SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 28
Presented by : Abhishek Dabra
Assistant Professor
 Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all
known life. Reproduction or procreation or
breeding is the biological process by which
new individual organisms are produced from
their parents.
Reproduction
Asexual
Sexual
 It is a pouch of deeply pigmented skin, fibrous
and connective tissue and smooth muscle.
 It is divided into two compartments, each consist
of one testis, one epididymis and the testicular
end of a spermatic cord
 Testes are the reproductive glands of the male
and are equivalent to the ovaries of the female.
They are surrounded by the 3 layers of tissues.
 Tunica vaginalis: It is double membrane,
outer covering of the testes.
During early fetal life, the testes develops at
lumbar region of the abdominal cavity just
below the kidneys.
They then descend into the scrotum taking
with them covering of peritoneum, blood and
lymph vessels, nerves and the deferent duct.
 Tunica albuginea: This is fibrous covering
beneath the tunica vaginalis that surrounds
the testes.
 Tunica vasculosa: consist of network of
capillaries supported by delicate connective
tissue
 The spermatic cord suspend the testes in the
scrotum. Each cord contain testicular artery,
testicular veins, lymphatics, a deferent duct
and testicular nerves which comes together
to form the cord from their various origin in
the abdomen.
 The cord is covered in sheath of smooth
muscle and connective and fibrous tissue.
 It passes upward from the testis through the
inguinal canal and ascends medially toward
the posterior wall of the bladder where it is
joined by the duct from seminal vesicle to
form the ejaculatory duct
 These are two small fibro-muscular pouches
lined with columnar epithelium.
 It consist of seminal fluid which form 60 %
bulk of the male semen.
 On its lower end seminal vesicle opens into a
short duct which further join the deferent
duct
 These are two tubes about 2 cm long, each
formed by the union of seminal duct and
deferent duct. They pass through the
prostate gland and join the prostatic urethra.
 It lies in the pelvic cavity in front of the
rectum and behind the symphysis pubis
surrounding the first part of urethra.
 It secrets a thin milky fluid that makes 30 %
of semen and give it its milky appearance.
 The male urethra provides a common path
for the flow of urine and semen. It consist of
three parts:
1. Prostatic urethra
2. Membranous urethra
3. Spongiose or penile urethra
The female reproductive organs, or genitalia, are divided
into external and internal organs.
1. External genitalia:
The external genitalia are known collectively as the vulva,
and consist of the labia majora and labia minora, the
clitoris, the vaginal orifice, the vestibule, the hymen and
the vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands).
i. Labia Majora:
These are the two large folds which form the boundary of
the vulva. They are composed of skin, fibrous tissue and fat
and contain large numbers of sebaceous glands.
ii. Labia minora:
These are two smaller folds of skin between the labia
majora, containing numerous sebaceous glands.
Parts of female reproductive system
iii. Clitoris
 The clitoris corresponds to the penis in the male and
contains sensory nerve endings and erectile tissue
but it has no reproductive significance.
iv. Hymen
 The hymen is a thin layer of mucous membrane
which partially occludes the opening of the vagina. It
is normally incomplete to allow for passage of
menstrual flow.
v. Vestibular glands
 The vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands) are
situated one on each side near the vaginal opening.
They secrete mucus that keeps the vulva moist
2. Internal genitalia:
i. Vagina:
 The vagina is a fibro-muscular tube lined with stratified
squamous epithelium, connecting the external and
internal organs of reproduction. It runs obliquely
upwards and backwards at an angle of about 45°
between the bladder in front and rectum and anus
behind.
 The vagina has three layers: an outer covering of areolar
tissue, a middle layer of smooth muscle and an inner
lining of stratified squamous epithelium that forms
ridges or rugae. It has no secretory glands but the
surface is kept moist by cervical secretions.
 Between puberty and the menopause, Lactobacillus
acidophilus bacteria are normally present, which secrete
lactic acid, maintaining the pH between 4.9 and 3.5. The
acidity inhibits the growth of most other microbes that
may enter the vagina from the perineum.
2. Uterus:
 The uterus is a hollow muscular pear-shaped organ. It
lies in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and
the rectum. The parts of the uterus are the fundus, body
and cervix.
i. The fundus: This is the dome-shaped part of the uterus
above the openings of the uterine tubes.
ii. The body: This is the main part. It is narrowest inferiorly
at the internal os where it is continuous with the cervix.
iii. The cervix ('neck' of the uterus): This protrudes through
the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the
external os.
Structure of the uterus:
i. Perimetrium:
It is an outer serous membrane of the uterus. This layer
secrete a lubricating fluid that helps to reduce friction.
The perimetrium is also the part of peritoneum that covers
some of the organs of pelvis.
ii. Myometrium:
This is the thickest layer of tissue in the uterine wall. It is a
mass of smooth muscle fibers interlaced with areolar
tissue, blood vessels and nerves.
iii. Endometrium:
This consists of columnar epithelium containing a large
number of mucus-secreting tubular glands. It is divided
functionally into two layers.
 The functional layer is the upper layer and it thickens
and becomes rich in blood vessels in the first half of the
menstrual cycle. If the ovum is not fertilized and does not
implant, this layer is shed during menstruation.
 The basal layer lies next to the myometrium, and is not
lost during menstruation. It is the layer from which the
fresh functional layer is regenerated during each cycle.
3. Uterine tubes (Fallopian tubes):
i. The uterine tubes are about 10 cm long and extend
from the sides of the uterus between the body and the
fundus.
ii. The end of each tube has fingerlike projections called
fimbriae which is in close association with the ovary.
iii. The uterine tubes convey the ovum from the ovary to
the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary movement. The
mucus secreted by the lining membrane provides ideal
conditions for movement of ova and spermatozoa.
iv. Fertilization of the ovum usually takes place in the
uterine tube, and the zygote is propelled into the
uterus for implantation
4. Ovaries:
 The ovaries are the female gonads, or glands. They are
2.5 to 3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick. Each is
attached to the upper part of the uterus by the ovarian
ligament and to the back of the broad ligament by a
broad band of tissue, the mesovarium. Blood vessels and
nerves pass to the ovary through the mesovarium
The ovaries have two layers of tissue.
 The medulla. This lies in the centre and consists of
fibrous tissue, blood vessels and nerves.
 The cortex. This surrounds the medulla. It has
framework of connective tissue, or stroma, covered by
germinal epithelium.
 It contains ovarian follicles in various stages of maturity,
each of which contains an ovum.
 Before puberty the ovaries are inactive but the stroma
already contains immature (primordial) follicles, which
the female has from birth.
 During the childbearing years, about every 28 days, one
ovarian follicle (Graafian follicle) matures, ruptures and
releases its ovum into the peritoneal cavity. This is called
ovulation
Functions of the ovaries:
i. Maturation of the follicle is stimulated by follicle
stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary,
and oestrogen secreted by the follicle lining cells.
ii. Ovulation is triggered by a surge of luteinising hormone
(LH) from the anterior pituitary, which occurs a few
hours before ovulation.
iii. After ovulation, the follicle lining cells develop into the
corpus luteum (yellow body), under the influence of LH
from the anterior pituitary.
iv. The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone
and some oestrogen.
v. If the ovum is fertilized it embeds itself in the wall of the
uterus where it grows and develops an produces the
hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which
stimulates the corpus leteum to continue secreting
progesterone and oestrogen for the first 3 months of the
pregnancy, after which time this function is continued
by the placenta
vi. If the ovum is not fertilized the corpus luteum
degenerates and a new cycle begins with menstruation.
At the site of the degenerate corpus luteum an inactive
mass of fibrous tissue forms, called the corpus albicans.
vii. Sometimes more than one follicle matures at a time,
releasing two or more ova in the same cycle. When this
happens and the ova are fertilised the result is a
multiple pregnancy.
The menstrual (sexual) cycle:
This is a series of events, occurring regularly in females
every 26 to 30 days throughout the childbearing period of
about 36 years.
 The cycle consists of a series of changes that take place
concurrently in the ovaries and uterine walls, stimulated
by changes in the blood concentrations of hormones.
Hormones secreted in the cycle are regulated by negative
feedbackmechanisms.
 The hypothalamus secretes luteinizing hormone releasing
hormone (LHRH) which stimulates the anterior pituitary to
secrete:
a) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which promotes the
maturation of ovarian follicles and the secretion of
oestrogen, leading to ovulation
b) luteinizing hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation,
stimulates the development of the corpus luteum and
the secretion of progesterone.
c) The average length of the menstrual cycle is about 28
days. By convention the days of the cycle are numbered
from the beginning of the menstrual phase of the
menstrual cycle which usually lasts about 4 days.
d) This is followed by the proliferative phase (about 10
days), then by the secretory phase (about 14 days).
1. Menstrual phase:
When the ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum starts to
degenerate. (In the event of pregnancy, the corpus luteum is
supported by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
secreted by the developing embryo.)
Progesterone and oestrogen levels therefore fall, and the
functional layer of the endometrium, which is dependent on
high levels of these ovarian hormones, is shed in
menstruation.
2. Proliferative phase:
a. At this stage an ovarian follicle, stimulated by FSH, is
growing towards maturity and is producing oestrogen.
b. Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the functional
layer of the endometrium in preparation for the
reception of a fertilised ovum.
c. The endometrium becomes thicker by rapid cell
multiplication accompanied by an increase in the
numbers of mucus-secreting glands and blood
capillaries. This phase ends when ovulation occurs and
oestrogen production declines
3. Secretory phase:
a. Immediately after ovulation, the lining cells of the
ovarian follicle are stimulated by LH to develop the
corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some
oestrogen.
b. Under the influence of progesterone the endometrium
becomes oedematous and the secretory glands produce
increased amounts of watery mucus.
c. This is believed to assist the passage of the spermatozoa
through the uterus to the uterine tubes where the ovum
is usually fertilised. There is a similar increase in the
secretion of watery mucus by the glands of the uterine
tubes and by cervical glands which lubricate the vagina
Menopause (climacteric):
The menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and
55 years, marking the end of the childbearing period. It may
occur suddenly or over a period of years, sometimes as long
as 10 years, and is caused by changes in sex hormone levels.
The ovaries gradually become less responsive to FSH and LH,
and ovulation and the menstrual cycle become irregular,
eventually ceasing. Several other phenomena may occur at
the same time including:
 short-term unpredictable vasodilatation with flushing,
sweating and palpitations, causing discomfort and
disturbance of the normal sleep pattern
 shrinkage of the breasts
 axillary and pubic hair become sparse
 atrophy of the sex organs
 episodes of uncharacteristic behavior sometimes occur,
e.g. irritability, mood changes
 gradual thinning of the skin.
 loss of bone mass that predisposes to osteoporosis.
 slow increase in blood cholesterol levels that predisposes
postmenopausal women to cardiovascular disorders.
Female Reproductive System Overview

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Digestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Digestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology IIDigestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Digestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology IIRAHUL PAL
 
Respiratory system
Respiratory systemRespiratory system
Respiratory systemShaik Afsar
 
Respiratory system
Respiratory systemRespiratory system
Respiratory systemSoneeshah
 
Respiratory notes
Respiratory notesRespiratory notes
Respiratory notesTia Hohler
 
The Respiratory System
The Respiratory SystemThe Respiratory System
The Respiratory SystemAbhay Rajpoot
 
Cardiovascular system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.
Cardiovascular  system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.Cardiovascular  system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.
Cardiovascular system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.RAHUL PAL
 
Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester
Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester
Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester ZaibaFathima8
 
Lymphatic system
Lymphatic systemLymphatic system
Lymphatic systemEneutron
 
Anatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The HeartAnatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The Heartshabeel pn
 
Respiratory System
Respiratory SystemRespiratory System
Respiratory SystemAsad Kamran
 
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive system
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive systemAnatomy and physiology of Digestive system
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive systemDhruvi Prajapati
 
Anatomy of Respiratory System
Anatomy of Respiratory SystemAnatomy of Respiratory System
Anatomy of Respiratory SystemPrincyLodhi
 
Unit 1 a&p digestive system cti
Unit 1 a&p digestive system ctiUnit 1 a&p digestive system cti
Unit 1 a&p digestive system ctiKatie Kaps
 
The urinary system
The urinary systemThe urinary system
The urinary systemSohel Daria
 
Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology
Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology
Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology yousaf shah
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Lymphatic system
Lymphatic systemLymphatic system
Lymphatic system
 
Digestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Digestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology IIDigestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Digestive System - Human Anatomy & Physiology II
 
Respiratory system
Respiratory systemRespiratory system
Respiratory system
 
Respiratory system
Respiratory systemRespiratory system
Respiratory system
 
Respiratory notes
Respiratory notesRespiratory notes
Respiratory notes
 
The Respiratory System
The Respiratory SystemThe Respiratory System
The Respiratory System
 
Cardiovascular system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.
Cardiovascular  system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.Cardiovascular  system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.
Cardiovascular system- Human Anatomy & Physiology 1st.
 
Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester
Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester
Respiratory system B pharmacy 2nd semester
 
Lymphatic system
Lymphatic systemLymphatic system
Lymphatic system
 
Human digestive system
Human digestive systemHuman digestive system
Human digestive system
 
Anatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The HeartAnatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The Heart
 
Respiratory System
Respiratory SystemRespiratory System
Respiratory System
 
Lymphatic System
Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System
Lymphatic System
 
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive system
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive systemAnatomy and physiology of Digestive system
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive system
 
Anatomy of Respiratory System
Anatomy of Respiratory SystemAnatomy of Respiratory System
Anatomy of Respiratory System
 
Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular systemCardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system
 
Unit 1 a&p digestive system cti
Unit 1 a&p digestive system ctiUnit 1 a&p digestive system cti
Unit 1 a&p digestive system cti
 
Digestive system
Digestive systemDigestive system
Digestive system
 
The urinary system
The urinary systemThe urinary system
The urinary system
 
Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology
Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology
Respiratory System Anatomy & Physiology
 

Ähnlich wie Female Reproductive System Overview

Femalereproductivesystem
FemalereproductivesystemFemalereproductivesystem
FemalereproductivesystemSoneeshah
 
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.DR .PALLAVI PATHANIA
 
Reproductive System
Reproductive SystemReproductive System
Reproductive SystemMayur Gaikar
 
Human Reproduction
Human ReproductionHuman Reproduction
Human ReproductionPunya M
 
Human Reproducton and biological change.pptx
Human Reproducton and biological change.pptxHuman Reproducton and biological change.pptx
Human Reproducton and biological change.pptxbholu803201
 
female reproductive system.pptx
female reproductive system.pptxfemale reproductive system.pptx
female reproductive system.pptxKalanaDenuwan
 
HAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACY
HAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACYHAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACY
HAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACYchristinajohn24
 
Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system Rani Gurudasani
 
Genetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organs
Genetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organsGenetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organs
Genetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organsSantosh Kumari
 
reproductive system anatomy.pptx
reproductive system anatomy.pptxreproductive system anatomy.pptx
reproductive system anatomy.pptxMitalisolanki30
 
Reproductive system
Reproductive systemReproductive system
Reproductive systemNisha Mhaske
 
Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive system
Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive systemAnatomy & physiology of female reproductive system
Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive systemDeeps Gupta
 
HUMAN REPRODUCTION.pptx
HUMAN  REPRODUCTION.pptxHUMAN  REPRODUCTION.pptx
HUMAN REPRODUCTION.pptxbarunmahto001
 
Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System..pdf
Anatomy & Physiology of  Female Reproductive System..pdfAnatomy & Physiology of  Female Reproductive System..pdf
Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System..pdfNasirAli777740
 
178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt
178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt
178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.pptsadiaahmad30
 

Ähnlich wie Female Reproductive System Overview (20)

Femalereproductivesystem
FemalereproductivesystemFemalereproductivesystem
Femalereproductivesystem
 
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.
 
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.pptx
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.pptxREPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.pptx
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.pptx
 
Reproductive System
Reproductive SystemReproductive System
Reproductive System
 
Human Reproduction
Human ReproductionHuman Reproduction
Human Reproduction
 
Human Reproducton and biological change.pptx
Human Reproducton and biological change.pptxHuman Reproducton and biological change.pptx
Human Reproducton and biological change.pptx
 
female reproductive system.pptx
female reproductive system.pptxfemale reproductive system.pptx
female reproductive system.pptx
 
human reproduction in males and females
 human reproduction in males and females  human reproduction in males and females
human reproduction in males and females
 
HAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACY
HAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACYHAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACY
HAP 8 semester 2 PCI FIRST YEAR BPHARMACY
 
Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
 
Genetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organs
Genetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organsGenetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organs
Genetic development and anatomy of female reproductive organs
 
reproductive system anatomy.pptx
reproductive system anatomy.pptxreproductive system anatomy.pptx
reproductive system anatomy.pptx
 
Reproductive system
Reproductive  systemReproductive  system
Reproductive system
 
Reproductive system
Reproductive systemReproductive system
Reproductive system
 
Recount text
Recount textRecount text
Recount text
 
Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive system
Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive systemAnatomy & physiology of female reproductive system
Anatomy & physiology of female reproductive system
 
HUMAN REPRODUCTION.pptx
HUMAN  REPRODUCTION.pptxHUMAN  REPRODUCTION.pptx
HUMAN REPRODUCTION.pptx
 
Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System..pdf
Anatomy & Physiology of  Female Reproductive System..pdfAnatomy & Physiology of  Female Reproductive System..pdf
Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System..pdf
 
178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt
178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt
178-Anatomy-Reproductive-System.ppt
 
Female reproductive system jonathan
Female reproductive system jonathanFemale reproductive system jonathan
Female reproductive system jonathan
 

Mehr von AbhiDabra

1. Introduction to human body.pptx
1. Introduction to human body.pptx1. Introduction to human body.pptx
1. Introduction to human body.pptxAbhiDabra
 
5. Joint.pptx
5. Joint.pptx5. Joint.pptx
5. Joint.pptxAbhiDabra
 
3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx
3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx
3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptxAbhiDabra
 
Tissue level of organization.ppt
Tissue level of organization.pptTissue level of organization.ppt
Tissue level of organization.pptAbhiDabra
 
Cellular level of organization.pptx
Cellular level of organization.pptxCellular level of organization.pptx
Cellular level of organization.pptxAbhiDabra
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsAbhiDabra
 

Mehr von AbhiDabra (6)

1. Introduction to human body.pptx
1. Introduction to human body.pptx1. Introduction to human body.pptx
1. Introduction to human body.pptx
 
5. Joint.pptx
5. Joint.pptx5. Joint.pptx
5. Joint.pptx
 
3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx
3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx
3. Integumentary system (Skin).pptx
 
Tissue level of organization.ppt
Tissue level of organization.pptTissue level of organization.ppt
Tissue level of organization.ppt
 
Cellular level of organization.pptx
Cellular level of organization.pptxCellular level of organization.pptx
Cellular level of organization.pptx
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxAvaniJani1
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxSayali Powar
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 

Female Reproductive System Overview

  • 1. Presented by : Abhishek Dabra Assistant Professor
  • 2.  Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life. Reproduction or procreation or breeding is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced from their parents. Reproduction Asexual Sexual
  • 3.
  • 4.  It is a pouch of deeply pigmented skin, fibrous and connective tissue and smooth muscle.  It is divided into two compartments, each consist of one testis, one epididymis and the testicular end of a spermatic cord  Testes are the reproductive glands of the male and are equivalent to the ovaries of the female. They are surrounded by the 3 layers of tissues.
  • 5.  Tunica vaginalis: It is double membrane, outer covering of the testes. During early fetal life, the testes develops at lumbar region of the abdominal cavity just below the kidneys. They then descend into the scrotum taking with them covering of peritoneum, blood and lymph vessels, nerves and the deferent duct.  Tunica albuginea: This is fibrous covering beneath the tunica vaginalis that surrounds the testes.  Tunica vasculosa: consist of network of capillaries supported by delicate connective tissue
  • 6.  The spermatic cord suspend the testes in the scrotum. Each cord contain testicular artery, testicular veins, lymphatics, a deferent duct and testicular nerves which comes together to form the cord from their various origin in the abdomen.  The cord is covered in sheath of smooth muscle and connective and fibrous tissue.  It passes upward from the testis through the inguinal canal and ascends medially toward the posterior wall of the bladder where it is joined by the duct from seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
  • 7.  These are two small fibro-muscular pouches lined with columnar epithelium.  It consist of seminal fluid which form 60 % bulk of the male semen.  On its lower end seminal vesicle opens into a short duct which further join the deferent duct  These are two tubes about 2 cm long, each formed by the union of seminal duct and deferent duct. They pass through the prostate gland and join the prostatic urethra.
  • 8.  It lies in the pelvic cavity in front of the rectum and behind the symphysis pubis surrounding the first part of urethra.  It secrets a thin milky fluid that makes 30 % of semen and give it its milky appearance.
  • 9.  The male urethra provides a common path for the flow of urine and semen. It consist of three parts: 1. Prostatic urethra 2. Membranous urethra 3. Spongiose or penile urethra
  • 10. The female reproductive organs, or genitalia, are divided into external and internal organs. 1. External genitalia: The external genitalia are known collectively as the vulva, and consist of the labia majora and labia minora, the clitoris, the vaginal orifice, the vestibule, the hymen and the vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands). i. Labia Majora: These are the two large folds which form the boundary of the vulva. They are composed of skin, fibrous tissue and fat and contain large numbers of sebaceous glands. ii. Labia minora: These are two smaller folds of skin between the labia majora, containing numerous sebaceous glands.
  • 11. Parts of female reproductive system
  • 12. iii. Clitoris  The clitoris corresponds to the penis in the male and contains sensory nerve endings and erectile tissue but it has no reproductive significance. iv. Hymen  The hymen is a thin layer of mucous membrane which partially occludes the opening of the vagina. It is normally incomplete to allow for passage of menstrual flow. v. Vestibular glands  The vestibular glands (Bartholin's glands) are situated one on each side near the vaginal opening. They secrete mucus that keeps the vulva moist
  • 13. 2. Internal genitalia: i. Vagina:  The vagina is a fibro-muscular tube lined with stratified squamous epithelium, connecting the external and internal organs of reproduction. It runs obliquely upwards and backwards at an angle of about 45° between the bladder in front and rectum and anus behind.  The vagina has three layers: an outer covering of areolar tissue, a middle layer of smooth muscle and an inner lining of stratified squamous epithelium that forms ridges or rugae. It has no secretory glands but the surface is kept moist by cervical secretions.
  • 14.  Between puberty and the menopause, Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria are normally present, which secrete lactic acid, maintaining the pH between 4.9 and 3.5. The acidity inhibits the growth of most other microbes that may enter the vagina from the perineum. 2. Uterus:  The uterus is a hollow muscular pear-shaped organ. It lies in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The parts of the uterus are the fundus, body and cervix. i. The fundus: This is the dome-shaped part of the uterus above the openings of the uterine tubes. ii. The body: This is the main part. It is narrowest inferiorly at the internal os where it is continuous with the cervix.
  • 15. iii. The cervix ('neck' of the uterus): This protrudes through the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the external os. Structure of the uterus: i. Perimetrium: It is an outer serous membrane of the uterus. This layer secrete a lubricating fluid that helps to reduce friction. The perimetrium is also the part of peritoneum that covers some of the organs of pelvis. ii. Myometrium: This is the thickest layer of tissue in the uterine wall. It is a mass of smooth muscle fibers interlaced with areolar tissue, blood vessels and nerves.
  • 16. iii. Endometrium: This consists of columnar epithelium containing a large number of mucus-secreting tubular glands. It is divided functionally into two layers.  The functional layer is the upper layer and it thickens and becomes rich in blood vessels in the first half of the menstrual cycle. If the ovum is not fertilized and does not implant, this layer is shed during menstruation.  The basal layer lies next to the myometrium, and is not lost during menstruation. It is the layer from which the fresh functional layer is regenerated during each cycle.
  • 17. 3. Uterine tubes (Fallopian tubes): i. The uterine tubes are about 10 cm long and extend from the sides of the uterus between the body and the fundus. ii. The end of each tube has fingerlike projections called fimbriae which is in close association with the ovary. iii. The uterine tubes convey the ovum from the ovary to the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary movement. The mucus secreted by the lining membrane provides ideal conditions for movement of ova and spermatozoa. iv. Fertilization of the ovum usually takes place in the uterine tube, and the zygote is propelled into the uterus for implantation
  • 18. 4. Ovaries:  The ovaries are the female gonads, or glands. They are 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick. Each is attached to the upper part of the uterus by the ovarian ligament and to the back of the broad ligament by a broad band of tissue, the mesovarium. Blood vessels and nerves pass to the ovary through the mesovarium The ovaries have two layers of tissue.  The medulla. This lies in the centre and consists of fibrous tissue, blood vessels and nerves.  The cortex. This surrounds the medulla. It has framework of connective tissue, or stroma, covered by germinal epithelium.
  • 19.  It contains ovarian follicles in various stages of maturity, each of which contains an ovum.  Before puberty the ovaries are inactive but the stroma already contains immature (primordial) follicles, which the female has from birth.  During the childbearing years, about every 28 days, one ovarian follicle (Graafian follicle) matures, ruptures and releases its ovum into the peritoneal cavity. This is called ovulation
  • 20. Functions of the ovaries: i. Maturation of the follicle is stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary, and oestrogen secreted by the follicle lining cells. ii. Ovulation is triggered by a surge of luteinising hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary, which occurs a few hours before ovulation. iii. After ovulation, the follicle lining cells develop into the corpus luteum (yellow body), under the influence of LH from the anterior pituitary. iv. The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone and some oestrogen.
  • 21. v. If the ovum is fertilized it embeds itself in the wall of the uterus where it grows and develops an produces the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which stimulates the corpus leteum to continue secreting progesterone and oestrogen for the first 3 months of the pregnancy, after which time this function is continued by the placenta vi. If the ovum is not fertilized the corpus luteum degenerates and a new cycle begins with menstruation. At the site of the degenerate corpus luteum an inactive mass of fibrous tissue forms, called the corpus albicans. vii. Sometimes more than one follicle matures at a time, releasing two or more ova in the same cycle. When this happens and the ova are fertilised the result is a multiple pregnancy.
  • 22. The menstrual (sexual) cycle: This is a series of events, occurring regularly in females every 26 to 30 days throughout the childbearing period of about 36 years.  The cycle consists of a series of changes that take place concurrently in the ovaries and uterine walls, stimulated by changes in the blood concentrations of hormones. Hormones secreted in the cycle are regulated by negative feedbackmechanisms.  The hypothalamus secretes luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete: a) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which promotes the maturation of ovarian follicles and the secretion of oestrogen, leading to ovulation
  • 23. b) luteinizing hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation, stimulates the development of the corpus luteum and the secretion of progesterone. c) The average length of the menstrual cycle is about 28 days. By convention the days of the cycle are numbered from the beginning of the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle which usually lasts about 4 days. d) This is followed by the proliferative phase (about 10 days), then by the secretory phase (about 14 days). 1. Menstrual phase: When the ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum starts to degenerate. (In the event of pregnancy, the corpus luteum is supported by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) secreted by the developing embryo.)
  • 24. Progesterone and oestrogen levels therefore fall, and the functional layer of the endometrium, which is dependent on high levels of these ovarian hormones, is shed in menstruation. 2. Proliferative phase: a. At this stage an ovarian follicle, stimulated by FSH, is growing towards maturity and is producing oestrogen. b. Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the functional layer of the endometrium in preparation for the reception of a fertilised ovum. c. The endometrium becomes thicker by rapid cell multiplication accompanied by an increase in the numbers of mucus-secreting glands and blood capillaries. This phase ends when ovulation occurs and oestrogen production declines
  • 25. 3. Secretory phase: a. Immediately after ovulation, the lining cells of the ovarian follicle are stimulated by LH to develop the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some oestrogen. b. Under the influence of progesterone the endometrium becomes oedematous and the secretory glands produce increased amounts of watery mucus. c. This is believed to assist the passage of the spermatozoa through the uterus to the uterine tubes where the ovum is usually fertilised. There is a similar increase in the secretion of watery mucus by the glands of the uterine tubes and by cervical glands which lubricate the vagina
  • 26. Menopause (climacteric): The menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 years, marking the end of the childbearing period. It may occur suddenly or over a period of years, sometimes as long as 10 years, and is caused by changes in sex hormone levels. The ovaries gradually become less responsive to FSH and LH, and ovulation and the menstrual cycle become irregular, eventually ceasing. Several other phenomena may occur at the same time including:  short-term unpredictable vasodilatation with flushing, sweating and palpitations, causing discomfort and disturbance of the normal sleep pattern  shrinkage of the breasts  axillary and pubic hair become sparse
  • 27.  atrophy of the sex organs  episodes of uncharacteristic behavior sometimes occur, e.g. irritability, mood changes  gradual thinning of the skin.  loss of bone mass that predisposes to osteoporosis.  slow increase in blood cholesterol levels that predisposes postmenopausal women to cardiovascular disorders.