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Introduction to community health by Imran Ahmed Abdulkadir BSPH, MSc. PTH

  1. Introduction to Community Health Imran Ahmed Abdulkadir BSPH, MSc. PTH Feb, 2018
  2. Concept of Health • Health is a common term in most cultures and most people find it difficult to define. • In fact all communities have their concepts of health. • The oldest definition of health is: “Absence of disease”
  3. Changing Concept of Health Biomedical concept • Traditionally, health has been viewed a “Absence of disease”, and if one was free from disease, then the person was considered healthy. Ecological concept • Ecologists viewed health as “dynamic equilibrium between man and his environment.
  4. Changing Concept cont. Psychosocial concept • Contemporary development in social sciences revealed that health is not a biomedical phenomenon, but one which is influenced by social, psychological, cultural, economic and political factors of the people concerned. Holistic concept • This model is a synthesis of all the above concepts. It implies that all sectors of the society have an effect on health.
  5. WHO definition of health • “A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. • Recently this statement has been expanded to include the ability to lead a “socially and economically productive life”. • limitations of this definition………
  6. • Some argue that health cannot be defined as a 'state' at all, but must be seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living and of the changing meanings we give to life. • It is a dynamic State.
  7. New philosophy of health • In recent years a new philosophy of health, may be stated as: • Health is fundamental human right. • Health is the essence of productive life. • Health is intersectoral. • Health is an integral part of development. • Health is central to the concept of quality of life. • Health involves individuals, state & international responsibility. • Health is a world-wide social goal.
  8. Determinants of Health • Many factors combine together to affect the health of individuals and communities. • Whether people are healthy or not, is determined by their circumstances and environment. • Common determinants of health: • Genetic factors (biological) • Environmental factors • Behavioral and socio-cultural • Health care services – utilization
  9. Genetic factors (biological) • Genetic makeup (heredity) • It is permanent and cannot be altered • Transmitted by hereditarily. • No treatment
  10. Environmental factors • Environmental factors that could influence health include: • Physical environment and life support: water, air, soil, and climate etc. • Biological factors: plants, animals, microorganisms and Biological waste. • Chemical factors: industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, air pollution, etc. • The social and economic environment: income level, access to health care, housing , education, occupation and politics etc. • Socio-cultural: beliefs and traditions; FGM
  11. Behavioral • Behavioral (life style) • Recently life style by itself received an increased amount of attention as a major determinant of health. • Life style of individuals affects their health directly or indirectly. • For example: Cigarette smoking, chewing chad, eating contaminated food, Unsafe sexual practice, etc.
  12. Health care services – utilization • Health care organizations in terms of their resource in human power, equipments, money and so on determine the health of people. • Availability and utilization of health services • Should include comprehensive services • Need based essential • Accessible and affordable cost • Socially acceptable • Equitably distributed • Quality of care.
  13. What is Public Health? • The sum of all official or governmental efforts to promote, protect, and preserve the people’s health. • “The activities that ensure conditions in which people can be healthy. These activities include community wide efforts to identify, prevent, and combat threats to the health of the public. “
  14. Public health • Public health is defined as the science and art of preventing diseases, prolonging life, promoting health and efficiencies through organized community effort.
  15. Different terms of Public Health • The following are different terms of Public Health: • Preventive Medicine • Community Health • Social Medicine • Community Medicine
  16. Preventive Medicine (Fayo-dhowr) • Preventive medicine is a part of public health and not a substitution to it. • It is a science and art of health promotion, disease prevention, disability limitation and rehabilitation. • Its objective is to prevent causative agents from its transmission and thereby halting the disease process.
  17. Social Medicine • It is the study of man as the social being in his total environment. • Its focus is on the health of society as a whole • It stresses the importance of social factors in the etiology of a disease. • It plays a major role in developing epidemiological methods and their application to the investigation of a disease. • Therapy consists of social and political actions for the betterment of conditions of life of a man.
  18. Community Medicine • It is the field concentrated on the study of health and disease in the population of defined community or group. • Its goal is to identify the health problems and needs of defined population, and to plan, implement, and evaluate the extent to which health measures effectively meet these needs. • The practice of community medicine is concerned with group or population rather than individual patient.
  19. Community Health • Traditionally, a community has been thought of as geographic area with specific boundaries, for example, a neighborhood, city, country or state. • However, in the context of community health, a community is “a group of people who have common of characteristics; communities can be defined by location, ethnicity, age, occupation, interest in particular problems or outcomes, or common bonds. • Community is “a collective body of individuals identified by common characteristics such as geography, interests, concerns, or values.”
  20. Community health cont.. • The term community health in some countries has replaced the terms public health, preventive medicine and social medicine. • Community health refers to the health status of a defined group and the actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health. • Community health is the part of medicine which is concerned with the health of the whole population and the prevention of diseases from which it suffers.
  21. Clinical Medicine vs. Community Health • Community health refers to the health status of a defined group of people and the governmental actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health. • Clinical medicine is concerned with diagnosing and treating diseases in individual patients.
  22. Global health • Global health describes “health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions.” • Much of the rise in concern about global health problems comes from the speed of international travel and how easy it is for people who may be infected with a disease to cross borders into another country.
  23. Factors that affect the health of a community • There are a great many factors that affect the health of a community. as a result, the health status of each community is different. • These factors may include: • Physical factors • Geography, environment, community size, and industrial development. • Social and cultural factors • Beliefs and traditions, social norms • Socio-economic status economy politics • Individual behaviors
  24. The Essential community Health Services 1. Monitor the health status of the community. 2. Investigate and diagnose health problems and hazards. 3. Inform and educate people regarding health issues. 4. Mobilize partnerships to solve community problems. 5. Support policies and plans to achieve health goals. 6. Enforce laws and regulations to protect health and safety. 7. Link people to needed personal health services. 8. Ensure a skilled, competent public health workforce. 9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility and quality of health services. 10.Research and apply innovative solutions.
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