By Adil 11
 Metadata:
• Data that describe the properties and context
of user data.
• “Data about data”
• Metadata is a piece of inf...
 Examples of Metadata
Example of metadata for class Roster
Descriptions of the properties or characteristics of the data,...
 Database
 Database is a centralized, and organized
collection of some logically related
organizational data.
 In datab...
 Data Model
 Data Model is collection of concepts and
theories used to organize data
 Common data models are
▪ Network,...
 File-based System
• File-based systems were an early attempt to
computerize the manual filing system. File-
based system...
 Example of FBS
By Adil 17
 Example of FBS
By Adil 18
Student Applied
Course Data
Faculty Payroll
data
Dean Faculty
Data
Merit calculation
Program
Student Scheduling
Faculty Sc...
 Disadvantages of File Processing
 Program-Data Dependence
 All programs maintain metadata for each file they use
 Dup...
 Problems with Data Dependency
• Each application programmer must maintain
his/her own data.
• Each application program n...
By Adil 22
 SOLUTION: The DATABASE Approach
 The DATABASE Approach
 Database approach is a computer based
storage technology in wh...
 Database Management System
• A database management system (DBMS) is a
software package designed to define,
manipulate, r...
 Database Management System
By Adil 25
Student Applied
Course Data
Dean Faculty
Data
Dean Faculty
Data
Faculty Payroll
data
Merit calculation
Program
Student Sch...
 Advantages of the Database Approach
• Program-Data Independence
• Minimal data redundancy
• Improved data sharing
• Impr...
 Disadvantages
 Complexity
 Database management system is an extremely complex
piece of software. All parties must be f...
 Cost of DBMS
 A multi-user database management system may be
very expensive. Even after the installation, there is a
hi...
 Elements of the Database Approach
 Data models
▪ Graphical system capturing nature and relationship of
data
• Enterpris...
 Entities
▪ Noun of describing of a person , place ,object , or
event
 Composed attributes
 Relationship
▪ Between enti...
 Comparison of enterprise and project level data
model
By Adil 32
 Components of the Database Environment
By Adil 33
 Components of the Database Environment
• A database management system (DBMS) consists of
several components. Each compon...
 3:Database Management System (DBMS)
 Software for managing the database
 4:Database
 Storehouse of the data
 It is i...
 5:Application programs
 Computer-based application programs are used to
create and maintain the database and provide
in...
 7:Data/Database Administrators
 A person who is responsible for managing the
overall database management system is call...
 9:End users
 The end-users are the peoples who interact with
database management system to perform different
operations...
 The Range of Database Applications
 Personal databases
 Workgroup databases
 Departmental/divisional databases
 Ente...
 The Range of Database Applications
 Personal Database – standalone desktop
database
 Workgroup Database – local area n...
 PC databases:
 Personal database approach is designed to support to
store and to maintain the personal information. It ...
Typical data from
a personal database
By Adil 42
 Work Group databases:
 In work group database approach , consists 20-25
members those team of people will develop a dat...
By Adil 44
 Departmental databases:
 Departmental database approach is designed to
support to maintain departmental wise activities...
 Example
By Adil 46
 Enterprises databases:
 Enterprise database approach is designed to support to maintain
organization database . It not ...
By Adil 48
By Adil 49
1960s
Files processing
system remain
dominant in this
decade
First database
system developed
during this
1970s
Hierarchica...
 Evolution of DB Systems
 Flat files - 1960s - 1980s
 Hierarchical – 1970s - 1990s
 Network – 1970s - 1990s
 Relation...
 Evolution Of Databases
 Greater independence between programs and
data
 Manage increasingly complex data types and
str...
 Evolution Of Databases
 1960s
 Files processing system remain dominant in this
decade
 First database system develope...
 Evolution Of Databases
 1980s
 Relational model was famous and widely in use(2nd
generation of DBMS)
 Beginning of SQ...
 Evolution Of Databases
 Relational and object-oriented databases are
of great importance today
 Some vendors are devel...
By Adil 56
By Adil 57
By Adil 58
 Enterprise Data Model
 First step in database development
 Specifies scope and general content
 Overall picture of or...
Segment from enterprise data model
Enterprise data model
describes the high-
level entities in an
organization and the
rel...
 Information Systems Architecture (ISA)
 Conceptual blueprint for organization’s desired
information systems structure
...
 Two Approaches to Database and IS
Development
 SDLC
 System Development Life Cycle
 Detailed, well-planned developmen...
 SDLC(Systems Development Life Cycle )
 The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a
process used in the development, ...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
By Adil 64
Planning:
 Identify and select the system for development
 Assess project feasibility
 Develop the project plan
Analy...
 Design:
 Determine technical systems configuration
 Determine data structure
 Design system models
 Set systems conv...
 Testing:
 Write the test conditions
 Perform the system testing
 Implementation:
 Determine implementation method
 ...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
By Adil 68
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
Planning Purpose–preliminary understanding
Del...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
Analysis
Purpose–thorough requirements analysi...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical DesignLogical Design
Purpose–information requirements...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
Physical Design
Purpose–develop technology and...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
Implementation
Purpose–programming, testing, t...
Planning
Analysis
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Logical Design
Maintenance
Purpose–monitor, repair, enhance
D...
Identify Project
Initiate and Plan
Analyze
Logical Design
Physical Design
Implementation
Maintenance
Enterprise
Modeling
C...
 Design methodology which speeds systems
delivery through a combination of speedy
design iterations, data modeling, user/...
By Adil 77
By Adil 78
By Adil 79
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chapter 1 in Modern Database Management

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What is database?
What is data?
Type of data?
Data Vs. Information
Metadata
File-based System
Database Management System
Components of the Database Environment
The Range of Database Applications
Evolution Of Databases
SDLC(Systems Development Life Cycle )
Rapid Application Development

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chapter 1 in Modern Database Management

  1. 1. BY ADIL ASLAM
  2. 2. By Adil 2
  3. 3.  Database • An organized collection of logically related data.  Data • A stored representation of objects and events that have meaning  Meaningful facts  Data no context By Adil 3
  4. 4.  Types of data : Data Structured Unstructured By Adil 4
  5. 5.  Structured Data • Structured data are facts concerning objects and events. • The most important structured data are numeric, text , character, and dates. Structured data are stored in tabular form. • Examples  Number  Dates By Adil 5
  6. 6.  Unstructured Data • Unstructured data are multimedia data such as documents, photographs, maps, images, sound, and video clips. • Unstructured data are most commonly found on Web servers and Web-enabled databases. • Examples  images  video By Adil 6
  7. 7.  Information : • Data processed to increase knowledge in the person using the data. • Data that has been processed to make it useful. • The foundation of correct decisions. By Adil 7
  8. 8. Data  Raw facts  No context  Just numbers and text Information  Data with context  Processed data  Value-added to data  Summarized  Organized  Analyzed By Adil 8
  9. 9.  Difference between data and information with example  5/10/07  1$  5/10/07 date of your final exam  1$ Price of sugar of one kg Example of data Example of Information By Adil 9
  10. 10. Data Information  6.34  6.45  6.39  6.62  6.57  6.64  6.71  6.82  7.12  7.06 By Adil 10
  11. 11. By Adil 11
  12. 12.  Metadata: • Data that describe the properties and context of user data. • “Data about data” • Metadata is a piece of information describing a resource. • Examples of resources are books, web sites, and videos. By Adil 12
  13. 13.  Examples of Metadata Example of metadata for class Roster Descriptions of the properties or characteristics of the data, including data types, field sizes, allowable values, and data context By Adil 13
  14. 14.  Database  Database is a centralized, and organized collection of some logically related organizational data.  In database, data is organized using some Data Model By Adil 14
  15. 15.  Data Model  Data Model is collection of concepts and theories used to organize data  Common data models are ▪ Network, ▪ Relational, ▪ Object Oriented , ▪ Object Relational etc.  In short, we use some data model to organize data or build database By Adil 15
  16. 16.  File-based System • File-based systems were an early attempt to computerize the manual filing system. File- based system is a collection of application programs that perform services for the end- users. Each program defines and manages its data. • However, five types of problem are occurred in using the file-based approach: By Adil 16
  17. 17.  Example of FBS By Adil 17
  18. 18.  Example of FBS By Adil 18
  19. 19. Student Applied Course Data Faculty Payroll data Dean Faculty Data Merit calculation Program Student Scheduling Faculty Scheduling Payroll Merit List Class List Final Faculty Schedule Pay Checks Files Programs University Environment Output By Adil 19
  20. 20.  Disadvantages of File Processing  Program-Data Dependence  All programs maintain metadata for each file they use  Duplication of Data  Different systems/programs have separate copies of the same data  Limited Data Sharing  No centralized control of data  Lengthy Development Times  Programmers must design their own file formats  Excessive Program Maintenance  80% of information systems budget By Adil 20
  21. 21.  Problems with Data Dependency • Each application programmer must maintain his/her own data. • Each application program needs to include code for the metadata of each file. • Each application program must have its own processing routines for reading, inserting, updating, and deleting data • Lack of coordination and central control • Non-standard file formats By Adil 21
  22. 22. By Adil 22
  23. 23.  SOLUTION: The DATABASE Approach  The DATABASE Approach  Database approach is a computer based storage technology in which related data is shared by various application programs  Central repository of shared data  Data is managed by a controlling agent  Requires a Database Management System (DBMS) By Adil 23
  24. 24.  Database Management System • A database management system (DBMS) is a software package designed to define, manipulate, retrieve and manage data in a database.  Basic functions: • Multiple user interfaces • Controlled redundancy • Common RDBMS are Oracle, SQL Server, MySql, Access, Sybase etc. By Adil 24
  25. 25.  Database Management System By Adil 25
  26. 26. Student Applied Course Data Dean Faculty Data Dean Faculty Data Faculty Payroll data Merit calculation Program Student Scheduling Faculty Scheduling Payroll Merit List Class List Final Faculty Schedule Pay Checks DBMS University Environment Database Programs Output By Adil 26
  27. 27.  Advantages of the Database Approach • Program-Data Independence • Minimal data redundancy • Improved data sharing • Improved data quality • Improved data accessibility or Better Data Accessibility • Reduced program maintenance • Improved data consistency • Reduced duplication of data • Increased productivity of application development • Providing backup and recovery services • Improved decision support By Adil 27
  28. 28.  Disadvantages  Complexity  Database management system is an extremely complex piece of software. All parties must be familiar with its functionality and take full advantage of it. Therefore, training for the administrators, designers and users is required.  Size  The database management system consumes a substantial amount of main memory as well as a large number amount of disk space in order to make it run efficiently. By Adil 28
  29. 29.  Cost of DBMS  A multi-user database management system may be very expensive. Even after the installation, there is a high recurrent annual maintenance cost on the software.  Cost of conversion  When moving from a file-base system to a database system, the company is required to have additional expenses on hardware acquisition and training cost. By Adil 29
  30. 30.  Elements of the Database Approach  Data models ▪ Graphical system capturing nature and relationship of data • Enterprise Data Mode ▪ High-level entities and relationships for the organization ▪ Project Data Model ▪ More detailed view, matching data structure in database By Adil 30
  31. 31.  Entities ▪ Noun of describing of a person , place ,object , or event  Composed attributes  Relationship ▪ Between entities ▪ Usually one to many (1:M) or many to many (M:M) • Relational Databases  Database technology involving tables  Representing entities  Representing relationships By Adil 31
  32. 32.  Comparison of enterprise and project level data model By Adil 32
  33. 33.  Components of the Database Environment By Adil 33
  34. 34.  Components of the Database Environment • A database management system (DBMS) consists of several components. Each component plays very important role in the database management system environment. The major components of database management system are:  1:Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools • CASE tools are automated tools used to design databases and application programs. • These tools help with creation of data models.  2:Repository  Centralized storehouse of metadata By Adil 34
  35. 35.  3:Database Management System (DBMS)  Software for managing the database  4:Database  Storehouse of the data  It is important to distinguish between the database and the repository.  The repository contains definitions of data, whereas the database contains occurrences of data By Adil 35
  36. 36.  5:Application programs  Computer-based application programs are used to create and maintain the database and provide information to users.  6:User interface  Text and graphical displays to users By Adil 36
  37. 37.  7:Data/Database Administrators  A person who is responsible for managing the overall database management system is called database administrator or simply DBA.  8:System Developers  Personnel responsible for designing databases and software By Adil 37
  38. 38.  9:End users  The end-users are the peoples who interact with database management system to perform different operations on database such as retrieving, updating, inserting, deleting data etc. By Adil 38
  39. 39.  The Range of Database Applications  Personal databases  Workgroup databases  Departmental/divisional databases  Enterprise database  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems  Data warehousing implementations By Adil 39
  40. 40.  The Range of Database Applications  Personal Database – standalone desktop database  Workgroup Database – local area network (<25 users)  Department Database – local area network (25-100 users)  Enterprise Database – wide-area network (hundreds or thousands of users) By Adil 40
  41. 41.  PC databases:  Personal database approach is designed to support to store and to maintain the personal information. It can access by one user only. In general we can store personal database in personal computers like laptops, cellular phones etc. We have major problem with personal database approach that is it does not allow sharing of the data i.e. the personal database is working based on the stand-alone mode. By Adil 41
  42. 42. Typical data from a personal database By Adil 42
  43. 43.  Work Group databases:  In work group database approach , consists 20-25 members those team of people will develop a database of an organization . The work group database is designed to support to maintain database by a group of people.  Work group database provides data sharing . In general work group database in LAN group network where database is available in one system this system is known as database Server .Database server is connected with 10 or more than 10 users .This type of architecture is known as one type of client/server architecture By Adil 43
  44. 44. By Adil 44
  45. 45.  Departmental databases:  Departmental database approach is designed to support to maintain departmental wise activities in an organization. It consist department information , procedures and functions.  In departmental database consist 50-100 persons to perform a task. In an organization contain its department database server in an organization . The department database are connected to maintain from the main server to connect the database departmental database server , distributed the information to department and users . This technology is called as two tier database architecture. By Adil 45
  46. 46.  Example By Adil 46
  47. 47.  Enterprises databases:  Enterprise database approach is designed to support to maintain organization database . It not only control the organizational database but also making decisions to support the database . It perform all the activities of an organization. The education of enterprise database approach two major departments these are  Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERPS)  Data warehousing .  ERPS is developed from MRP(Material Requirement Planning ) system .These system contains some functions such as how to distribute the data to entire organization and how to control the flow of data in an enterprise / organization .In an enterprise database we have entire organization database or information and historical information about the organization and collaboration organization information such enterprise database organization is known as data ware housing. By Adil 47
  48. 48. By Adil 48
  49. 49. By Adil 49
  50. 50. 1960s Files processing system remain dominant in this decade First database system developed during this 1970s Hierarchical and Network Commercial use of DBMS Relational Model was first defined by E.F Codd 1980s Relational model was famous and widely in use(2nd generation of DBMS) Beginning of SQL(Structure Query Language) 1990 Common use of different types of data like graphics, sound, images, and video Relational and object-oriented databases are of great importance today Some vendors are developing combined databases(object- relational) 2000 and Beyond Data-mining and Distributed DBMS Data Warehousing and Mining Big Data & Big Data Analytics Evolution Of Databases By Adil 50
  51. 51.  Evolution of DB Systems  Flat files - 1960s - 1980s  Hierarchical – 1970s - 1990s  Network – 1970s - 1990s  Relational – 1980s - present  Object-oriented – 1990s - present  Object-relational – 1990s - present  Data warehousing – 1980s - present  Web-enabled – 1990s - present By Adil 51
  52. 52.  Evolution Of Databases  Greater independence between programs and data  Manage increasingly complex data types and structures  The desire to provide easier and faster access to data for users  The need to provide ever more powerful platforms for decision support applications By Adil 52
  53. 53.  Evolution Of Databases  1960s  Files processing system remain dominant in this decade  First database system developed during this  1970s  Hierarchical and Network  Commercial use of DBMS  Relational Model was first defined by E.F Codd By Adil 53
  54. 54.  Evolution Of Databases  1980s  Relational model was famous and widely in use(2nd generation of DBMS)  Beginning of SQL(Structure Query Language)  1990s  Common use of different types of data like graphics, sound, images, and video By Adil 54
  55. 55.  Evolution Of Databases  Relational and object-oriented databases are of great importance today  Some vendors are developing combined databases(object-relational)  2000 and Beyond  Data-mining and Distributed DBMS  Data Warehousing and Mining By Adil 55
  56. 56. By Adil 56
  57. 57. By Adil 57
  58. 58. By Adil 58
  59. 59.  Enterprise Data Model  First step in database development  Specifies scope and general content  Overall picture of organizational data at high level of abstraction  Entity-relationship diagram  Descriptions of entity types  Relationships between entities  Business rules By Adil 59
  60. 60. Segment from enterprise data model Enterprise data model describes the high- level entities in an organization and the relationship between these entities By Adil 60
  61. 61.  Information Systems Architecture (ISA)  Conceptual blueprint for organization’s desired information systems structure  Consists of:  Data (e.g. Enterprise Data Model – simplified ER Diagram)  Processes – data flow diagrams, process decomposition, etc.  Data Network – topology diagram (like fig 1.9)  People – people management using project management tools (Gantt charts, etc.)  Events and points in time (when processes are performed)  Reasons for events and rules (e.g. decision tables) By Adil 61
  62. 62.  Two Approaches to Database and IS Development  SDLC  System Development Life Cycle  Detailed, well-planned development process  Time-consuming, but comprehensive  Long development cycle  Prototyping  Rapid application development (RAD)  Cursory attempt at conceptual data modeling  Define database during development of initial prototype  Repeat implementation and maintenance activities with new prototype versions By Adil 62
  63. 63.  SDLC(Systems Development Life Cycle )  The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used in the development, creation, and maintenance of an information system.This process is often used in the creation or updating of a database system.  The SDLC has five phases:The Planning phase, the Analysis phase, the Design phase, the Implementation phase, and the Maintenance. By Adil 63
  64. 64. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design By Adil 64
  65. 65. Planning:  Identify and select the system for development  Assess project feasibility  Develop the project plan Analysis:  Gather business requirements  Create process diagrams By Adil 65
  66. 66.  Design:  Determine technical systems configuration  Determine data structure  Design system models  Set systems conversion plan  Development:  Develop the IT infrastructure  Develop the database and programs By Adil 66
  67. 67.  Testing:  Write the test conditions  Perform the system testing  Implementation:  Determine implementation method  Provide training for the system users  Write detailed user documentation By Adil 67
  68. 68. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design By Adil 68
  69. 69. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design Planning Purpose–preliminary understanding Deliverable–request for study Database activity– enterprise modeling and early conceptual data modeling By Adil 69
  70. 70. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design Analysis Purpose–thorough requirements analysis and structuring Deliverable–functional system specifications Database activity–thorough and integrated conceptual data modeling By Adil 70
  71. 71. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical DesignLogical Design Purpose–information requirements elicitation and structure Deliverable–detailed design specifications Database activity– logical database design (transactions, forms, displays, views, data integrity and security) By Adil 71
  72. 72. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design Physical Design Purpose–develop technology and organizational specifications Deliverable–program/data structures, technology purchases, organization redesigns Database activity– physical database design (define database to DBMS, physical data organization, database processing programs) By Adil 72
  73. 73. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design Implementation Purpose–programming, testing, training, installation, documenting Deliverable–operational programs, documentation, training materials Database activity– database implementation, including coded programs, documentation, installation and conversion By Adil 73
  74. 74. Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design Maintenance Purpose–monitor, repair, enhance Deliverable–periodic audits Database activity– database maintenance, performance analysis and tuning, error corrections By Adil 74
  75. 75. Identify Project Initiate and Plan Analyze Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Enterprise Modeling Conceptual Data Modeling Logical DB Design Physical DB Design/Creation DB Implementation DB Maintenance Database Development Activities SDLC By Adil 75
  76. 76.  Design methodology which speeds systems delivery through a combination of speedy design iterations, data modeling, user/developer teamwork, and automated development tools.  Encompasses a set of techniques that can be used to build complex, strategic, and mission- critical applications in months rather than years By Adil 76
  77. 77. By Adil 77
  78. 78. By Adil 78
  79. 79. By Adil 79

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