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Earth Systems / Earth and its Four Subsystems

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Department of Education | Senior High School
Topic: Earth and its Four Subsystems

Learning Competency:
Earth and Life Science: Explain that the Earth consists of four subsystems, across whose boundaries matter and energy flows.

Earth Science (for STEM): Explain that the Earth consists of four subsystems, across whose boundaries matter and energy flows.

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Earth Systems / Earth and its Four Subsystems

  1. 1. EARTH SYSTEMS Explain that the Earth consists of four subsystems, across whose boundaries matter and energy flow.
  2. 2. Here’s Scientist A. What could he be studying? Studying Earth systems is quite complicated. Let’s use the Parable from Robert O’NEILL and Colleagues (1986) to better understand it. Just imagine four scientists, who have set themselves the task of examining certain research objects very intensively using very sophisticated and ingenious instruments. 2
  3. 3. Parable from Robert O’NEILL and Colleagues (1986) 3 This is Scientist B on a ladder. What do you think is the focus of his research?
  4. 4. 4 Scientist C is using a magnifying glass for his observations. What could he be observing? Parable from Robert O’NEILL and Colleagues (1986)
  5. 5. 5 Parable from Robert O’NEILL and Colleagues (1986) Scientist D is also using a magnifying glass. What do you think her research is all about?
  6. 6. From the completely different conclusions, • Scientist A would probably think he has to deal with a fire fighter’s hose • Scientist B who had concentrated on the right ear of the animal would possibly interpret it as a carpet • Scientist C would write a report about the structure of broad walls • Scientist D would interpret the elephant’s leg as a typical example for a column. Do you think the same? 6 Parable from Robert O’NEILL and Colleagues (1986)
  7. 7. From the accumulated individual findings, none of the participating researchers can recognize that they are dealing with an elephant. They would naturally come to totally different and contradictory conclusions. 7 Parable from Robert O’NEILL and Colleagues (1986) Actually, the scientist are working on different parts of an elephant’s body. However, they are so lost in different details of their respective research object, so that just this single part alone captures their entire interest.
  8. 8. 8 The system concept “The WHOLE is more than the sum of its PARTS” The parable by R. O’Neill and his colleagues illustrates an important historical document in the history of system research. It originates from the debate of ecological research. In this context, it serves as the reason for the interdisciplinary position as well as the system analytic strategy of research. It was argued that a reductionalist research approach, by which every participating scientific discipline only works on a section of the entire system doubtlessly offers valuable insights into the sub-area. However, this does not lead to an insight into the complex structure of relations of the entire system. Today, in this context, the sentence is frequently used: “The whole is worth more than the individual parts” This will help us realize that Earth and its subsystems must not be studied individually but rather as a whole because all of them are interconnected to each other.
  9. 9. EARTH as a SYSTEM 9 SYSTEM → A set of interconnected components that are interacting to form a unified whole.
  10. 10. The Earth System is essentially a CLOSED SYSTEM. A CLOSED SYSTEM is a system in which there is only an exchange of heat or energy and no exchange of matter. 10
  11. 11. SOLAR ENERGY Since Earth system is essentially a closed system. It receives energy from the sun (solar energy)…. …and returns some of this energy to space. 11
  12. 12. SOLAR ENERGY In contrast, the subsystems of Earth: Geosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere are OPEN SYSTEMS where both matter and energy can flow across the boundaries. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. ― Neil DeGrasse Tyson (He is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist, planetary scientist, author, and science communicator.) 14
  15. 15. Earth Systems 15 You’ve probably learned the four spheres of Earth since elementary. Let’s refresh your memories, take a deeper understanding on these spheres and see how they are all interconnected.
  16. 16. 16GEOsphere It makes up the solid portion of the Earth including its non-living land features. It extends from Earth’s surface to the center. It is predominantly classified as the LITHOSPHERE: the upper mantle and crust.
  17. 17. LITHOSPHERE CRUST (continental & oceanic) MANTLE (upper & lower) CORE (liquid metallic outer & solid metallic inner) 17GEOsphere
  18. 18. 18GEOsphere
  19. 19. CRUST Different elements that compose the Earth’s CRUST 19GEOsphere It’s the light and very thin outer skin of the Earth. The outermost layer where energy and mineral resources are derived.
  20. 20. 20 OCEANIC CRUST ▪ primarily basalt ▪ 6-10 km thickness ▪ denser (heavier) than continental crust CONTINENTAL CRUST ▪ primarily granite ▪ 30-70 km thickness ▪ Less dense than oceanic crust CRUST
  21. 21. MANTLE 21GEOsphere → Made up of mostly solid rocks and minerals → Represents 85% of the total weight and mass of Earth
  22. 22. 22 Upper Mantle ▪ Mostly solid and its malleable regions contribute to tectonic activities ▪ Coolest & most rigid layer Lower Mantle ▪ Hotter & denser compare to upper mantle ▪ Made up of dense rocks in semi-liquid state
  23. 23. 23GEOsphere CORE • Entirely made up of metal alloy such as iron and nickel • the Earth’s magnetic field strengthens the idea that the Earth’s outer core is molten/liquid.
  24. 24. 24 Outer Core ▪ 2nd largest layer ▪ composed of super heated liquid molten lava of liquid iron and nickel Inner Core ▪ It has a strong pressure around it making the metal iron solid ▪ It rotates easterly
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26ATMOsphere ▪ This thin gaseous layer that envelopes our planet makes life sustainable since it contain gases that all living things need. ▪ Some functions of the atmosphere includes: ▪ Enables plants to create their own food ▪ Traps heat to keep us warm ▪ Protect us from harmful radiation ▪ Drive ocean currents that spread heat which regulates our climate
  27. 27. 27ATMOsphere One of the most important processes by which the heat on the Earth's surface is redistributed is through atmospheric circulation.
  28. 28. 28ATMOsphere The present atmosphere is composed of: ❑ 78% nitrogen (N) ❑ 21% oxygen (O2) ❑ 0.9% argon ❑ and trace amount of other gases
  29. 29.  Densest part. Almost all weather types are in this region.  Location of ozone layer which absorbs and scatters the solar ultraviolet radiation.  Region where meteors usually burn up and become “shooting stars”  It is where radio communications possible.  It is the area of aurora and satellites.  Upper limit of the atmosphere separating Earth and space. 29 Layers of the Atmosphere
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31BIOsphere ▪ it includes all life forms on Earth ▪ it covers all ecosystems—from the soil to the rainforest, from mangroves to coral reefs, and from the plankton-rich ocean surface to the deep sea. Vladimir Vernadsky first popularized the concept of the noosphere and deepened the idea of the biosphere to the meaning largely recognized by today's scientific community. The word ‘”biosphere” was invented by Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, whom Vernadsky met in 1911.
  32. 32. 32 Daisy World Model ▪ It illustrates how the biosphere is capable of regulating its environment. ▪ by James Lovelock
  33. 33. 33 Biogeochemical Cycles ▪ It is the cycling of nutrients (water, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur) from abiotic components of the ecosystem (water, air, soil) through the biotic components (plants, animals, bacteria) ▪ It make multiple biological processes possible: photosynthesis, protein synthesis, respiration, etc.
  34. 34. Cryosphere is the frozen part of Earth which is in the form of glaciers, ice caps and icebergs. 34HYDROsphere ▪ It composed of all waters on the surface (oceans, rivers, and lakes) and also the water underground (in wells and aquifers) and may also include moisture in air (visible as clouds and fogs).
  35. 35. 35HYDROsphere Water / Hydrological Cycle It describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface in the Earth – atmosphere system. The most important processes are evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37 1 Atmospheric chemistry and temperature affect organisms 2 Atmospheric chemistry and temperature affect weathering of rocks 3 Atmospheric temperature affects evaporation 4 Photosynthesis affects atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration 5 Plants aid weathering (physical and chemical) of rocks 6 Plants control water transfer from soil to atmosphere 7 Weathering and erosion controls nutrient supply to life in the oceans 8 Volcanic eruptions add carbon dioxide and aerosols to atmosphere 9 Locations of continents controls circulation pattern of oceans 10 Rainfall and runoff erode the land surface 11 Soil water limits plant growth 12 Ocean circulation controls how much CO2 is removed from atmosphere
  38. 38. REFERENCES • Bayo-ang, R., Coronacion, M., Jorda, A., & Restubog, A. (2016). Earth and Life Science for Senior High School. (M. Moncada, Ed.) Quezon City, Philippines: Educational Resources Corporation. • Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/AbbieMahinay/ib-earth-and- earth-systems • Various internet sources • Photos from : Creative Commons, Pixabay.com, Flickr.com… 38

Department of Education | Senior High School Topic: Earth and its Four Subsystems Learning Competency: Earth and Life Science: Explain that the Earth consists of four subsystems, across whose boundaries matter and energy flows. Earth Science (for STEM): Explain that the Earth consists of four subsystems, across whose boundaries matter and energy flows. Please LIKE / FOLLOW and SHARE my other social media accounts.  Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Simple-ABbieC-131584525051378/ ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Youtube: http://tiny.cc/SimpleABbieC ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/AbbieMahinay ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Blogger: https://simpleabbiec.blogspot.com/?m=1

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