# Accounting Principles, 12th Edition Ch16

29. May 2020
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### Accounting Principles, 12th Edition Ch16

• 1. 16-1 Learning Objectives Explain how to account for debt investments. Explain how to account for stock investments. Discuss how debt and stock investments are reported in financial statements. 3 2 1 Investments16
• 2. 16-2 Corporations purchase investments in debt or stock securities generally for one of three reasons. 1. Corporation may have excess cash. 2. Generate earnings from investment income. 3. For strategic reasons. Illustration 16-1 Temporary investments and the operating cycle LO 1 LEARNING OBJECTIVE Explain how to account for debt investments. 1
• 3. 16-3 Pension funds and banks regularly invest in debt and stock securities to: a. house excess cash until needed. b. generate earnings. c. meet strategic goals. d. avoid a takeover by disgruntled investors. Question Why Corporations Invest LO 1
• 4. 16-4 RECORDING ACQUISITION OF BONDS Cost includes all expenditures necessary to acquire these investments, such as the price paid plus brokerage fees (commissions), if any. Accounting for Debt Investments LO 1 Investments in government and corporation bonds. Entries are made to record 1. the acquisition, 2. the interest revenue, and 3. the sale.
• 5. 16-5 RECORDING BOND INTEREST Calculate and record interest revenue based upon the  carrying value of the bond  times the interest rate  times the portion of the year the bond is outstanding. Accounting for Debt Investments LO 1
• 6. 16-6 RECORDING SALE OF BONDS Accounting for Debt Investments  Credit the investment account for the cost of the bonds.  Record as a gain or loss ► any difference between the net proceeds from the sale (sales price less brokerage fees) and ► the cost of the bonds. LO 1
• 7. 16-7 Illustration: Kuhl Corporation acquires 50 Doan Inc. 8%, 10- year, \$1,000 bonds on January 1, 2017, for \$50,000. The entry to record the investment is: Debt Investments 50,000 Cash 50,000 Jan. 1 Accounting for Debt Investments LO 1
• 8. 16-8 Kuhl Corporation acquires 50 Doan Inc. 8%, 10-year, \$1,000 bonds on January 1, 2017, for \$50,000. The bonds pay interest annually on January 1. If Kuhl Corporation’s fiscal year ends on December 31, prepare the entry to accrue interest earned by December 31. Interest Receivable 4,000 Interest Revenue 4,000 * (\$50,000 x 8% = \$4,000) *Dec. 31 Accounting for Debt Investments LO 1
• 9. 16-9 Kuhl reports Interest Receivable as a current asset in the balance sheet. It reports Interest Revenue under “Other revenues and gains” in the income statement. Kuhl reports receipt of the interest on January 1 as follows Cash 4,000 Interest Receivable 4,000 Jan. 1 Accounting for Debt Investments LO 1
• 10. 16-10 Assume that Kuhl corporation receives net proceeds of \$54,000 on the sale of the Doan Inc. bonds on January 1, 2016, after receiving the interest due. Prepare the entry to record the sale of the bonds. Cash 54,000 Debt Investments 50,000 Gain on Sale of Debt Investments 4,000 Jan. 1 Accounting for Debt Investments LO 1
• 11. 16-11 An event related to an investment in debt securities that does not require a journal entry is: a. acquisition of the debt investment. b. receipt of interest revenue from the debt investment. c. a change in the name of the firm issuing the debt securities. d. sale of the debt investment. Accounting for Debt Investments Question LO 1
• 12. 16-12 When bonds are sold, the gain or loss on sale is the difference between the: a. sales price and the cost of the bonds. b. net proceeds and the cost of the bonds. c. sales price and the market value of the bonds. d. net proceeds and the market value of the bonds. Accounting for Debt Investments Question LO 1
• 13. 16-13 Hey, I Thought It Was Safe! It is often stated that bond investments are safer than stock investments. After all, with an investment in bonds, you are guaranteed return of principal and interest payments over the life of the bonds. However, here are some other factors you may want to consider: • In 2013, the value of bonds fell by 2% due to interest rate risk. That is, when interest rates rise, it makes the yields paid on existing bonds less attractive. As a result, the price of the existing bond you are holding falls. • While interest rates are currently low, it is likely that they will increase in the future. If you hold bonds, there is a real possibility that the value of your bonds will be reduced. • Credit risk also must be considered. Credit risk means that a company may not be able to pay back what it borrowed. Former bondholders in companies like General Motors, United Air Lines, and Eastman Kodak saw their bond values drop substantially when these companies declared bankruptcy. An advantage of a bond investment over stock is that if you hold it to maturity, you will receive your principal and also interest payments over the life of the bond. But if you have to sell your bond investment before maturity, you may be facing a roller coaster regarding its value. Investor Insight LO 1
• 14. 16-14 DO IT! Debt Investments1 Waldo Corporation had the following transactions pertaining to debt investments. Jan. 1, 2017 Purchased 30, \$1,000 Hillary Co. 10% bonds for \$30,000. Interest is payable annually on January 1. Dec. 31, 2017 Accrued interest on Hillary Co. bonds in 2017. Jan. 1, 2018 Received interest on Hillary Co. bonds. Jan. 1, 2018 Sold 15 Hillary Co. bonds for \$14,600. Dec. 31, 2018 Accrued interest on Hillary Co. bonds in 2018. Journalize the transactions. LO 1
• 15. 16-15 Waldo Corporation had the following transactions pertaining to debt investments. Jan. 1, 2017 Purchased 30, \$1,000 Hillary Co. 10% bonds for \$30,000. Interest is payable annually on January 1. Journalize the transactions. July 1 Debt Investments 30,000 (2017) Cash 30,000 LO 1 DO IT! Debt Investments1
• 16. 16-16 Waldo Corporation had the following transactions pertaining to debt investments. Dec. 31, 2017 Accrued interest on Hillary Co. bonds in 2017. Jan. 1, 2018 Received interest on Hillary Co. bonds. Journalize the transactions. Dec. 31 Interest Receivable 3,000 (2017) Interest Revenue (\$30,000 x 10%) 3,000 Jan. 1 Cash 3,000 (2018) Interest Receivable 3,000 LO 1 DO IT! Debt Investments1
• 17. 16-17 Waldo Corporation had the following transactions pertaining to debt investments. Jan. 1, 2018 Sold 15 Hillary Co. bonds for \$14,600. Dec. 31, 2018 Accrued interest on Hillary Co. bonds in 2018. Journalize the transactions. Jan. 1 Cash 14,600 (2018) Loss on Sale of Debt Investments 400 Debt Investments (\$30,000 x 15/30) 15,000 Dec. 31 Interest Receivable 1,500 (2018) Interest Revenue 1,500 LO 1 DO IT! Debt Investments1
• 18. 16-18 0 ------------------20% -------------- 50% -------------------- 100% No significant influence usually exists Significant influence usually exists Control usually exists (50%+ owned) Investment valued using Cost Method Investment valued using Equity Method Investment valued on parent’s books using Cost Method or Equity Method (investment eliminated in Consolidation) Ownership Percentages The accounting depends on the extent of the investor’s influence over the operating and financial affairs of the issuing corporation (investee). LO 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVE Explain how to account for stock investments. 2
• 19. 16-19  Companies use the cost method.  Investment is recorded at cost and revenue recognized only when cash dividends are received. Accounting for Stock Investments Holding of Less than 20% Helpful Hint The entries for investments in common stock also apply to investments in preferred stock. LO 2  Cost includes all expenditures necessary to acquire these investments, such as the price paid plus any brokerage fees (commissions), if any.
• 20. 16-20 July 1 Illustration: On July 1, 2017, Sanchez Corporation acquires 1,000 shares (10% ownership) of Beal Corporation common stock. Sanchez pays \$40 per share. The entry for the purchase is: Stock Investments (1,000 x \$40) 40,000 Cash 40,000 Holding of Less than 20% RECORDING ACQUISITION OF STOCK INVESTMENTS LO 2
• 21. 16-21 Dec. 31 Illustration: During the time Sanchez owns the stock it makes entries for any cash dividends received. If Sanchez receives a \$2 per share dividend on December 31, the entry is: Cash (1,000 x \$2) 2,000 Dividend Revenue 2,000 Holding of Less than 20% RECORDING DIVIDENDS LO 2
• 22. 16-22 Feb. 10 Illustration: Assume that Sanchez Corporation receives net proceeds of \$39,000 on the sale of its Beal stock on February 10, 2018. Because the stock cost \$40,000, Sanchez incurred a loss of \$1,000. The entry to record the sale is: Cash 39,000 Loss on Sale of Stock Investments 1,000 Stock Investments 40,000 Holding of Less than 20% RECORDING SALE OF STOCK LO 2
• 23. 16-23 Equity Method: Investor records the investment at cost and subsequently adjust the amount each period for the  proportionate share of the earnings (losses) and  dividends received. If investor’s share of investee’s losses exceeds the carrying amount of the investment, the investor ordinarily should discontinue applying the equity method. Accounting for Stock Investments Holding Between 20% and 50% LO 2
• 24. 16-24 Illustration: Milar Corporation acquires 30% of the common shares of Beck Company for \$120,000 on January 1, 2017. For 2017, Beck reports net income of \$100,000 and paid dividends of \$40,000. Prepare the entries for these transactions. Stock Investments 120,000 Cash 120,000 Cash (\$40,000 x 30%) 12,000 Stock Investments 12,000 Stock Investments (\$100,000 x 30%) 30,000 Revenue from Stock Investments 30,000 Jan. 1 Dec. 31 Dec. 31 Holdings Between 20% and 50% LO 2
• 25. 16-25 After Milar posts the transactions for the year, its investment and revenue accounts will show the following. Illustration: Milar Corporation acquires 30% of the common shares of Beck Company for \$120,000 on January 1, 2017. For 2017, Beck reports net income of \$100,000 and paid dividends of \$40,000. Prepare the entries for these transactions. Holdings Between 20% and 50% LO 2 Illustration 16-4 Investment and revenue accounts after posting
• 26. 16-26 Under the equity method, the investor records dividends received by crediting: a. Dividend Revenue. b. Investment Income. c. Revenue from Investment. d. Stock Investments. Holdings Between 20% and 50% Question LO 2
• 27. 16-27 Controlling Interest - When one corporation acquires a voting interest of more than 50 percent in another corporation  Investor is referred to as the parent.  Investee is referred to as the subsidiary.  Investment in the subsidiary is reported on the parent’s books as a long-term investment.  Parent generally prepares consolidated financial statements. Accounting for Stock Investments Holdings of More than 50% LO 2
• 28. 16-28 Consolidated statements indicate the magnitude and scope of operations of the companies under common control. Holdings of More than 50% LO 2 Illustration 16-5 Examples of consolidated companies and their subsidiaries
• 29. 16-29 LO 2 Accounting Across the Organization How Procter & Gamble Accounts for Gillette Several years ago, Procter & Gamble Company acquired Gillette Company for \$53.4 billion. The common stockholders of Procter & Gamble elect the board of directors of the company, who in turn select the officers and managers of the company. Procter & Gamble’s board of directors controls the property owned by the corporation, which includes the common stock of Gillette. Thus, they are in a position to elect the board of directors of Gillette and, in effect, control its operations. These relationships are graphically illustrated here.
• 30. 16-30 LO 2 DO IT! Stock Investments2 Presented below are two independent situations. 1. Rho Jean Inc. acquired 5% of the 400,000 shares of common stock of Stillwater Corp. at a total cost of \$6 per share on May 18, 2017. On August 30, Stillwater declared and paid a \$75,000 dividend. On December 31, Stillwater reported net income of \$244,000 for the year. Prepare all necessary journal entries for 2017. May 18 Stock Investments (400,000 x 5% x \$6) 120,000 Cash 120,000 Aug. 30 Cash 3,750 Dividend Revenue (\$75,000 x 5%) 3,750
• 31. 16-31 LO 2 Presented below are two independent situations. 2. Debbie, Inc. obtained significant influence over North Sails by buying 40% of North Sails’ 60,000 outstanding shares of common stock at a cost of \$12 per share on January 1, 2017. On April 15, North Sails declared and paid a cash dividend of \$45,000. On December 31, North Sails reported net income of \$120,000 for the year. Prepare all necessary journal entries for 2017. Jan. 1 Stock Investments (60,000 x 40% x \$12) 288,000 Cash 288,000 Apr. 15 Cash 18,000 Stock Investments (\$45,000 x 40%) 18,000 Dec. 31 Stock Investments (\$120,000 x 40%) 48,000 Revenue from Stock Investments 48,000
• 32. 16-32 Categories of Securities Classifications of debt and stock investments: These guidelines apply to all debt securities and all stock investments in which the holdings are less than 20%. LO 3 Equity Investments Trading Available-for-sale Debt Investments Trading Available-for-sale Held-to-maturity LEARNING OBJECTIVE Discuss how debt and stock investments are reported in financial statements. 3
• 33. 16-33 TRADING SECURITIES  Companies hold with intention of selling in a short period.  Trading means frequent buying and selling.  Reported at fair value.  Changes from cost are reported in the income statement as unrealized gains or losses. Categories of Securities LO 3
• 34. 16-34 Marketable securities bought and held primarily for sale in the near term are classified as: a. available-for-sale securities. b. held-to-maturity securities. c. stock securities. d. trading securities Question LO 3 Categories of Securities
• 35. 16-35 Illustration: Cost and fair values for investments of Pace Corporation classified as trading securities on December 31, 2017. The adjusting entry for Pace Corporation is: Dec. 31 Fair Value Adjustment—Trading 7,000 Unrealized Gain—Income 7,000 TRADING SECURITIES LO 3 Illustration 16-7 Valuation of trading securities
• 36. 16-36  Held with the intent of selling sometime in the future.  Classified as current assets or as long-term assets, depending on the intent of management.  Reported at fair value.  Changes from cost are reported in stockholders’ equity as unrealized gains or losses. AVAILABLE-FOR-SALE SECURITIES Categories of Securities LO 3
• 37. 16-37 Illustration: Assume that Ingrao Corporation has two securities that it classifies as available-for-sale. The adjusting entry is: AVAILABLE-FOR-SALE SECURITIES LO 3 Dec. 31 Unrealized Gain or Loss—Equity 9,537 Fair Value Adjustment—AFS 9,537 Illustration 16-8 Valuation of available- for-sale securities
• 38. 16-38 An unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities is: a. reported under Other Expenses and Losses in the income statement. b. closed-out at the end of the accounting period. c. reported as a separate component of stockholders' equity. d. deducted from the cost of the investment. Question LO 3 Categories of Securities
• 39. 16-39 Can Fair Value Be Unfair? The FASB is considering proposals for how to account for financial instruments. The FASB at one time proposed that loans and receivables be accounted for at their fair value (the amount they could currently be sold for), as are most investments. The FASB believes that this would provide a more accurate view of a company’s financial position. It might be especially useful as an early warning when a bank is in trouble because of poor-quality loans. But, banks argue that fair values are difficult to estimate accurately. They are also concerned that volatile fair values could cause large swings in a bank’s reported net income. Source: David Reilly, “Bank Face a Mark-to-Market Challenge,” Wall Street Journal Online (March 15, 2010). Investor Insight LO 3
• 40. 16-40 LO 3 DO IT! Trading and Available-for-Sale Securities3a Some of Powderhorn Corporation’s investment securities are classified as trading securities and some are classified as available-for-sale. The cost and fair value of each category at December 31, 2017, are shown below. Unrealized Cost Fair Value Gain (Loss) Trading securities \$93,600 \$94,900 \$1,300 Available-for-sale securities \$48,800 \$51,400 \$2,600 At December 31, 2016, the Fair Value Adjustment—Trading account had a debit balance of \$9,200, and the Fair Value Adjustment—Available-for- Sale account had a credit balance of \$5,750. Prepare the required journal entries for each group of securities for December 31, 2017.
• 41. 16-41 LO 3 Unrealized Cost Fair Value Gain (Loss) Trading securities \$93,600 \$94,900 \$1,300 Available-for-sale securities \$48,800 \$51,400 \$2,600 At December 31, 2016, the Fair Value Adjustment—Trading account had a debit balance of \$9,200, and the Fair Value Adjustment—Available-for- Sale account had a credit balance of \$5,750. Prepare the required journal entries for each group of securities for December 31, 2017. Trading securities: Unrealized Loss—Income (\$9,200-\$1,300) 7,900* Fair Value Adjustment—Trading 7,900 DO IT! Trading and Available-for-Sale Securities3a
• 42. 16-42 LO 3 Unrealized Cost Fair Value Gain (Loss) Trading securities \$93,600 \$94,900 \$1,300 Available-for-sale securities \$48,800 \$51,400 \$2,600 At December 31, 2016, the Fair Value Adjustment—Trading account had a debit balance of \$9,200, and the Fair Value Adjustment—Available-for- Sale account had a credit balance of \$5,750. Prepare the required journal entries for each group of securities for December 31, 2017. Available-for-Sale securities: Fair Value Adjustment—Available-for-Sale 8,350** Unrealized Gain or Loss—Equity 8,350 **\$5,750 + \$2,600 DO IT! Trading and Available-for-Sale Securities3a
• 43. 16-43 Also called marketable securities, are securities held by a company that are (1) readily marketable and (2) intended to be converted into cash within the next year or operating cycle, whichever is longer. SHORT-TERM INVESTMENTS Investments that do not meet both criteria are classified as long-term investments. Balance Sheet Presentation Helpful Hint Trading securities are always classified as short-term. Available-for-sale securities can be either short-term or long-term. LO 3
• 44. 16-44 Presentation of Realized and Unrealized Gain or Loss Illustration 16-10 Nonoperating items related to investments LO 3
• 45. 16-45 Unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale securities are reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Realized and Unrealized Gain or Loss LO 3 Illustration 16-11 Unrealized loss in stockholders’ equity section
• 46. 16-46 Classified Balance Sheet LO 3 Illustration 16-12 Classified balance sheet (Partial Statement) PACE CORPORATION Balance Sheet December 31, 2017
• 47. 16-47 LO 3 Illustration 16-12 Classified balance sheet (Partial Statement) Classified Balance Sheet PACE CORPORATION Balance Sheet December 31, 2017
• 48. 16-48 Similarities  The basic accounting entries to record the acquisition of debt securities, the receipt of interest, and the sale of debt securities are the same under IFRS and GAAP.  The basic accounting entries to record the acquisition of stock investments, the receipt of dividends, and the sale of stock securities are the same under IFRS and GAAP. Key Points LEARNING OBJECTIVE Compare the accounting for investments under GAAP and IFRS. 4 LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 49. 16-49  Both IFRS and GAAP use the same criteria to determine whether the equity method of accounting should be used—that is, significant influence with a general guide of over 20% ownership, IFRS uses the term associate investment rather than equity investment to describe its investment under the equity method.  Equity investments are generally recorded and reported at fair value under IFRS. Equity investments do not have a fixed interest or principal payment schedule and therefore cannot be accounted for at amortized cost. In general, equity investments are valued at fair value, with all gains and losses reported in income, similar to GAAP. Key Points LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 50. 16-50  Unrealized gains and losses related to available-for-sale securities are reported in other comprehensive income under GAAP and IFRS. These gains and losses that accumulate are then reported in the balance sheet. Differences  Under IFRS, both the investor and an associate company should follow the same accounting policies. As a result, in order to prepare financial information, adjustments are made to the associate’s policies to conform to the investor’s books. GAAP does not have that requirement. Key Points LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 51. 16-51 Differences  In general, IFRS requires that companies determine how to measure their financial assets based on two criteria:  The company’s business model for managing their financial assets; and  The contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset. If a company has (1) a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and (2) the contractual terms of the financial asset gives specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding, then the company should use cost. Key Points LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 52. 16-52 As indicated earlier, the IASB has issued a new revised IFRS which deals with the accounting issues related to investment securities. The FASB is now in the final process of issuing a new standard in this area. It is likely that some differences will continue to exist between the IFRS and the FASB regarding investments. Looking to the Future LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 53. 16-53 The following asset is not considered a financial asset under IFRS: a) trading securities. b) held-for-collection securities. c) equity securities. d) inventories. IFRS Self-Test Questions LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 54. 16-54 Under IFRS, the equity method of accounting for long-term investments in common stock should be used when the investor has significant influence over an investee and owns: a) between 20% and 50% of the investee’s common stock. b) 30% or more of the investee’s common stock. c) more than 50% of the investee’s common stock. d) less than 20% of the investee’s common stock. IFRS Self-Test Questions LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 55. 16-55 Under IFRS, unrealized loss on trading investments should be reported: a) as part of other comprehensive loss reducing net income. b) on the income statement reducing net income. c) as part of other comprehensive loss not affecting net income. d) directly to stockholders’ equity bypassing the income statement. IFRS Self-Test Questions LO 4 A Look at IFRS
• 56. 16-56 “Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.” Copyright

### Hinweis der Redaktion

1. Fair Value – next slide Equity Method -