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Transformer

  1. 1. Bhawabhuti Mahavidyalaya Amgaon Topic Name :- TRANSFORMER Presentedby :- Abhay M. Laxane (B.Sc.-I)
  2. 2. Contents :- • Father ofTransformer • Introduction ofTransformer • Definition • Classification • Construction •Working •Types • Applications • Losses • IdealTransformer
  3. 3. Father Of Transformer Otto Blathy(1860-1939) Fields Electrical Engineer Known for Electric transformer, parallel AC connection, and AC electricity meter
  4. 4. Modern transformer
  5. 5. Introduction:- Transformer is a static (or Stationay ) electrical device which can  Transfer the electrical power from one circuit to another . Does this with increasing or decreasing of voltage by decreasing or increasing of current .  Does this without change in frequency. Accomplish this by ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. .
  6. 6. What is Transformer ??? Transformer is not an energy conversion device, but it is device that changes AC electrical power at one voltage level into AC electrical power at another voltage level through the action of magnetic field but with a proportional increase or decrease in the current ratings., without a change in frequency.
  7. 7. Classification Of Transformers : In the terms of Numbers of Phases 1. Single PhaseTransformer 2. Three PhaseTransformer  Depending on the voltage level at which the winding is operated 1. Step-upTransformers 2. Step-downTransformer  Depending upon Construction of transformers 1. SHELL type 2. CORE type
  8. 8. •Single Phase Transformer •Three Phases Transformer
  9. 9. • SHELL Type Transformer Core sorrounded the considerable part of winding . •CORE Type Transformer Winding sorrounded the considerable part of core .
  10. 10. The transformer consists of soft iron core or the silicon steel core and two inductive windings attached to it i.e. primary winding and the secondary winding such that core and the windings are insulated from one another.To prevent insulation lamination is done on the core to provide low reluctance path for the magnetic flux. The winding provided to the AC source is known as primary winding and winding across which load is taken out is known as secondary winding.
  11. 11. Principle of operation :- The Principle of Operation of transformer is based Upon Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction which includes : 1)Self Induction 2)Mutual Induction
  12. 12. Principle of Operation Transformer works on the principle of Electromagnetic Induction of two coils , i.e. “When Current Flowing Through a coil changes , an induced e.m.f. is produced in the neighboring coil “.
  13. 13. Working :- When the primary winding is connected to AC mains supply, a current flows through it. Since the winding links with the core, current flowing through the winding will produce an alternating flux in the core.The changing magnetic flux links with the secondary & according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction induces an e.m.f. in it. EMF is induced in the secondary coil since the alternating flux links the two windings.Thus power is transferred from primary coil to secondary coil .The frequency of the induced EMF is the same as that of the flux or the supplied voltage.
  14. 14. Step-up transformer:- It convert a low voltage at high current into a high voltage at low current . In this type of transformer , numbers of turns of secondary coil is more than that in primary , i.e. , Ns>Np . here primary coil is made up of a thick insulated copper wire & Sec. coil is made of thin insulated copper wire .
  15. 15. Step-down Transformer:- It converts a high voltage at low current into a low voltage at high current . In this type of transformer , numbers of turns in secondary coil is less than that in primary ,i.e., Ns<Np . Here primary coil is made of thin insulated copper wire & secondary coil is made of thick insulated copper wire .
  16. 16. CurrentTransformer VoltageTransformer AutoTransformers Audio frequencyTransformers Radio frequencyTransformers Impedance matchingTransformers Resonant transformer Instrument transformers Poly-phase transormer
  17. 17. Power transmission : A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmiting electrical energy over long distances through wires. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward, transformers enable economical transmission of power over long distances .
  18. 18. Transformers can rise or lower the level of Voltage or Current . It can increase or decrease the value of capacitor , an inductor or resistance in an AC circuit. It can be used to prevent DC from passing from one circuit to the other. It can isolate two circuits electrically. Other Applications …
  19. 19. •Losses in Transformers Although a transformer is a very efficient machine as there are no moving parts in it , yet it suffers from a numbers of losses  Copper losses inTransformer(I²R)  Iron losses (Eddy Current losses)  Magnetic leakage Hysteresis loss
  20. 20. An ideal transformer is an imaginary transformer which does not have any loss in it, means no core losses, copper losses and any other losses in transformer. Efficiency of this transformer is considered as 100%. The resistance of the primary and secondary winding are negligible. Self-inductance of the winding & mutual inductance between them are very large . There are no energy losses with it so that its efficiency is 100% There is no any leakage of magnetic flux. Coefficient of coupling is K=1.
  21. 21. •Caution Transformer must not be connected to a direct source. If the primary winding of a transformer is connected to a DC supply mains, the flux produced will not vary but remain constant in magnitude and therefore no e.m.f. will be induced in the secondary winding except at the moment of switching on. Thus the transformer can not be employed for raising or lowering the dc voltage. Also there will be no back induced e.m.f. in the primary winding and therefore a heavy current will be drawn from the supply mains which may result in the burning out of the winding.

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