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MR. ABHAY RAJPOOT
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare disorder in which your body's
immune system attacks your nerves. Weakness and tingling in your
extremities are usually the first symptoms. These sensations can quickly
spread, eventually paralyzing your whole body
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare but serious autoimmune disorder in
which the immune system attacks healthy nerve cells in your peripheral
nervous system (PNS).
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
(AIDP), the most common form in the U.S. The most common sign of
AIDP is muscle weakness that starts in the lower part of your body and
Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), in which paralysis starts in the eyes.
MFS is also associated with unsteady gait. MFS occurs in about 5
percent of people with Guillain-Barre syndrome in the U.S. but is more
common in Asia.
Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory
axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) are less common in the U.S. But
AMAN and AMSAN are more frequent in China, Japan and Mexico
Guillain-Barre syndrome may be triggered by:
Most commonly, infection with campylobacter, a type of bacteria
often found in undercooked poultry
Hepatitis A, B, C and E
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
Rarely, influenza vaccinations or childhood vaccinations
The exact cause of Guillain-Barre syndrome isn't known. The disorder
usually appears days or weeks after a respiratory or digestive tract
infection. Rarely, recent surgery or immunization can trigger Guillain-
Barre syndrome. Recently, there have been a few cases reported following
infection with the Zika virus.
Signs and symptoms of Guillain-Barre syndrome may include:
Prickling, pins and needles sensations in the fingers, toes, ankles or wrists
Weakness in your legs that spreads to your upper body
Unsteady walking or inability to walk or climb stairs
Difficulty with eye or facial movements, including speaking, chewing or
Severe pain that may feel achy or cramplike and may be worse at night
Difficulty with bladder control or bowel function
Rapid heart rate
Low or high blood pressure
Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). A small amount of fluid is withdrawn
from the spinal canal in your lower back. The fluid is tested for a type
of change that commonly occurs in people who have Guillain-Barre
Electromyography. Thin-needle electrodes are inserted into the
muscles your doctor wants to study. The electrodes measure nerve
activity in the muscles.
Nerve conduction studies. Electrodes are taped to the skin above your
nerves. A small shock is passed through the nerve to measure the speed
of nerve signals
Guillain-Barre syndrome affects the nerves. Because nerves control the
movements and body Breathing difficulties.
Residual numbness or other sensations. Most people with Guillain-
Barre syndrome recover completely or have only minor, residual
weakness, numbness or tingling.
Heart and blood pressure problems. Blood pressure fluctuations and
irregular heart rhythms (cardiac arrhythmias) are common side effects
of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Pain. Up to half of people with Guillain-Barre syndrome experience
severe nerve pain, which may be eased with medication.
Bowel and bladder function problems. Sluggish bowel function and
urine retention may result from Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Blood clots. People who are immobile due to Guillain-Barre syndrome
are at risk of developing blood clots. Until you're able to walk
independently, taking blood thinners and wearing support stockings
may be recommended.
Pressure sores. Being immobile also puts you at risk of developing
bedsores (pressure sores). Frequent repositioning may help avoid this
Relapse. Around 3 percent of people with Guillain-Barre syndrome
experience a relapse.
There's no cure for Guillain-Barre syndrome. But two types of treatments can
speed recovery and reduce the severity of the illness:
Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis). The liquid portion of part of your blood
(plasma) is removed and separated from your blood cells. The blood cells are
then put back into your body, which manufactures more plasma to make up for
what was removed. Plasmapheresis may work by ridding plasma of certain
antibodies that contribute to the immune system's attack on the peripheral
Immunoglobulin therapy. Immunoglobulin containing healthy antibodies
from blood donors is given through a vein (intravenously). High doses of
immunoglobulin can block the damaging antibodies that may contribute to
Self care deficit related to altered neurological status as
evidenced by patients inability to perform self care
Risk for complications related disease condition
Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirement related to
less intake of food as evidenced by weight loss
Disturbed sleep pattern related to hospitalisation as
evidenced by patient verbalization