UNIT I Lecture I Disorders spread by droplet infections.pptx
1. Tropical and Communicable Diseases
Lecturer in IUNC
MBA in Health, BSN
At the end of this unit, Students will be able to:
Discuss the factors/causes for Tuberculosis.
Share clinical manifestations of Tuberculosis.
Discuss management of Tuberculosis.
Explain the role of nurse in prevention and control of Tuberculosis
in hospital and Community setting.
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent infections of human beings
and contributes considerably to illness and death around the world.
It is spread by inhaling tiny droplets of saliva from the coughs or
sneezes of an infected person.
It is a slowly spreading, chronic, granulomatous bacterial infection,
characterized by gradual weight loss.
TB is the world’s second most common cause of death from
infectious disease after HIV/AIDS.
Tuberculosis is the
infectious disease primarily
affecting lung parenchyma is
most often caused by
It may spread to any part of
the body including meninges,
kidney, bones and lymph-
5. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infection caused by the
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that involves the lungs but may
spread to other organs. TB is a contagious disease that can infect
anyone exposed to MTB.
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a type of bacterium called
It's spread when a person with active TB disease in their lungs
coughs or sneezes and someone else inhales the expelled droplets,
which contain TB bacteria.
(Initial infection or primary infection)
Entry of micro organism through droplet nuclei
Bacteria is transmitted to alveoli through airways
Deposition and multiplication of bacteria
Bacilli are also transported to other parts of the body via blood
stream and phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages
Immune system has lodged in (Alveolar Macrophages)
Detects presence of pathogen and engulf the bacteria
Mycobacterium bacteria inhibits the Macrophages (phagosome+
Lysosome) to forms phagolysosome and remains protected inside
Starts replication inside macrophages.
Primary infection occurs.
Cell mediated immunity gets activated, surrounds the cell to forms
Leads to necrosis of tissues at infection site
Calcification of cone complex (Latent TB or Active T.B.)
16. Diagnosis Findings
Biopsy of the affected tissue (rare)
Chest CT scan
Acid- Fast Bacilli (AFB) tests are most often used to diagnose an
active tuberculosis (TB) infection
Sputum examination and cultures
Tuberculin skin test (also called a PPD test)
18. Risk factors
Close contact with some one who have active TB.
Immuno compromised status (elderly, cancer).
Drug abuse and alcoholism.
People lacking adequate health care.
Pre existing medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, chronic renal
Immigrants from countries with higher incidence of TB.
Institutionalization (long term care facilities)
Living in substandard conditions.
Occupation (health care workers)
19. Medical Management
The usual treatment is: 2 antibiotics (isoniazid and rifampicin) for 6
2 additional antibiotics (pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for the first 2
months of the 6-month treatment period.
20. Nursing Management
Ineffective breathing pattern related to pulmonary infection and
potential for long term scarring with decreased lung capacity.
Administer and teach self administration of medications ordered.
Encourage rest and avoidance of exertion.
Monitor breath sounds respiratory rates , sputum production and
Provide supplemental oxygen as ordered.
Encourage increased fluid intake.
Educate patient about etiology transmission and effects of TB.
Be aware that TB is transmitted by respiratory droplets.
Use high efficiency particulate masks for high risk procedures
Educate patient to control the spread of infection by covering
mouth and nose while coughing and sneezing.
Isolation of patient.
Instruct about risk of drug resistance if drug regimen is not strictly
and continuously followed.
Carefully monitor vital signs and observe for temperature changes.
Explain that TB is a communicable disease and that taking
medications is most effective way of preventing transmission
Instruct about medications schedule and side effects
Ventilate the room
Cover the mouth
Finish entire course of medication
Good ventilation: as TB can remain suspended in the air for several
hours with no ventilation.
Good hygiene: covering the mouth and nose when coughing or
sneezing reduces the spread of Tb bacteria.