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NEW Applied sport psychology and sport sociology.ppt

  1. 1. M.Sc. Students
  2. 2.  Course Description:  This course is designed to help students to learn and apply various psychological and sociological theories, concepts and principles associated with sport.  Specifically, the course aims at discussing how psychological and sociological factors affect an athletes’ performance.  Moreover, students will have a better understanding of the sociological and psychological techniques applied in sport settings to enhance the athletes’ performances.
  3. 3.  Thus , issues like history and current status of sport psychology, understanding sport and exercise psychology as a science, personality and sports performance, styles and abilities, competitiveness and competitive anxiety, gender roles and sport behavior, attitudes and sport behavior, motivation in sport, aggression in sport, individual and group performance in sport, interpersonal relationships in sport groups, psychology of sport and exercise
  4. 4.  Cont’d  Understanding sociology in the context of sport, sport as a social phenomena, culture and society, Social significance of sport, the family and sport socialization, Contemporary issues in sport; school and sport socialization, impact of sport on education, law, and sport, sport and economy, sport and mass media, sport is an arena of resistance and conflict: collective behaviors and social movements.
  5. 5.  Course Objectives: At the completion of the course, the student will be able to:  Explain the basic concepts social phenomena related to sport  Describe the relationship between society and culture in the light of sport  Identify theories about sport and society  Develop on awareness of the practical method of sport.
  6. 6. Introduction 1.1Definition, History and the need for sport psychology 1.2 Current status of sport psychology 1.3 Clients of sport psychology 1.4 Issues of sport psychology
  7. 7. 2. Personality, Gender and attitude in sport 2.1 Gender role and sport behavior(G-ONE) 2.1.1. The role of gender in sport participation 2.1.2. The contribution of sport for gender equality 2.2 Attitude and sport behavior (G-TWO) 2 2 1 The nature of attitudes 2.2.2.Measuring attitudes 2.2.3.The formation of attitudes to sport 2.2.4.Attitudes to competition 2.2.5. Attitudes to sport and sporting behavior 2.3 personality and sport performance(G-THREE) 2.3.1.Social learning theory 2.3.2.Applying social learning theory to sport 2.3.3. Sources of influence on social development and sport
  8. 8.  3.Motivation in sport 3.1 . Defining motivation 3.2 . Theories of motivation 3.3. Strategies to enhance motivation  4 Effects of arousal and anxiety on performance 4.1. Arousal 4.2 . Arousal and athletic performance 4.3 . Anxiety
  9. 9.  5 Goal setting  5.1 Goal setting guide lines  5.2 common problem in setting goals  5.3 Psychological skill training  6 Aggression in sport  6.1 Hostile aggression  6.2 Instrumental aggression  7.Team cohesion  7.1 Definition of team cohesion  7.2 Types of team cohesion  7.3 Strategies to develop team cohesion
  10. 10. 8. Sport as social phenomena 8.1 Culture and society 8.2. Social significance of sport 8.3 The family and sport organization 9. Contemporary issue in sport 9.1 School and mass media 9.2 Sport as conflict resolution 9.3 Collective b/r and social movement
  11. 11.  Mode of delivery  Lecture method, individual assignment, and group assignment and presentation  IX. Mode of assessment and grading  Individual assignment ………………%  Group assignments and presentation … %  Final exam…………………………………%  Grading will be as per the university scale
  12. 12.  REFERENCES  Daniel L.Wann; Sport Psychology (1997) by prentice Hall. Inc.NewJersey  Richard H.Cox; Sport Psychology; Concepts And Applications(2007) by McGraw-Hill companies inc.( 6th .ed )  John Kremer and Deirdre Scully.(2005). Psychology in Sport, Tylor & Francis group, USA  Matt Jarvis.(1999). Sport Psychology, Routledge, Newyork
  13. 13.  Robert S. Weninberg, Daniel Gould.( 1995). Foundation in sport and exercise psychology, , human kinetics  Barry D. Mc Pherson, James E. Curts, and John W. Loy (1989). The social significance of sport, human kinetics book champain, Illinois  Moor S. (2001). Sociology alivel 3rd ed. Cheteuham UK
  14. 14. Definition of psychology PSYCHE + LOGOS (mind) (study) Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes.
  15. 15. Definition of sport psychology  A science in which the principles of psychology are applied in a sport or exercise setting.
  16. 16. Cont’d  It is the study of the effect of psychological and emotional factors on sport and exercise performance;  also the effect of sport and exercise involvement on psychological and emotional factors.
  17. 17. The short history of sport psychology  The first recorded study in sport psychology took place at the close of the nineteenth century.  Norman Triplett (1898) performed what is often cited as the first experiment in social psychology as well as the first in sport psychology.
  18. 18.  Triplett investigated the phenomenon of social facilitation, in which performance is affected by the presence of others.  He demonstrated that cyclists tended to cycle faster when racing against other cyclists than they did alone.
  19. 19. Cont’d  Triplett did not pursue further sport-related research, however, and it was not until the 1920s that the discipline of sport psychology was formally established.  In 1925, Coleman Griffith set up the Athletic Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois.
  20. 20.  Griffith, who also put sport psychology on the map by establishing a university course,  He also published two major text books and acting as a consultant-(gorsa) to professional sports teams, is often called the ‘father of sport psychology’.
  21. 21. Clients of sport psychologist  Athletes'  Coaches  Players  Sport Administrators  spectators
  22. 22. The three types of sport psychologist The work carried out by sport psychologists is quite varied. The European Federation of Sport Psychology (1996) recognizes three interrelated tasks for sport psychologists:  Research:  Educational: who received their academic training in sport science, are knowledge base and act as practitioner.  Counseling/clinical: a person who trained in clinical or counseling psychology and also has a deep interest in the sport setting
  23. 23. The role of sport psychologist  To solve the actual problem which can arise during competition and training.  To assess about social relation ship between the coach and athletes.  To tackle the development and other testing and selection process.  Assessing what problems that athletes are facing and predicting the relevant solution for those problems.  Assessing the existing relation ship between athlete and coach and also proposing what kind of r/n s/p should exist b/n them in future.
  24. 24. Motivation  Is the stimulus given to athletes to continue with and improve in their chosen sport.  Can come from a number of sources: coaches, teammates, supporters, and self help method.  The effective motivation of an athletes is an essential aspect to success in sport of every kind.  The motivational requirements of every athlete as unique as the athlete themselves
  25. 25. Factors on assessment of how athlete motivated  The nature of the sport played. e.g some activities need physical exerted  The motivation of the team often differ from that of individual athlete.  The level of athletic competition is often an important factors. e.g national Vs international competition.  The skill level of the athletes.  The gender of the athlete.  The age, and  The nature of the training and competitive reasons
  26. 26.  Motivation is rarely successful as a one time instrument.  Successful motivational technique are built on the r/n s/p b/n the athlete and a coach. -you should know the personality of athletes. -unique nature of the athlete.  One motivational technique may not be implement for others. - to motivate athletes you should set- goals. - each motivational goals is a progression.  Generally, motivation is a key element for the success of an athlete.
  27. 27. Three general theories on the origin of motivation 1. Instinctual model 2. Drive-model 3. Expectancy theories
  28. 28. Expectancy Theory  Argue that future out comes pull individuals to in to action.  Human tend to be multi-motivational( motivation by several out comes) rather than uni-motivational( motivation by single out comes).  In some instance, the motivation operating simultaneously with in an individual come in to conflict.  Researchers identified this in to 4 motivational conflicts.
  29. 29. Motivational conflicts 1. Approach- Approach motivational conflict. 2. Avoidance-Avoidance motivational conflict 3. Approach –Avoidance motivational conflict 4. Double Approach –Avoidance motivational conflict
  30. 30. I. Approach-Approach motivational conflict  occurs when an individual must chose between two or more positive out comes. e.g Two scholars II. Avoidance-Avoidance motivational conflict  Occurs when an individual must chose between two or more negative out comes. e.g two negative options
  31. 31. III. Approach -Avoidance motivational conflict  Occur when an individual presents with a single out comes having positive and negative component.  The conflict resides in the individuals decision to accept or reject the goal.(scholarship vs family) Give your own example IV. Double APP-AVO motivational conflict  Occur when an individual is simultaneously presented with two or more out comes, each having +ve and –ve components. Give your own example  The most difficult to resolve
  32. 32. Types of Sport Motivation 1. Intrinsic Motivation 2. Extrinsic motivation 3. Amotivation 1.Intrinsic Motivation  In general, intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity purely for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from doing the activity.  When a person is intrinsically motivated he or she will perform the behavior voluntarily, in the absence of material rewards or external constraints .  IM stems from the innate psychological needs of competence and self-determination.
  33. 33.  The kind of motivation that exhibits the highest level of self determination is referred as being intrinsic in nature.  Is a motivation that comes from with in .  Intrinsically motivated Individuals engaged in freely, with a full sense of volition(wish) and personal control.  There is no sense of engaging in the activity for a material reward .
  34. 34.  Activities that allow individuals to experience feelings of competence and self-determination will be engaged in because of IM. 2. Extrinsic Motivation  Contrary to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation (EM) pertains to a wide variety of behaviors that are engaged in as a means to an end and not for their own sake.  It was originally thought that extrinsic motivation referred to non- self-determined behavior, behavior that could only be prompted by external contingencies (e.g., rewards).  Comes in many forms, including awards, trophies, money, praise, social approval, and fear of punishment.
  35. 35. 3. Amotivation  Motivated individuals do not perceive contingencies between their actions and the outcomes of their actions.  They experience feelings of incompetence and lack of control (Deci & Ryan, 1985).  They are neither intrinsically motivated nor extrinsically motivated.  When athletes are in such a state, they no longer identify any good reasons for why they continue to train.  Eventually they may even decide to stop practicing their sport.
  36. 36.  He defines self-efficacy as “ beliefs in one’s capability to organize and execute the causes of action required to produce given attainment”.  Is a form of situation specific self-confidence.  The athlete is motivated to work hard to ensure success b/s he/she believes he/she can succeed.
  37. 37. Bandura’s propose four fundamental element effective in developing self-efficacy 1. Successful performance  The athlete must experience success in order for self- efficacy to develop.  With a difficult task, success is un realistic expectation, so the coach must insure success by initially reducing the difficulty of the task.
  38. 38. 2.Vicarious experience  Beginning athletes can experience success through the use of model.  In learning a new skill, the learner needs a template model to copy.  This can be provided by the instructor, a skilled team mate, or a film or video of skilled performer.
  39. 39. 3.Verbal persuasion  Usually comes in the form of encouragement from the coach, parents, or peers.  Helpful verbal statement that suggest that the athlete is competent. 4.Emotional Arousal  Emotional and physiological arousal are factors that can influence readiness for learning .  It is important to understand that we must be emotionally ready and optimally aroused in order to be attentive.  Proper attention is important in helping the athletes to master a particular skill and develop a feeling of efficiency.
  40. 40. Arousal  Arousal can be defined as general physiological and psychological activation of the person that varies on a continuum from deep- sleep to intense excitement.  Arousal is an energizing function that is responsible for harness (exploit) the body’s resources.
  41. 41.  The neurophysiology of arousal involves the autonomic nerve system(ANS).  ANS controls automatic, involuntary bodily function  This includes process people normally do not think about such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.  ANS composed of two divisions: 1. The sympathetic, and 2. parasympathetic division
  42. 42. 1. The sympathetic division  is the arousing division and prepare the body for action.  Because of this, it is often called “ the flight or fight”. 2. The parasympathetic division  is the calming division.  return the body to its normal state of arousal.
  43. 43.  Each individual has an optimal level of arousal.  When the sympathetic division is highly active, the individual is above his optimal level.  It is the responsibility of the parasympathetic division to return the individual to his/her homeostasis level of arousal.  Homeostasis: is a state of physiological balance or stability.
  44. 44. Arousal and Athletic Performance  The relationship between physiological arousal and motor performance has been of interest to psychologists since the early 1900S.  Research led to the development of two rather distinct theories: 1.The inverted –U theory and 2.drive –theory.
  45. 45. 1.The Inverted-U-Theory:-  is a theory reflecting the belief that the relationship between arousal and performance is non-linear and that  The highest levels of performance will be found when individual are moderately aroused , while the lowest levels of performance will be associated with low depicted graphically.
  46. 46. 2. Drive – Theory: -  In contrast to the inverted – U – hypothesis, supporters of drive theory argue that the relationship between arousal and performance is linear and in the form of a positive correlation (Hull,1951;Spence,1956).  The lowest levels of performance are expected when the individual experience low levels of arousal ,  Moderate performance is associated with moderate arousal and  High performance is associated with high arousal .
  47. 47.  It is the predication that high arousal is associated with top performance that is odds with the inverted _U- theory.  To date, although studies have been supportive of both theories, most of research supports the inverted – U- hypothesis. What is your opinion?
  48. 48. Common physiological indicators of an increase in arousal 1.Increase heart rate 2.Increase blood pressure 3.Increase respiratory rate 4.Increase muscle tone 5.Increase skin response(sweating)
  49. 49. Methods /ways to optimize Arousal level  Physically warm-up  Controlled breathing system  Imagery(self talk)  Progressive relaxation
  50. 50. Anxiety  Is a negative state that can have highly detrimental effects on an athlete performance.  There two types of anxiety are: 1. state anxiety 2. trait anxiety 1.State anxiety:  Involves a reaction of a current stressful condition.  It involves a temporary reactions.  The anxiety should subside once the stressor has pass.
  51. 51. 2.Trait Anxiety  Involves a long lasting, chronic predisposition to experience anxiety in stressful environments.  Is directly related to the personality of the individual.
  52. 52. Goal setting in sport  is a theory of motivation that effectively energizes athletes to become more productive and effective (Locke & Latham, 1990). Basic Types of Goals and Their Effectiveness  These three different types of goals are outcome goals, performance goals, and process goals.
  53. 53. 1. Outcome goals  Focus on the outcomes of sporting events and usually involve some sort of interpersonal comparison.  A typical outcome goal might be to win a basketball game, place first in a volleyball tournament, defeat an opponent in tennis, or finish the season with a winning record. 2. Performance goals  Specify an end product of performance that will be achieved by the athlete relatively independently of other performers and the team.
  54. 54.  A typical performance goal for an individual athlete might be score twenty-five points in a basketball game, serve five aces in a tennis match, or get fifteen kills in a volleyball game.  Athletes and coaches should prefer performance goals to outcome goals for two fundamental reasons. 1.First, if performance goals are accomplished, there is a good possibility that outcome goals will also be accomplished. 2.Second, personal satisfaction can be realized from the achievement of performance goals even if outcome goals remain unfulfilled.
  55. 55. 3. Process goals  Process goals focus on specific behaviors exhibited throughout a performance.  A typical process goal for an athlete might be to keep the left elbow straight while executing a golf drive, to keep the elbow down and wrist firm in the tennis backhand, or to focus on the spiker and not the ball in volleyball blocking.
  56. 56. Principles of Effective Goal Setting 1.Make goals specific, measurable, and observable. 2.Clearly identify time constraints. 3.Use moderately difficult goals; they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals. 4.Write goals down and regularly monitor progress. 5.Use a mix of process, performance, and outcome goals. 6.Use short-range goals to achieve long-range goals. 7.Set team as well as individual performance goals. 8.Set practice as well as competition goals. 9.Make sure goals are Internalized by the athlete. 10.Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting.
  57. 57.  Psychological skill refers to learned or innate characteristics of the athlete that make it possible or even likely that she /he will succeed in sport. Why Psychological Skill Training (PST) is Neglected ?  Scholars have reviewed that psychological skill training is mostly neglected because of the following fundamental issues/factors: 1.Lack of knowledge 2. Psychological skills are viewing as unchangeable. 3. Lack of Time 4. PST MYTHS(tradition)
  58. 58. PST MYTHS  PST is only for “problem” athletes .  People think that sport psychologists work with athletes only who have psychological problems.  PST is only for top athlete – it is suitable for everyone.  PST provides “Quick fix” solution ( I need this by tomorrow).  PST is not useful (reports from athletes and coaches indicate that psychological skills do in fact enhance performance although people might think it is not useful)
  59. 59. Implementing PST Program  Think on when to implement? Particularly in off-season.  How-long? It is better to provide 10-15 mins/day; 3-5 days/week.  Who should administer? Sport psychologists/coach
  60. 60. DESIGNING STEPS TO A PST PROGRAM  Discuss your approach.  Assess your athlete’s mental skills.  Determine psychological skills to include.  Design a PST schedule.  Evaluate the program.
  61. 61. Common problems in implementing a PST program  Lack of conviction-dedication..  Lack of time.  Lack of sport knowledge.  Lack of follow –up/assessment.
  62. 62. Aggression  Is a sequence of behaviors in which the goal is to injure another person.  Is an intent to physically, verbally, or psychologically harm some one who is motivated to avoid such treatment and or the physical destruction of property when motivated by anger.  There are two basic kinds of aggression have been identified: 1. Hostile aggression 2. Instrumental aggression.
  63. 63. 1. Hostile aggression  For individuals engaged in hostile aggression, the primary goal is the injury of another human being.  The intent is to make the victim suffer, and the reinforcement is the pain and suffering that is caused.  This sort of aggression is always accompanied by anger on the part of the aggressor.
  64. 64. 2. Instrumental Aggression  For individuals engaged in instrumental aggression, the intent to harm another individual is present, but the goal is to realize some external goal such as money, victory, or prestige.  The aggressor views the aggressive act as instrumental in obtaining the primary goal.
  65. 65. Team Cohesion  Cohesion is defined as a dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs.
  66. 66.  Cohesion is multidimensional in nature in that there are numerous factors that cause a group to remain united, and these factors can differ from group to group.  In sport teams, the two strongest factors are 1. The task and 2. Social relationships.
  67. 67. 1.Task cohesion  Refers to being united in achieving the team’s objectives.  The degree to which members of a team work together to achieve a specific and identifiable goal. 2. Social cohesion  Refers to the quality of social relationships present.  The degree to which the members of a team like each other and enjoy personal satisfaction from being members of the team.  Both task cohesion and social cohesion contribute to team performance (although the former is slightly more important).
  68. 68. Team Cohesion as a Process  Very early, Tuckman (1965) described four basic stages that a team must pass through in order to emerge as a cohesive unit.  These four stages include Forming, Storming, Norming , and Performing. 1. The forming stage  The athletes experience the excitement of new relationships and getting together with teammates for a common goal or cause.  The team members usually come together for the first time for the season.
  69. 69.  Is the learning period for old and new members.  Familiarizing them with how the group functions.  Differentiate their roles within the group.  Generally, in order to facilitate this stage, coaches often set up time outside of practice for social activities such as: movies, outing to other sporting events to allow the group to get to know each other better.
  70. 70. The storming stage  The athletes struggle with the frustrations of trying to learn a new team system and of getting acquainted with teammates with whom they may have little in common.  Usually occurs a few weeks in to the season  The honeymoon period is over and now it is time to get down to work  This phase is characterized by conflict over who has control and infighting for status position and the coach’s attention.
  71. 71. Cont’d….  In this phase those athletes with a poor work ethic and bad attitude emerged.  Personality and goal conflict among team members  Coach’s need to be vigilant in identifying conflicts when they emerge and open up communication paths to resolve the conflict in a timely fashion.  Successful resolution: can lead to increase in team member’s self- esteem
  72. 72. The Norming stage  Is a period after storming where the team has come to a consensus about what is acceptable and what is not acceptable  Goals, objectives, and expectations have been clearly defined by the coach and the athlete.  The respect they gain from their teammate, unique contribution to the team, is the most important realization the athlete come to the norming phase.
  73. 73. The performing stage  Is similar to the peak at the end of the season.  There is a close bond among the team members.  And a general want for one another to succeed.  The team members begin to truly value each individual’s contribution and the relationships are secure within the team.  The group is finally acting as a confident cohesion unit.  In this final stage, the team should be able to combine effort towards the group goal.