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Examination and Evaluation-ppt presentation.pptx

  1. Basic related concepts • Test: an instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior (How well) • Measurement: The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree of which an individual possesses particular characteristics. (How Much) • Evaluation: the systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which students are achieving instructional objectives (How Good) • Assessment: is “the gathering of information concerning the functioning of students, staff, and institutions of higher education”
  2. Basic related concepts • Assessment is “collecting evidence of (1) student performance on specified measures of development, (2) program strengths and weaknesses, and (3) institutional effectiveness” PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT: • improve the quality of student learning • Program Improvement • Connection to Institutional Mission
  3. Frames of Reference for Interpreting Test Scores • There are four frames of references for interpreting test scores: 1. Ability - Referenced, 2. Growth - Referenced, 3. Norm – Referenced:- Student performances are compared to a larger group. Usually the larger group or "norm group" is a national sample representing a wide and diverse cross-section of students. Students, schools, districts, are compared or rank-ordered in relation to the norm group. 4. The purpose of a norm-referenced assessment is to sort students and not to measure achievement towards some criterion of performance 5. Criterion – Referenced:- A test in which the results can be used to determine a student's progress toward mastery of a content area. Performance is compared to an expected level of mastery in a content area rather than to other students' scores.
  4. Frames of Reference for Interpreting Test Scores
  5. TYPES OF ASSESMENTS • Formative vs Summative Assessment • Formative Assessment/ Progress monitoring :- The gathering of information about student learning-during the progression of a course or program and usually repeatedly-to improve learning. • Summative Assessment:- The gathering of information at the conclusion of a course, program, or a career to improve learning or to meet accountability demands.
  6. TYPES OF ASSESMENTS • Screening vs Diagnostic assessment • Screening assessment- helps classify and identify students as at risk or not at risk for failure and if they may need extra or alternative forms of instruction. Used as predictive of future growth and development. The assessment is conducted at the beginning of the school year. • Diagnostic assessment:- helps teachers plan instruction and determine possible intervention strategies related to the special needs of the student. These assessments are conducted at any time during the school year when more in-depth analysis of a student’s strengths and weaknesses are needed to guide instruction. It is mainly used to students who are struggling.
  7. Evaluation • Evaluation means that you gather information to draw conclusions and make new predictions. • Good: Evaluation is a process of ascertaining or judging the value of something. • Wiles: Evaluation is a process of making judgments that are to be used as a basis for planning. • Ralph Tyler: Evaluation is the process of determining to what extend the educational objectives are being realized
  8. Aims, Needs and Significance of Evaluation • To evaluate the achievements of students. • To measure personality • To help in diagnosis • To act as a incentives • To help in prognosis(prediction) • To help in grouping • To measure fitness for admission • To help in selection of competition
  9. Role of Evaluation in Education • Teaching: Assessing the effectiveness of teaching, teaching strategies, methods and techniques. • It provides feedback to the teachers about their teaching and the learners about their learning. • Curriculum: The improvement in courses or curricula, texts and teaching materials is brought about with the help of evaluation. • Society: Evaluation provides accountability to society in terms of the demands and requirements of the employment market. • Parents: Evaluation mainly manifests itself in a perceived need for regular reporting to parents.
  10. Evaluation Process
  11. Examination • Examination is a sub system in a wider system of evaluation, which measures both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of a young human mind. • It reflects the changes takes place in different domains ( cognitive, affective and psychomotor) of one’s personality as a result of structured instruction.
  12. Evolution of Examination System • Started when Man has come into existence. • Since time, immemorial examinations are the inseparable components of Educational system because they are well accepted parameters to ascertain the level of excellence of students.
  13. Examinations Features • All the students are given the same task to perform, same time. • Students are not allowed to consult references and information sources while performing the task. • Students are not allowed to consult one another. • Students are expected to experience at least some sense of stress and urgency while performing the task.
  14. Types of Evaluation • Placement Evaluation: to determine students performance at the beginning of instruction, i.e. measures entry behavior. • Formative Evaluation: to monitor learning process during instruction, i.e. mid-term test. • Diagnostic Evaluation: diagnose learning difficulties during instruction, i.e. identifies causes of learning problems. • Summative Evaluation: to evaluate achievement at the end of the instruction, i.e. measure end of course achievement.
  15. Reasons for Evaluation • Motivation • Accountability • Equipment • Placement • Diagnosis • Evaluation of learning • Prediction • Program Evaluation
  16. Characteristics of Evaluation tool • Reliability: The reliability is a measure of the consistency with which the question, test or examination produces the same result under different but comparable conditions. • Validity: A valid Evaluation is one which actually tests what is sets out to test. • Objectivity: In testing and scoring • Sensitivity: Evaluation must be fair to all students. • Practicability: Evaluation procedure should be realistic, practical and efficient in terms of their cost, time taken and ease of application.
  17. Three Types of Learning/Teaching • Benjamin S. Bloom (1956), identified three domains of Educational activities: • Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) • Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) • Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
  18. THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN • The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by BenjaminS. Bloom 1956 are categorized as follows: • Knowledge: It tests whether students a has gained or can recall data or information. • Verbs used in the questions include: Define, Name, List, State, Recite, Recall, Repeat, Underline, Relate, Arrange, Order, Match, Label, Identify/Recognize, Record Describe. E.g. Name the parts of the cell labelled in the diagram. • Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. • Verbs used: Arrange, Describe, Classify. Discuss, Sort, Explain, Express, Identify, Translate, Interpret, Locate, Report, Restate, Extrapolate. E.g. describe the parts of the cell named above • Application: Use a concept in a new situation. Attempt to solve a problem with the information gained in class, to create a viable solution, or illustrate an idea or concept with the use of a diagram. • Verbs used include: Apply, Choose, Illustrate, Operate, Practice, Solve, Prepare, Schedule, Sketch, Measure, Demonstrate, Use. E.g. Illustrate the cell as it goes through various stages of cell division. • Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. • Synthesis: Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. • Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.
  19. Blooms’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
  20. Affective Domain • The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. • The five major categories are 1. Receiving : Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention. 2. Responding : Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. 3. Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values. 4. Organization: Organizes values into priorities. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. 5. Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner.
  21. Psychomotor Domain • Psychomotor Domain: includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor skill areas. • Development of these skills require practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision (exactness), distance, procedures, or techniques in execution
  22. The major categories of Psychomotor Domain • Imitation: Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality. Example: Copying a work, or cycling. • Manipulation: Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing. Example: Creating work on one's own, sitting on bicycle, holding handle; handling apparatus in scientific experiment. • Precision: Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be "just right." Getting required titer values in titration experiment • Articulation: Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal consistency. Example: Holding handle properly, peddling, balancing, etc. • Naturalization: Having high level performance become natural, without needing to think much about it. Riding bicycle perfectly.
  23. Types of Tests • Informal versus Standardized tests (ST): developed by classroom teachers but ST designed by specialists, administered, scored and interpreted under standard conditions. • Individual versus Group: • Mastery versus Survey: measure the degree of mastery of a limited set of specific outcomes, others measure general level of achievement over a broad range of outcomes. • Supply versus Selection: Example, Essay type vs Multiple choice type. • Speed versus Power: Number of items an individual can complete in a given time. Measure level of performance under ample power conditions. Power tests usually have the items arranged in order of increasing difficulty. • Objective versus Subjective: e.g. Multiple choice type and Essay.
  24. Types of Assessment Questions • There are mainly three kinds of questions - Essay, short answer and objective type. • Essay Type: commonly used tools of evaluation, • It deals with the outcome of learning (e.g. organising, summarising, integrating ideas and expressing in one's own way) Type of Essay Question Word Example Critical question words Analyse, Evaluate, Critically evaluate, Justify, Review, Assess, Discuss, Examine, To what extend Descriptive question words Define, Describe, Explain, Compare, Contrast, Identify, Outline, Demonstrate, Explore, Illustrate, Summarise, Clarify.
  25. Examples of Essay questions: • Evaluative recall :e.g. Why did the First War of Independence in 1857 fail? • Comparison of two things - on a single designated basis. e.g. Compare the contributions made by Dalton and Bohr to Atomic theory. • Comparison of two things - in general. e.g. Compare Early Vedic Age with the Later Vedic Age. • Decision - for or against. e.g. Which type of examination do you think is more reliable -Oral or Written. Why? • Causes or effects: Discuss the effects of environmental pollution on our lives. • Explanation : • Bringing out: The concepts of Joint Stock Company. Summary of some unit of the text or of some article.
  26. Cont: Examples of Essay questions: • Analysis (the word itself need not be involved in the question.) What was the role played by Mahatma Gandhi in India's freedom struggle? • Statement of relationship. e.g. Why is knowledge of Botany helpful in studying agriculture? • Classification: Classify the following into Physical change and Chemical change with explanation. • Application of rules or principles in given situations. • Discussion. • Criticism - as to the adequacy, correctness, or relevance. • New methods of procedure. Can you solve this mathematical problem by using another method? • Describe: • Justify: • Enumerate:
  27. Short Answer Questions • They usually take less than five minutes to read and answer, • The size of answer, space or specific instruction such as "In not more than 20 words ...“ • Examples: • Completion Type: • In the human eye light enters the (I) ...... which is surrounded by the part called the (2) ......As the amount of light increases this part (3) ...., but (4) .....a gain when the amount of light decreases. On reaching the (5) ..... at the back of the eye the light stimulates two types of nerve cell called (6) r. .....and (7) c ......
  28. Objective Type Questions • Multiple choice item: consists of a stem and a number of possible alternative responses. The stem’s function is to state the problem presented by the item. The alternatives consist of the correct answer and several distractors, usually four, • True/false:- has the form of a declarative sentence where the student is required to judge whether the sentence presented is true or false. • Matching item: is a series of multiple-choice items, each of which has a common set of alternatives. A matching exercise consists of two parallel lists, one containing the stimuli or stems, the other, the possible responses. • Fill in the blanks:- Consist of incomplete sentences with missing words. Students are supposed to use learnt knowledge to recall the missing word.
  29. Weightage to form Examinations S.NO Form of question Marks for each question % of marks 1. Essay type 8 32 2. Short answer 8 40 3. Objective 9 18 4. Map/figure 1or2 10 TOTAL 100
  30. Weightage in terms of Difficulties/Easiness • Examination setting and performance should have a normal distribution (a)Easy 15% (b)Average 70% (c)Difficult 15%
  31. Challenges of Examination • Three broad areas. 1. Questioning: Clear cut guidelines, number of questions, weightage of marks, syllabus coverage. 2. Conduct of Examination: Mass copying, dictation of answers, writing answers on black board, use of electronic devices, using muscle power to threaten invigilators, leakage of examination questions to students etc. 3. Evaluation: Biased, Hand writing, number of pages, Language, evaluating non teaching content scripts, less number of evaluators.
  32. Defective Examination • System of evaluation is limited to written examinations. Other tools and techniques like interview, observation, rating scales, check lists, projects not considered. • Lack of desired level of validity and reliability • Only cognitive domain is measured-memorization occupies dominant place. • Questions very few measuring Comprehension and application. Analysis, synthesis and evaluation hardly find a place in the question paper. • The test items lack variety of blooms categories (only essay type)
  33. Cont: Defective Examination • Evaluation of co-scholastic aspects like interests, attitudes, values, appreciation, adjustments, habits are not considered. • Personal-social qualities like, regularity, punctuality, discipline, cooperation and Leadership etc are missing. • Examinations lack definite aim, Elements of chance • Lowering of moral standard • Subjectivity, Heavy mental strain and Develop frustration • When done for purpose of business gains or fear for the job loss