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Smart grid in india

Ordell Ugo Summer Internship on : Smart Grid IN India

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Smart grid in india

  1. 1. ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN INDIA AND CURRENT Scenario:  Power development in India was first started in 1897 in Darjeeling, followed by commissioning of a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902.  The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 223.625 GW as of April 2013, the world's fifth largest. Captive power plants generate an additional 34.444 GW. Non Renewable Power Plants constitute 87.55% of the installed capacity and 12.45% of Renewable Capacity. India generated 855 BU (855 000 MU i.e. 855 TWh) electricity during 2011–12 fiscal. THE AVAILABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN INDIA ARE AS FOLLOWS:  Thermal power  Hydro power  Nuclear power  Solar power  Wind power  Biomass power  Geothermal energy  Tidal wave energy
  2. 2. INSTALLED POWER CAPACITY IN INDIA : (2011-12) SOURCE : CURRENT INSTALLED BASE: Thermal power 110.396 GW Hydro power 39,291.40 MW Nuclear power 4.8 GW Solar power 10MW Wind power 11,807MW Biomass power 866MW Geothermal power 203.0MW Tidal wave energy 8,000 MW
  3. 3. ENERGY DEMANDS IN INDIA: (2011-12)
  4. 4. SMART GRIDS: Definition: A smart grid is a modernised electrical grid which sets up an automated two way communication between end-user and utility to deliver power efficiently using information and communication technology.
  5. 5. Features :  Significantly reduces the environmental impact of the whole electricity supply system.  Enhances the reliability and security levels.  Provides the end-user for choice of supply.  Bi-directional energy flow.  The load supported by smart grids will vary periodically depending upon the necessity of the end-user.  Peak curtailment.  Paves way for the usage of renewable resources.
  6. 6. Features :
  7. 7. current grid system :  In the present scenario , the power generation is localised and built around localities. This kind of an electrical grid is devised to cater for small energy demands. It is designed to deliver electricity to the consumers’ s residence and bill them once a month.  The current grid is of a one way interaction format and hence makes it difficult for the grid to respond to the ever changing demands of the consumers.
  8. 8. Current grid system: Localized Grid
  9. 9. Smart grids : The smart grid is an advancement of the present electrical grid system . Smart grids establish a two way communication between the utility and the consumer efficiently. This system enables new technologies to be integrated such as wind, solar etc. energy production. This grid helps us manage the ever changing electricity needs. In the smart grid system , utility centres are interconnected.
  10. 10. Smart Grid System Centralized grid
  11. 11. CURRENT GRID SYSTEM SMART GRID SYSTEM The Smart Two Way Communication :
  12. 12. What does the concept of Smart Grid look like? Electrical Infrastructure Intelligence Infrastructure
  13. 13. Working of a smart grid : The present electrical grid system uses a one-way communication and bills the consumption once a month. Here, the power is generated in the utility, routed towards the transformers and then sent to the houses. In the above mentioned grid system, conservation of energy is possible only to a certain extent. Keeping in mind, the difficulty in communication and the energy losses, we can adapt to an improvised electrical grid system known as smart grid. This type of grid system supports a two-way communication between the utility and the end-user.
  14. 14. The working of a smart grid can be keyed down to four steps:  Generation  Transmission  Distribution  End-user GENERATION:- Presently, thermal, hydro and nuclear power provides maximum contribution to the total energy being produced in India. Smart grid technology gives an opportunity to use both renewable and non-renewable resources as well as usage of stored energy.
  15. 15. Electric transmission systems carry large amounts of power at high voltages from generators to substations. Transmission systems must be kept highly reliable to prevent blackouts and ensure robust energy markets. Synchrophasor technology has emerged as key enabler for improving transmission reliability and operations. Phasor measurement units (PMUs), phasor data concentrators (PDCs), wide area communications networks, and advanced transmission applications are building blocks of a smarter and more reliable transmission system. Contd…….. Transmission :
  16. 16. The transmission of electrical energy from utility to the transformers uses optical fiber technology and high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) which thus lowers electrical losses and is less expensive. Distribution : Contd….. The distribution system routes power from the utility to residence through power lines, switches and transformers. Utilities typically rely on complex power distribution schemes and manual switching to keep power flowing to the consumers.
  17. 17. A key component of distribution intelligence is outage detection and response. Along with smart meters, distribution intelligence will help to quickly pinpoint the source of a power outage so that repair crews can be immediately dispatched to the problem area. The smart grid distribution intelligence counter these energy fluctuations by automatically identifying problems , then rerouting and restoring power delivery. Utilities can further use distribution intelligence to predict and manage electricity usage with the co- operation of consumers leading to lower production cost. Outage response is one aspect of distribution intelligence that is commonly referred to as distribution automation (DA). DA may actually be the oldest segment of the Smart Grid, because utilities have been automating their distribution systems.
  18. 18. Distribution intelligence Black out due to bad weather Smart grid’s counter effect Repercussions of counter effect
  19. 19. Combining DA components with a set of intelligent sensors, processors, and communication technologies will lead to distribution intelligence. End user : End-users can be homes, commercial centers, buildings etc. These are connected to the smart grid via the smart meter. The smart meters control and manage the flow of electricity to and from the end customer and also provide information regarding the usage of power. Each customer has a discrete domain comprised of electricity premise and bidirectional communications networks. Customer may as well generate, store and feed electricity back into the smart grid.
  20. 20. Smart meter appliances Smart Smart appliances can be monitored using TV, smart phone , web.
  21. 21. Requirements : Hardware Components :  Smart meters A smart meter is a combination of a sensor (that can measure and communicate electricity consumption in real-time), logic (that enables communication with the operator), and an actuator (that enables active control of consumer appliances). Real-time pricing of electricity consumption will provide customers with the incentive to load shift from peak to off-peak periods (demand response) and to promote energy efficiency measures.
  22. 22.  Advanced meter reading Advanced Meter Reading ( identifies in detail, and often in real-time, the electricity consumption of a house, building, or entire company.  Advanced meter management Advanced Meter Management (AMM) is the ability to receive control signals from the operator and to switch off local electric appliances. Within 2020, direct control will predominantly be used in emergency situations to avoid blackouts. Smart meters will automatically detect and Contd……
  23. 23. report faults, which will enable distribution grid operators to perform necessary remedial actions more quickly.  Smart Home A Smart Home is a home where all appliances are automated. For a house to be made smart the following are the necessities:  Smart thermostats : A smart thermostat is one which can teach itself the best way to manage temperature control in the home. This little device will run your home temperature settings all by itself and can help save money on energy bills. Contd…..
  24. 24. It learns when you wake up and will adjust the temperature to a comfortable setting before your feet hit the floor in the morning. It will also learn when you go to work, come home from work, and can even sense your presence in the home and will adjust the temperature accordingly. A thermostat has motion detectors to adjust temperatures to the perfect setting regardless if you are home or away. If you’re not satisfied with how the thermostat is being automated you can control it with your smartphone from anywhere. All these little adjustments will definitely save your money. 50% of the average homeowner’s electric bill goes to heating and cooling. It will also adjust itself automatically depending on the weather because it plugs into your Wi-Fi and checks forecasts. Smart Thermostats :
  25. 25. Smart thermostats :
  26. 26.  Light occupancy sensors : Installing light occupancy sensors to turn off or on the lights has the potential to save money. A solution to that wasted energy is motion activated lighting sensors. A really easy way to implement this is by simply purchasing a motion sensor plug which fits in the old outlet. Then plug the light into the new sensor, attach multiple lights to it, and you’re done. There is another solution to controlling forgotten lights. Home automation systems can connect all lights to a computer program on your phone. You can simply monitor which lights are on and turn them off as needed.
  27. 27. Light occupancy sensors :
  28. 28. The smart grid uses information to communicate the personal habits of electricity consumers back to the energy companies. In essence if your household uses lots of electricity during peak times you’ll be charged a higher rate. In response appliances are being rolled out which have the capability of communicating with the smart grid. Not only will you be able to communicate with your refrigerator via your phone, your refrigerator, dishwasher, oven, and washing machine/dryer will all be able to communicate with the smart grid. Your appliances will automatically know optimal times to perform their functions. These times will be at the off-peak hours allowing you to save money by not incurring the higher rate.  Smart grid ready appliances :
  29. 29. Smart grid ready appliances :
  30. 30.  Smart Energy Glass : Collect and Save Power With these type of windows one can control the intensity of the natural light that penetrates the room and collect energy. In other words, the glass combines the properties of a normal window with those of solar panels. With this revolutionary design, the buildings will stop being “unproductive power drains” and generate their own energy.
  31. 31. Smart Energy Glass : Collect and Save Power
  32. 32. FACTS and energy storage devices : Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices are high power electronic devices that can perform control at a very high speed. Some are connected in shunt to the grid to provide reactive power and voltage control, while others are connected in series to provide control of power flow. FACTS devices provide the system operator with a measure of freedom in operating the system. FACTS devices have already been installed in many parts of the world. A Smart Grid will improve control and increase the benefits from using existing and new FACTS devices. Lithium-ion batteries enable simultaneous voltage control and control of active power balance in the grid, which is an additional advantage to current FACTS technology that primarily focuses on stabilising grid voltage.
  33. 33. Distributed Energy Storage will play a vital role in smart grids. Strategically located energy storage plants could serve various purposes, including: • Defer upgrades of lines and substation/ distribution transformers through peak load shaving. • Balance consumption and production of electricity. • Provide islanding capabilities during grid faults by supplying power to important loads. Stored energy Contd………
  34. 34. High speed sensors called PMUs distributed throughout their network can be used to monitor power quality and in some cases respond automatically to them. Phasors are representations of the waveforms of alternating current, which ideally in real-time, are identical everywhere on the network and conform to the most desirable shape. A wide-area measurement system (WAMS) is a network of PMUs that can provide real-time monitoring on a regional and national scale.  Phasor measurement units :
  35. 35. Phasor measurement units :
  36. 36. CONTROL Systems : ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (EMS) are systems of computer-aided tools used by power system operators to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the power system, including generation, transmission & distribution (T&D), and consumption. Thus, the EMS represents the “brains” of the power grid. Transmission Systems today employ SCADA systems as integral parts of EMS. SCADA performs the monitoring and control functions in EMS. SCADA systems are highly distributed. A SCADA control centre performs centralised monitoring and control, based on information received from remote stations. Problems with SCADA include slow refresh rate, latency, and skew, resulting In lower accuracy and “visibility” of the power system state. Contd…..
  37. 37. Traditional EMS applications are model-based, and thus the results are only as good as the accuracy of the model. Measurement-based applications do not suffer from this. WAMPACS analyse the data transmitted from PMU’s deployed over a large portion of the power system substations and transmission lines. Data from multiple locations are synchronized to a common time reference using GPS. Important uses of WAMPACS (Wide area measurement protection and control system) include state estimation and advanced real-time visualisation of power systems, real time congestion management, stability enhancement, improved damping of inter-area oscillations, the design of advanced warning systems and adaptive protection systems, validation of system models, and analyses of the causes of blackouts.
  38. 38. Comparison between SCADA and PMU : DATA SCADA PMU Refresh rate 2-5 seconds 0.02-0.10 seconds Latency and skew Yes & yes Very low & no Compatibility Older communication technology Modern communication technology Behaviour Static Dynamic
  39. 39. Technical Issues :  Proper Network Laying  Short Circuit  Over Loading  Server Break Down  Error Detection  Upgradable  Peak Time Management  Customer Relations Management  Security  Smart Saving Of Energy  Smart use of renewable resources  Smart Home
  40. 40. Proper network laying: To lay a proper network in smart grid it is necessary to make thorough analysis of the existing WAN/LAN networks. It may be necessary to rebuild or replace a portion of this infrastructure. Some of the key areas to analyse are as follows:  Security: It is necessary to analyse whether the present network system can support virtual LANS , as it is a critical component to establish a secure smart grid.  Bandwidth : A Smart Grid implementation will regularly require massive, multiple-terabyte data transfers between strategic points of the WAN. We must know how much bandwidth is available for data packets to be transferred and whether the existing network can manage Contd…….
  41. 41. the movement of these data packets without compromising on the quality of service.  Robustness A robust network is difficult to break. This is the result of many factors including hardware, software, infrastructure management, transport medium, and the physical path that medium takes. Redundancy and geographic separation are both key. The use of SONET or other fast- failover fibre technologies is typical. You cannot hang any part of the Smart Grid core on a long radial branch and if you don’t use High Availability/Disaster Recovery architecture for Smart Grid systems and applications, you are placing your operation at significant risk.
  42. 42.  Resiliency Even the most robust network can fail, and every second of recovery time exacts a heavy toll on productivity. That’s why it is critical to ensure the resiliency of your network by selecting and configuring technologies and hardware from the back-office systems, through the WAN core to the end-point devices in the field (meters, capacitor controls, etc.). It does you little good to have a field RF Mesh network that can rebuild itself around a failure in seconds or minutes if the WAN takes eight hours to rebuild, or vice versa.  Required connectivity: If your WAN is configured in a ring topography, and your Smart Grid systems and feed-in/out points are distributed around that ring, you need to ensure the robustness and resiliency are
  43. 43. adequate between these critical points of the WAN.  Time Synchronization and Propagation: This synchronization takes place via the data network. Your WAN/LAN/ Field network must support the propagation of a common time reference, typically from a GPS synchronized source, down to the millisecond for some field devices such as fault indicators. Do not be surprised if your legacy systems (mainframe) can not make use of this signal. And Daylight Savings Time (DST) will become a thorn in your side. Operating all Smart Grid systems and applications on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is the easiest method to avoid DST issues.  Circuit Capacity The move to a true grid topology EDN requires the removal of circuit capacity and voltage level constraints to normalize power flow paths and provide the required operational flexibility. Standardizing Contd…..
  44. 44. on as few voltages and conductor sizes as possible is necessary to achieve this.  The Smart Grid system uses junction to junction fuse system.  Smart Fuses can also be used which are sensitive enough to overcome from the short circuit and it also helps to protect the electric machines. Over Loading:  The chances of overloading in smart grid system is very bleak , because here the user is restricted to use only a certain quantity of requested electricity.  If the customer wants more power, then that extra energy is drawn from the utility on request.
  45. 45. Server Breakdown :  If there is server break down, then smart grid has an alternative method to overcome from the server break down using the application of virtual server. Error Detection :  The smart grid system uses wave technique for error detection Upgradable:  The entire smart grid system is designed in such a way that it can be upgraded easily.  Smart Meters ,Smart Transformers, Substations , Servers ,etc. can be upgraded time to time and makes the smart grid system more efficient.
  46. 46. Peak Time management:  To reduce demand during the high cost peak usage periods, communications and metering technologies inform smart devices in the home and business when energy demand is high and track how much electricity is used and when it is used. It also gives utility companies the ability to reduce consumption by communicating to devices directly in order to prevent system overloads.  prices of electricity are increased during high demand periods, and decreased during low demand periods. To keep up with constantly changing energy demands , utilities turn power plants on and off depending upon the amount of power needed at certain times of the day. The cost of deliver power depends upon the time of day it is used.
  47. 47. Electricity is more costly to be delivered during peak times because additional , often less efficient power plants must be used to deliver power. The smart grid will help us to manage and moderate the consumption of electricity with the co-operation of the consumers especially during peak demand times.
  48. 48. As a result utilities will be able to reduce their operating costs. By differing the usage of electricity away from peak times and having
  49. 49. Electricity production is more energy distributed throughout the day.
  50. 50. Customer Relations Management: Customer management, particularly regarding increased availability and reduced commercial losses, is key driver for the smart grid. India has a long way to go in customer management because most of its distribution companies are in various stages of updating and organizing their customer information. Utility customers are becoming more demanding and impatient. They expect utilities to produce such benefits as:
  51. 51.  ƒReduced outages  ƒLower bills  ƒIncreased awareness and control over energy consumption through better  information on usage patterns (the telecom industry has achieved something akin to this)  ƒMore choices for energy sources along with options to supply energy to the grid  ƒMore green and renewable choices to increase environmental sustainability (this pressure is greater now that the price gap between peak power, solar and diesel generation alternatives is closing).
  52. 52. Complete knowledge of customers and their needs will also allow utilities to influence consumers to shift peak demand consumption and protect customers from overconsumption. In addition, it will enable utilities to help customers comply with contract fulfilments, environmental and security regulations. This, in turn, will help utilities to manage their assets, improve customer service, and control costs. An important aspect of CRM is customer awareness (education) and participation. Customers will be important stakeholders in the smart grid and they will need to be more aware of the risks involved. For example, unless availability-based tariff customers modify their usage patterns, they will see higher bills. Also, because smart meters will be more accurate than current electromechanical meters, customers’ usage will be tracked more accurately and they may see higher bills. Last, the energy savings accrued through smart grids will need to be distributed and incentives to conserve energy will be needed. Customer participation will be important in all of these activities and will also help improve the smart grid’s overall governance and utility-wide implementations.
  53. 53. Security : Smart grid communications will play a critical role in maintaining high levels of electric system reliability, performance and manageability. But at the same time, the grid is increasingly subject to attack, as many of the technologies being deployed to support smart grid projects (such as smart meters, sensors, and advanced communication networks) are interoperable and open. Meeting the critical need for an integrated security infrastructure will require the establishment and implementation of a security framework for managing both physical and cyber security, as well as an accompanying security policy. In addition to reducing the system’s vulnerability to physical or cyber attacks, a comprehensive approach to security will help utilities better manage their systems, keep costs lower, and improve the
  54. 54. System’s resilience against security disruptions and data privacy invasions. This framework should cover: Physical safety and security Generation plant security Substation security  Utility regulatory compliance  Identity management  Access control  Threat defense Wide Area Network security Security management and monitoring.
  55. 55. Smart technique of Saving Energy :  Use Of RFID Sensors.  A smart converter can be used in an appliance which converts AC current to DC.  Multi-wire Connection must be avoided.  Smart Wiring.  Use Of Smart Switches.  Use Of Smart Technology.  Smart Home.
  56. 56. Smart Home :Smart Home
  57. 57. There is a broad consensus that smart grid deployments will provide environmental benefits, including significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. More than half of the potential emission reductions can be achieved through improvements in end-use efficiency and increased energy conservation enabled by the smart grid, as well as the integration of large-scale renewable energy projects into the grid. Smart grids can bring about environmental improvements by: Smart Grid and the Environment:
  58. 58. Managing peak load through demand response rather than spinning reserves.  Reducing transmission losses through better management of transmission and distribution networks. A recent study shows that a smart grid could reduce transmission and distribution losses by 30% . Monitoring equipment in real time, which will enable the redirection of power flows in response to early warnings of system problems, detect and remedy faults in a “self-healing” mode and keep important system components operating at high efficiency. Increasing transparency in electricity prices to help consumers understand the true cost of electricity by time of day. Giving continuous feedback on electricity use could reduce annual CO2 emissions by 31-114 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent in 2030 as consumers adjust their usage in response to pricing and consumption information.
  59. 59.  Integrating more renewable energy sources and energy storage, to support system operators by providing more real-time information to make decisions on selecting generation from clean energy sources, thus substituting renewable energy when possible.
  60. 60. Limitations of smart grids:  smart meters will be more accurate than current electromechanical meters, hence the customers’ electricity usage will be tracked more accurately and they may see higher bills.  Transitioning to new technology and processes  Managing public reaction and customer acceptance of the new meters  Ensuring the security of metering data  protecting the privacy of their personal data  Paying additional fees for the new meter  If consumers continue to use more and more electricity, it would negate the projected Environmental benefits  Disposal of the old meters
  61. 61. Renewable resources:  The renewable energy resources in India which contribute to development of power are:  Thermal energy  Hydro power  Nuclear energy  Solar energy  Wind energy  Biomass energy  Geothermal energy  Tidal wave energy
  62. 62. Integration of Renewables :  Net Zero – Energy / Water / Waste  Green Community – Self Sufficient & Reliant  Judicial Mix of various Technologies and Options for different use  Use or Supply  Draw or Store  Storage Options  Type of Use  Heating /Cooling  Illumination / Ventilation  Machine Operations  Appliance Powering ( Computers / Printers / Copiers / Faxes)  Domestic Appliances 5/9/2015
  63. 63. Integration of Renewables:  Choice of Current  AC or Dc  AC – DC  DC – AC  DC – DC  Switches and Disconnectors  Availability of Domestic DC Appliances - Power Packs  Connectivity to Grid – Size of Plant, Distance to Consumers  Control Strategy and Methodology – availability of software . 5/9/2015
  65. 65. POWERGRID’s initiative towards Smart grid:  Pilot Project in Northern Region.  Intelligent Monitoring & Control of the Interconnected Electric Power Grid Using Wide Area Measurements (WAM) for Western Region .
  66. 66. NR Pilot Project :  PMUs (Phasor Measurement Units ) with GPS system to be installed at four substations of Northern Region and PDC at NRLDC, Delhi.  (PMU Locations: Moga- 400 KV, Kanpur- 400 KV S/s, Vindhyachal- HVDC, Dadri- HVDC )  To use Phasor Measurements data for better situational awareness and technology evaluation using minimal hardware & software  Use of existing fiber communication link.
  67. 67. Intelligent Monitoring & Control of WR Electric Power Grid Using Wide Area Measurements (WAMs)  The Project is approved by CSIR & Funded by CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) under New Millennium India Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)  Along with POWERGRID other members of the consortium are:-  TCS-Leader  IIT Mumbai  Tata Power Company Limited (Tata Power) 5/9/2015
  68. 68.  Integrate isolated technologies : Smart Grid enables better energy management.  Proactive management of electrical network during emergency situations.  Better demand supply / demand response management.  Better power quality  Reduce carbon emissions.  Increasing demand for energy : requires more complex and critical solution with better energy management Why Smart Grid?
  69. 69. Drivers of Smart Grid :  Increasing demand:  High Aggregate Technical & Non Technical, Losses:18%-62%  Ageing assets…transformers, feeders etc.,  Grid to carry more power: Need for, Reliability and greater Security  Billing and collections: Profitability of distribution companies  Energy mix: Need for Renewable to reduce carbon footprint
  70. 70. Improvisation leads to …..  Deliver sustainable energy  Increased efficiency  Empower consumers  Improve reliability  Smart Grid
  71. 71. New Technologies for…..  Energy Storage to support a Resilient Smart Grid (Comparing & evaluating cost competitiveness of: Compressed air, pumped hydro, ultra capacitors, flywheels, battery tech, fuel cells.)  Smart Grid & Electric Vehicle Integration (How can electric Vehicle optimize the use of renewable energy resources, improve efficiency)
  72. 72. Bibliography :  www.wikipedia.com/smartgrid  www.smartgrid.gov  www.ge.ecomagination.com/smartgrids  www.smartgridnews.com  www.smartgrids.eu  www.indiasmartgrid.org  www.gridsmartohio.com  www.cisco.com/smartgrid  www.indiaieee.org  www.ieee.org/smartgrid , etc.  Understanding Smart Grids – By NETL ( National Energy Technology Laboratory)  The Smart Grid : BY Christian Hicks  Smart Grid Seminar Report : From www.pediain.com  The Smart Grid : Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy  By Litos Strategic Communication  The Smart Grid : By the Canadian Electricity Association  The Roadmap of Smart Grid : By International Energy Agency (IEA)  Boosting energy efficiency through Smart Grids : By Franco Davoli, Matteo Repetto (University of Genoa, Italy) etc.

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