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LESSON 4:
CONTENT How the idea of the atom, along with the idea of the elements evolved
CONTENT
STANDARD
At the end of the lesson, y...
1
M
T A
R
B
C E
I L O
GP
A
C
A T O M
What Does
an Atom
REALLY Look
Like?
RECALL
KEY TERMS
1) Atom –
2) Billiard ball –
3) Robert Brown –
4) John Dalton –
5) Joseph John Thomson –
6) Electrons –
7) Plum-...
 The smallest unit of matter as recognized
by chemical properties of molecules.
 composed of protons, neutrons and
elect...
Sub-atomic
Particle of an Atom
is discovered by
through the…
(what kind of experiment)
Electron J. J. Thomson
cathode ray ...
ATTRIBUTE OF THE ATOMIC
MODEL
ATOMIC MODEL
DALTON THOMSON RUHTERF
ORD
BOHR QUANTUM
 Conceptualized following
cathode ray ...
is the small, dense region
consisting of protons and
neutrons at the center of an
atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest
Ruth...
The spontaneous decay of
atomic nuclei.
 During radioactivity, alpha
particles, beta-rays and gamma
rays are emitted.
ra...
460 – 370 B.C.
■ There are various basic elements
from which all matter is made
■ Everything is composed of small
atoms mo...
DEMOCRITUS
sometimes known as the
BILLIARD BALL
concept of the atom,
wherein the atom is an
incredibly small but
smooth an...
ROBERT BROWN
 He is known for his idea of
the random movement of
microscopic particles or
"Brownian motion."
IDEA OF AN ATOM
John Dalton
1766-1844
■Introduced his ideas in
1803 that each
element is composed
of extremely small
parti...
Proponent: John Dalton
This model suggested
that atoms:
• are the smallest
particle of an element
• of different elements
...
IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
 Conceptualized
following cathode
ray experiments
 First model to use
idea of subatomic
par...
Later in 1897, Joseph John Thomson published the
idea that electricity was in particles that were
part of the atom. Experi...
Thomson
“Plum Pudding” Model
Actual
Plum Pudding
IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
Thomson’s plum-pudding model,
a sphere with a
uniformly
distributed positive
charge and enough
embedded electrons
to neutr...
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
IDEA OF AN ATOMERNEST RUTHERFORD
Has a nucleus
Conceptualized
following α-particle
experiments
Ernest Rutherford, a student of Thomson’s, who was among
many who studied radioactivity. He concluded that
radioactivity o...
In 1911, Rutherford theorized that the model proposed by Thomson did
not explain the deflection of alpha particles. Theref...
Diagram of the
Rutherford atomic
model. Physicist Ernest
Rutherford envisioned
the atom as like a
miniature solar
system, ...
Gold Foil Experiment
IDEA OF AN ATOMERNEST RUTHERFORD
IDEA OF AN ATOMNIELS BOHR
Has a nucleus
Has energy levels or
quanta
Explains why
electrons don’t fall
into the nucleus
proposed that
the electrons
“jumped”
between energy
levels
IDEA OF AN ATOMNIELS BOHR
IDEA OF AN ATOM
Niels Bohr, another scientist in Rutherford’s laboratory. He
tackled one of the big issues with the Ruther...
In the Bohr model of the atom,
electrons travel in defined circular
orbits around the nucleus.
The orbits are labeled by a...
IDEA OF
AN ATOM
Ernst Schrödinger
Werner Heisenberg
QUANTUM MODEL
Has a nucleus
Has energy levels or quanta
Explains wh...
• In quantum mechanics, this branch
augmented the Bohr model with new
explanations of how matter behaved at a very
tiny le...
Quantum model
This model uses complex
shapes of orbitals (sometimes
called electron clouds), volumes
of space in which th...
Quantum model
JAMES CHADWICK
James Chadwick was a student of
Rutherford’s who built on this
possibility in 1926. He worked on
radiation ...
These particles were as heavy as
protons, but they needed to have a
neutral charge that would allow
them to smash into the...
The neutron was able to explain the mass unaccounted for by a
system of protons and electrons only.
It also allowed for mo...
JAMES CHADWICK
Gold Foil Experiment
What Does
an Atom
REALLY Look
Like?
Here is how the hydrogen orbits look like using a photoionization quantum microscope Hydrogen
Atoms under Magnification: D...
A team of researchers from China’s National Center for Nanoscience & Technology and Renmin
University have utilized atomic...
Sub-atomic
Particle of an Atom
is discovered by
through the…
(what kind of experiment)
Electron J. J. Thomson
cathode ray ...
ATTRIBUTE OF THE ATOMIC
MODEL
ATOMIC MODEL
DALTON THOMSON
RUTHER
FORD
BOHR QUANTUM
 Conceptualized following
cathode ray ...
assignment
1-2) What are quarks?
____________________________________
3-8) What are the “flavors” of quarks?
_____________...
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)
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Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)

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Learning Competencies
At the end of the lesson, you will have to:
1. point out the main ideas in the discovery of the structure of the atom and its subatomic particles
2. cite the contributions of J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Henry Moseley, and Niels Bohr to the understanding of the structure of the atom
3. describe the nuclear model of the atom and the location of its major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons)

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Lesson 4 Not Indivisible (The Structure of the Atom)

  1. 1. LESSON 4:
  2. 2. CONTENT How the idea of the atom, along with the idea of the elements evolved CONTENT STANDARD At the end of the lesson, you will have to describe: 1. how the concept of the atom evolved from Ancient Greek to the present; and 2. how the concept of the element evolved from Ancient Greek to the present LEARNING COMPETENCIES At the end of the lesson, you will have to: 1. point out the main ideas in the discovery of the structure of the atom and its subatomic particles (S11/12PS-IIIb-8) 2. cite the contributions of J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Henry Moseley, and Niels Bohr to the understanding of the structure of the atom (S11/12PS-IIIb-9) 3. describe the nuclear model of the atom and the location of its major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons) (S11/12PS-IIIb-10)
  3. 3. 1 M T A R B C E I L O GP A C A T O M
  4. 4. What Does an Atom REALLY Look Like?
  5. 5. RECALL
  6. 6. KEY TERMS 1) Atom – 2) Billiard ball – 3) Robert Brown – 4) John Dalton – 5) Joseph John Thomson – 6) Electrons – 7) Plum-pudding model – 8) Ernest Rutherford – 9) Radioactivity – 10)Nucleus – 11) Protons – 12) Niels Bohr – 13) Quantum Model – 14) James Chadwick – 15) Neutrons –
  7. 7.  The smallest unit of matter as recognized by chemical properties of molecules.  composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.  very small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale) ATOM
  8. 8. Sub-atomic Particle of an Atom is discovered by through the… (what kind of experiment) Electron J. J. Thomson cathode ray tube experiment Proton Ernest Rutherford gold foil experiment Neutron James Chadwick gold foil experiment SEATWORK #3 zz
  9. 9. ATTRIBUTE OF THE ATOMIC MODEL ATOMIC MODEL DALTON THOMSON RUHTERF ORD BOHR QUANTUM  Conceptualized following cathode ray experiments  Has a nucleus  Has energy levels or quanta  Conceptualized following α- particle experiments  Explains why electrons don’t fall into the nucleus  Has idea of orbitals  First model to use idea of subatomic particles
  10. 10. is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger– Marsden gold foil experiment. nucleus
  11. 11. The spontaneous decay of atomic nuclei.  During radioactivity, alpha particles, beta-rays and gamma rays are emitted. radioactivity
  12. 12. 460 – 370 B.C. ■ There are various basic elements from which all matter is made ■ Everything is composed of small atoms moving in a void ■ Some atoms are round, pointy, oily, have hooks, etc. to account for their properties ■ Ideas rejected by leading philosophers because void = no existence DEMOCRITUS
  13. 13. DEMOCRITUS sometimes known as the BILLIARD BALL concept of the atom, wherein the atom is an incredibly small but smooth and whole object.
  14. 14. ROBERT BROWN  He is known for his idea of the random movement of microscopic particles or "Brownian motion."
  15. 15. IDEA OF AN ATOM John Dalton 1766-1844 ■Introduced his ideas in 1803 that each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms JOHN DALTON
  16. 16. Proponent: John Dalton This model suggested that atoms: • are the smallest particle of an element • of different elements have different masses • are solid, indestructible units.
  17. 17. IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON  Conceptualized following cathode ray experiments  First model to use idea of subatomic particles
  18. 18. Later in 1897, Joseph John Thomson published the idea that electricity was in particles that were part of the atom. Experimenting with cathode rays, he established the mass and charge properties of these particles. These particles were named electrons. In 1904, he came up with the plum-pudding model, which was an idea of what the atom looked like based on his experiments. He would later conclude that the electron was not the only source of mass in the atom. This implied that the atom was composed of other particles. IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
  19. 19. Thomson “Plum Pudding” Model Actual Plum Pudding IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
  20. 20. Thomson’s plum-pudding model, a sphere with a uniformly distributed positive charge and enough embedded electrons to neutralize the positive charge. A plum pudding is a sort of cake with raisins embedded in it. IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
  21. 21. Cathode Ray Tube Experiment IDEA OF AN ATOMJ. J. THOMSON
  22. 22. IDEA OF AN ATOMERNEST RUTHERFORD Has a nucleus Conceptualized following α-particle experiments
  23. 23. Ernest Rutherford, a student of Thomson’s, who was among many who studied radioactivity. He concluded that radioactivity occurred due to changes on a subatomic level, or changes within the atom itself. In 1902, he worked in Thomson’s laboratory where he distinguished two kinds of radiation based on their penetrating power: α (alpha) and β (beta). He studied these types of radiation and noticed, from his experiments, that alpha particles would sometimes bounce off at a high angle when made to penetrate a very thin gold foil. IDEA OF AN ATOMERNEST RUTHERFORD
  24. 24. In 1911, Rutherford theorized that the model proposed by Thomson did not explain the deflection of alpha particles. Therefore, he devised his own model with a positive nucleus at the center and electrons revolving like planets at a distance around it. The incredibly dense nucleus explained the occasional deflection experienced by the alpha particles, while the amounts of empty space in between explained why most particles were able to pass through. Rutherford later concluded that the nucleus was composed of positive particles known as protons, which were then thought to be hydrogen nuclei found in other atoms. He suggested the possibility of finding a composite particle (proton + electron) with a negligible electric field that composed the nucleus. IDEA OF AN ATOMERNEST RUTHERFORD
  25. 25. Diagram of the Rutherford atomic model. Physicist Ernest Rutherford envisioned the atom as like a miniature solar system, with electrons orbiting around a massive nucleus, and as mostly empty space, with the nucleus occupying only a very small part of the atom.
  26. 26. Gold Foil Experiment IDEA OF AN ATOMERNEST RUTHERFORD
  27. 27. IDEA OF AN ATOMNIELS BOHR Has a nucleus Has energy levels or quanta Explains why electrons don’t fall into the nucleus
  28. 28. proposed that the electrons “jumped” between energy levels IDEA OF AN ATOMNIELS BOHR
  29. 29. IDEA OF AN ATOM Niels Bohr, another scientist in Rutherford’s laboratory. He tackled one of the big issues with the Rutherford model in 1913. The system proposed by Rutherford was unstable because, under classical physics, the spinning electrons would tend to be attracted to the positive nucleus and lose energy until they collapse into the center. Bohr proposed that the electrons existed only at fixed distances from the nucleus at set “energy levels,” or quanta. Quanta was first conceptualized mathematically by Max Planck by absorbing or releasing discrete amounts of energy. However, the Bohr model of the atom was still unable to explain why atoms bonded in certain ways to form compounds. For example, carbon formed compounds of CH4 while oxygen formed H2O. NIELS BOHR
  30. 30. In the Bohr model of the atom, electrons travel in defined circular orbits around the nucleus. The orbits are labeled by an integer, the quantum number n. Electrons can jump from one orbit to another by emitting or absorbing energy. IDEA OF AN ATOMNIELS BOHR
  31. 31. IDEA OF AN ATOM Ernst Schrödinger Werner Heisenberg QUANTUM MODEL Has a nucleus Has energy levels or quanta Explains why electrons don’t fall into the nucleus Has idea of orbitals
  32. 32. • In quantum mechanics, this branch augmented the Bohr model with new explanations of how matter behaved at a very tiny level that turned it into the quantum model of the atom used today. • The model is based on mathematical equations by several scientists, including Werner Heisenberg and Ernest Schrödinger IDEA OF AN ATOM Ernst Schrödinger Werner Heisenberg
  33. 33. Quantum model This model uses complex shapes of orbitals (sometimes called electron clouds), volumes of space in which there is likely to be an electron.
  34. 34. Quantum model
  35. 35. JAMES CHADWICK James Chadwick was a student of Rutherford’s who built on this possibility in 1926. He worked on radiation emitted by beryllium that took the form of particles heavy enough to displace protons.
  36. 36. These particles were as heavy as protons, but they needed to have a neutral charge that would allow them to smash into the nucleus without being repelled by electrons or protons. He confirmed their existence by measuring their mass and called them NEUTRONS. JAMES CHADWICK
  37. 37. The neutron was able to explain the mass unaccounted for by a system of protons and electrons only. It also allowed for more far-reaching advancements in nuclear physics and chemistry. It gave an understanding of isotopes and radioactive decay, and provided the tools to synthesize new elements and radioactive materials. These advancements, for better or for worse, changed the landscape of science because they gave us the ability to derive large amounts of energy from splitting the atom (nuclear fission). JAMES CHADWICK
  38. 38. JAMES CHADWICK Gold Foil Experiment
  39. 39. What Does an Atom REALLY Look Like?
  40. 40. Here is how the hydrogen orbits look like using a photoionization quantum microscope Hydrogen Atoms under Magnification: Direct Observation of the Nodal Structure of Stark States Here are a few atoms using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Single Atom Spectroscopy
  41. 41. A team of researchers from China’s National Center for Nanoscience & Technology and Renmin University have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to produce a high-resolution image of atoms reaching out to make a link with each other. Research paper: DOI: 10.1126/science.1242603 – “Real-Space Identification of Intermolecular Bonding with Atomic Force Microscopy” (paywall)
  42. 42. Sub-atomic Particle of an Atom is discovered by through the… (what kind of experiment) Electron J. J. Thomson cathode ray tube experiment Proton Ernest Rutherford gold foil experiment Neutron James Chadwick gold foil experiment SEATWORK #3 zz
  43. 43. ATTRIBUTE OF THE ATOMIC MODEL ATOMIC MODEL DALTON THOMSON RUTHER FORD BOHR QUANTUM  Conceptualized following cathode ray experiments  Has a nucleus  Has energy levels or quanta  Conceptualized following α- particle experiments  Explains why electrons don’t fall into the nucleus  Has idea of orbitals  First model to use idea of subatomic particles
  44. 44. assignment 1-2) What are quarks? ____________________________________ 3-8) What are the “flavors” of quarks? ____________________________________ 9-10) Why quarks have “flavors?” ____________________________________
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Learning Competencies At the end of the lesson, you will have to: 1. point out the main ideas in the discovery of the structure of the atom and its subatomic particles 2. cite the contributions of J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Henry Moseley, and Niels Bohr to the understanding of the structure of the atom 3. describe the nuclear model of the atom and the location of its major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons)

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