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Presentation 
Computer Security and 
Safety, Ethics, and Privacy 
Presented By: 
Adeel Khurram 
1 
Supervised By: 
Engr.Zahra Noor
Computer Security Risks 
• A computer security risk is any event 
Or action that could cause a loss of 
or damage to computer hardware, 
Software , data, information , or processing 
capability. While some breaches 
to computer security are accidental, 
many are intentional.
Computer Security Risks 
• An intentional breach of computer 
Security often involves a deliberate 
act that is against the law. 
• Any illegal act involving a computer 
generally is referred to as a 
Computer Crime/Cyber Crime.
Cyber Crimes
Categories Of Cyber Criminals 
• There are following 7ven Categories of 
These Perpetrators. 
1. Hackers 
2. Crackers 
3. Script Kiddies 
4. Corporate Spies 
5. Unethical Employees 
6. Cyber Extortionist 
7. Cyber Terrorists
Who They Are?
7 
A computer 
enthusiast, 
refers to 
someone who 
accesses a 
computer or 
network 
illegally. 
Crackers 
Accesses a computer 
or network 
illegally but has the 
intent of 
destroying data, 
stealing information, 
or other malicious 
action. 
Hacker
8 
Corporate 
Spies 
Excellent 
Computer skills 
and are hired to 
break into a 
specific computer 
and steal its 
proprietary data 
and information. 
Scripts 
Kiddies 
A script kiddie has the 
same intent as a cracker 
but does not have the 
technical skills and 
knowledge. Script 
kiddies often use 
prewritten hacking and 
cracking programs
9 
break into their 
employers’ 
computers for a 
variety of reasons. 
. Others seek 
financial gains 
from selling 
confidential 
information. 
Who uses e-mail as a 
vehicle for extortion. These 
perpetrators send an 
organization a threatening 
e-mail message indicating 
they will expose 
confidential information, or 
launch an attack if they are 
not paid a sum of money.
10 
Cyber terrorist 
A cyber terrorist is someone 
who uses the Internet or network 
to destroy or damage computers 
for political reasons. The Cyber 
terrorist might target the nation’s 
Air traffic control system, electricity-generating 
companies, or a telecommunications infrastructure.
11 
Cyber warfare 
The term, cyberwarfare, describes 
an attack whose goal ranges from 
disabling a government’s 
computer network to crippling 
a country. Cyber terrorism and 
Cyber warfare usually require a team of highly 
skilled individuals, millions of dollars, and several 
years of planning.
Computer Viruses, 
• A computer virus is a potentially damaging 
computer program that affects, or infects, a 
computer negatively by altering the way 
the computer works without the user’s 
knowledge or permission.
Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits 
• A worm is a program that copies itself 
Repeatedly, cause files damages. 
• A Trojan horse that hides within or looks like a 
legitimate program. A certain condition triggers it. 
• A rootkit is a program that hides in a computer 
and allows someone from a remote location 
to take full control of the computer.
Safeguards against Computer Viruses 
and Other Malware 
• Do not start a computer with removable media inserted in the 
drives or plugged in the ports. 
• Never open an e-mail attachment unless you are expecting the 
attachment and it is from a trusted source. 
• Should set the macro security so that the application 
software warns users that contains viruses in Micros. 
• Should install an antivirus program and update it frequently.
BOT/Bot Net 
• A botnet is a group of 
compromised 
computers connected 
to a network attacks 
other networks, 
usually for wicked 
purposes. A bot is a 
program that performs 
a repetitive task on a 
network. 
DoS attack 
DoS attack, is an assault 
whose purpose is to disrupt 
computer access to an 
Internet service such as the 
Web or e-mail. DDoS 
attacks have been able to 
stop operations temporarily 
at numerous Web sites, 
including powerhouses 
such as Yahoo!, eBay, 
Amazon.com, and CNN.com
• A back door is a program or set of instructions in a program 
that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a 
program, computer, or network. Root Kit is a Backdoor. 
Spoofing is a technique intruders use to make their network or 
Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or 
network. Several types of spoofing schemes exist. One type, 
called e-mail spoofing, occurs when the sender’s address or 
other components of the e-mail header are altered so that it 
appears the e-mail originated from a different sender.
Safeguards against Botnets, DoS/DDoS 
Attacks, Back Doors, and Spoofing 
• A firewall is hardware and/or software that protects a 
network’s resources from intrusion by users on another 
network such as the Internet. 
A honeypot is a vulnerable computer that is set up to 
entice an intruder to break into it. These computers, 
which appear real to the intruder, actually are separated 
safely from the organization’s network.
Unauthorized Access 
and Use 
• Unauthorized access is the use of a computer or network 
without permission. Unauthorized use is the use of a 
computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal 
activities. 
Safeguards against Unauthorized 
Access and Use 
1. Passwords And User Names 2. CAPTCHA(completely auto mated public turning test to 
tell computers and humans apart) 3. PIN 4. Biometric Devices 5. . Possesed 
objects(cards,Badges)
Hardware Theft And Vandalisms 
• Hardware theft is the act of stealing computer equipment. 
• Hardware vandalism is the act of defacing or destroying 
computer equipment. 
Safeguards against Hardware Theft 
and Vandalism 
Physical access controls, such as locked doors and windows. 
Installing Alarms, cables that lock the equipment to a desk, Small locking 
devices also exist that require a key to access a hard disk or optical disc 
drive. real time location system (RTLS) to track and identify the location of 
high-risk or high-value items. One implementation of RTLS places RFID tags 
in items to be tracked.
Software Theft 
Software theft occurs when someone (1) steals software 
media, (2) intentionally erases programs, (3) illegally copies 
a program, or (4) illegally registers and/or activates a 
program. 
Safeguards against Software Theft 
keep original software boxes and media in a secure location. 
should back up their files and disks regularly, A license 
agreement is the right 
to use the software.
Information Theft 
• Information theft occurs when someone steals personal or 
confidential information. If stolen, the loss of information 
can cause as much damage as (if not more than) hardware 
or software theft. 
Safeguards against Information Theft 
•Apply user identification and authentication controls. use 
variety of encryption techniques.
Encryption 
• Encryption is a process of converting 
readable data into unreadable characters to prevent 
unauthorized access. To read the data, the recipient 
must decrypt, or decipher, it into a readable form. An 
encryption algorithm, or cypher, is a set of steps that 
can convert plaintext into unreadable ciphertext.
System Failure 
• A system an electrical power variation due to Overvoltage , 
undervoltage and Noise. It also can cause loss of data , in 
formation and hardwares. 
Safeguards against System Failure 
• Use surge protector, to smooth out minor noise, 
• Use uninterruptible power supply (UPS), 
• Fault-tolerant computer 
• Use RAID to Full Backup.
Computer Security risks Shelly

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Computer Security risks Shelly

  • 1. Presentation Computer Security and Safety, Ethics, and Privacy Presented By: Adeel Khurram 1 Supervised By: Engr.Zahra Noor
  • 2. Computer Security Risks • A computer security risk is any event Or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, Software , data, information , or processing capability. While some breaches to computer security are accidental, many are intentional.
  • 3. Computer Security Risks • An intentional breach of computer Security often involves a deliberate act that is against the law. • Any illegal act involving a computer generally is referred to as a Computer Crime/Cyber Crime.
  • 5. Categories Of Cyber Criminals • There are following 7ven Categories of These Perpetrators. 1. Hackers 2. Crackers 3. Script Kiddies 4. Corporate Spies 5. Unethical Employees 6. Cyber Extortionist 7. Cyber Terrorists
  • 7. 7 A computer enthusiast, refers to someone who accesses a computer or network illegally. Crackers Accesses a computer or network illegally but has the intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action. Hacker
  • 8. 8 Corporate Spies Excellent Computer skills and are hired to break into a specific computer and steal its proprietary data and information. Scripts Kiddies A script kiddie has the same intent as a cracker but does not have the technical skills and knowledge. Script kiddies often use prewritten hacking and cracking programs
  • 9. 9 break into their employers’ computers for a variety of reasons. . Others seek financial gains from selling confidential information. Who uses e-mail as a vehicle for extortion. These perpetrators send an organization a threatening e-mail message indicating they will expose confidential information, or launch an attack if they are not paid a sum of money.
  • 10. 10 Cyber terrorist A cyber terrorist is someone who uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons. The Cyber terrorist might target the nation’s Air traffic control system, electricity-generating companies, or a telecommunications infrastructure.
  • 11. 11 Cyber warfare The term, cyberwarfare, describes an attack whose goal ranges from disabling a government’s computer network to crippling a country. Cyber terrorism and Cyber warfare usually require a team of highly skilled individuals, millions of dollars, and several years of planning.
  • 12. Computer Viruses, • A computer virus is a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission.
  • 13. Worms, Trojan Horses, and Rootkits • A worm is a program that copies itself Repeatedly, cause files damages. • A Trojan horse that hides within or looks like a legitimate program. A certain condition triggers it. • A rootkit is a program that hides in a computer and allows someone from a remote location to take full control of the computer.
  • 14. Safeguards against Computer Viruses and Other Malware • Do not start a computer with removable media inserted in the drives or plugged in the ports. • Never open an e-mail attachment unless you are expecting the attachment and it is from a trusted source. • Should set the macro security so that the application software warns users that contains viruses in Micros. • Should install an antivirus program and update it frequently.
  • 15. BOT/Bot Net • A botnet is a group of compromised computers connected to a network attacks other networks, usually for wicked purposes. A bot is a program that performs a repetitive task on a network. DoS attack DoS attack, is an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail. DDoS attacks have been able to stop operations temporarily at numerous Web sites, including powerhouses such as Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon.com, and CNN.com
  • 16. • A back door is a program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, or network. Root Kit is a Backdoor. Spoofing is a technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network. Several types of spoofing schemes exist. One type, called e-mail spoofing, occurs when the sender’s address or other components of the e-mail header are altered so that it appears the e-mail originated from a different sender.
  • 17. Safeguards against Botnets, DoS/DDoS Attacks, Back Doors, and Spoofing • A firewall is hardware and/or software that protects a network’s resources from intrusion by users on another network such as the Internet. A honeypot is a vulnerable computer that is set up to entice an intruder to break into it. These computers, which appear real to the intruder, actually are separated safely from the organization’s network.
  • 18. Unauthorized Access and Use • Unauthorized access is the use of a computer or network without permission. Unauthorized use is the use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities. Safeguards against Unauthorized Access and Use 1. Passwords And User Names 2. CAPTCHA(completely auto mated public turning test to tell computers and humans apart) 3. PIN 4. Biometric Devices 5. . Possesed objects(cards,Badges)
  • 19. Hardware Theft And Vandalisms • Hardware theft is the act of stealing computer equipment. • Hardware vandalism is the act of defacing or destroying computer equipment. Safeguards against Hardware Theft and Vandalism Physical access controls, such as locked doors and windows. Installing Alarms, cables that lock the equipment to a desk, Small locking devices also exist that require a key to access a hard disk or optical disc drive. real time location system (RTLS) to track and identify the location of high-risk or high-value items. One implementation of RTLS places RFID tags in items to be tracked.
  • 20. Software Theft Software theft occurs when someone (1) steals software media, (2) intentionally erases programs, (3) illegally copies a program, or (4) illegally registers and/or activates a program. Safeguards against Software Theft keep original software boxes and media in a secure location. should back up their files and disks regularly, A license agreement is the right to use the software.
  • 21. Information Theft • Information theft occurs when someone steals personal or confidential information. If stolen, the loss of information can cause as much damage as (if not more than) hardware or software theft. Safeguards against Information Theft •Apply user identification and authentication controls. use variety of encryption techniques.
  • 22. Encryption • Encryption is a process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access. To read the data, the recipient must decrypt, or decipher, it into a readable form. An encryption algorithm, or cypher, is a set of steps that can convert plaintext into unreadable ciphertext.
  • 23. System Failure • A system an electrical power variation due to Overvoltage , undervoltage and Noise. It also can cause loss of data , in formation and hardwares. Safeguards against System Failure • Use surge protector, to smooth out minor noise, • Use uninterruptible power supply (UPS), • Fault-tolerant computer • Use RAID to Full Backup.