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CLASSIFICATION
OF ROCKS
1
Classify rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
2
GemsMinerals
ROCKS
• any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals
or mineraloid matter.
• categorized by the minerals in...
4
Nakabuang Arc, Sabtang Island, Batanes
5
Kapurpurawan Rock Formations, Burgos,
Ilocos Norte
6
7
8
Zaragosa Rock Formation (Surigao, Mindanao)
3 Main Categories of Rocks 9
IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
“ignis” – fire
Sediment – materials
deposited by water, wind ...
103 Main Categories of Rocks
11ROCK CYCLE
The transformational processes that change
rocks from one kind to another.
12
13IGNEOUS ROCKS
• from a Latin word
“ignis” which means
fire.
• The parent material of
igneous rocks is usually
magma (a m...
14IGNEOUS ROCKS
1) Fine-grained Igneous rock
(“Aphanitic”) - has smaller crystal
due to the faster rate of cooling of
the ...
15IGNEOUS ROCKS
Types based on Texture:
Fine-grained Igneous rock
(“Aphanitic”)
Coarse-grained Igneous Rock
(“Phaneritic”)
16IGNEOUS ROCKS
1) Mafic – are
magmas associated
with crystal
spreading.
2) Felsic – are
magmas associated
with crystal
co...
17IGNEOUS ROCKS
1) INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS
✓ cool slowly
✓ forms coarse grained rock
✓ presence of crystal growth
2) EXTRU...
18IGNEOUS ROCKS
General Types:
19IGNEOUS ROCKS
Examples of Igneous Intrusive
or Plutonic Igneous Rocks:
Granite Gabbro Diorite
20IGNEOUS ROCKS
Examples of Igneous
Extrusive or Volcanic Igneous
Basalt Obsidian Pumice
21SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
• formed by the compaction and cementing
together of sediments (broken pieces of rock-like
gravel, san...
22SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Importance Processes Involved:
• Lithification - a process of sementing soft,
unconsolidated sendiment...
23SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Stages in the Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
24SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Three (3) Main Types:
1. Clastic- are formed from mechanical
weathering debris.
2. Chemical – are form...
25SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Three (3) Main Types:
TYPE EXAMPLES
CLASTIC
• Conglomerate – composed of pieces
pebble-size or larger
...
26METAMORPHIC ROCKS
• The metamorphic rocks get
their name from “meta”
(changed) and “morph”
(form).
• Movement of earth c...
27METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Metamorphism is the transformation of the
rock’s minerology and physical characteristics.
28METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Metamorphism is the transformation of the
rock’s minerology and physical characteristics.
29
Types of Metamorphism
1) CONTACT (THERMAL) Metamorphism
✓ evolves when rock near igneous intrusive
gets heated.
✓ produ...
30
Two (2) Main Types:
1) NON-FOLIATED
✓ formed around the igneous intrusive.
✓ their atoms recognize while becoming more ...
31
Two (2) Main Types:
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
• Marble - derived from limestone-its parent rock. A
hard crystalline rock and th...
32
Examples:
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
33METAMORPHIC ROCKS
PROTOLITH
- the original / parent rock or the unmetamorphosed rock
from which a given metamorphic rock...
34METAMORPHIC ROCKS
PROTOLITH
35TYPES OF ROCKS
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Classification of Rocks

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EARTH MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
Topic: Classification of Rocks / Types of Rocks

Senior High School | Earth and Life Science
Learning Competency: Classify rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. (S11/12ES-Ib-10)

Senior High School | Earth Science
Learning Competency: Classify rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. (S11ES-Ic-6)

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Classification of Rocks

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS 1 Classify rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
  2. 2. 2 GemsMinerals
  3. 3. ROCKS • any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. • categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. 3 Kapurpurawan Rock Formation Stonehenge in England A Boulder
  4. 4. 4 Nakabuang Arc, Sabtang Island, Batanes
  5. 5. 5 Kapurpurawan Rock Formations, Burgos, Ilocos Norte
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 Zaragosa Rock Formation (Surigao, Mindanao)
  9. 9. 3 Main Categories of Rocks 9 IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC “ignis” – fire Sediment – materials deposited by water, wind and/or glaciers “meta” – change “morph” - form
  10. 10. 103 Main Categories of Rocks
  11. 11. 11ROCK CYCLE The transformational processes that change rocks from one kind to another.
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13IGNEOUS ROCKS • from a Latin word “ignis” which means fire. • The parent material of igneous rocks is usually magma (a molten material from deep within the earth that cools and hardens).
  14. 14. 14IGNEOUS ROCKS 1) Fine-grained Igneous rock (“Aphanitic”) - has smaller crystal due to the faster rate of cooling of the magma. 2) Coarse-grained Igneous Rock (“Phaneritic”) - has larger crystal due to the slower rate of cooling of the magma. Types based on Texture:
  15. 15. 15IGNEOUS ROCKS Types based on Texture: Fine-grained Igneous rock (“Aphanitic”) Coarse-grained Igneous Rock (“Phaneritic”)
  16. 16. 16IGNEOUS ROCKS 1) Mafic – are magmas associated with crystal spreading. 2) Felsic – are magmas associated with crystal compression. Types based on Composition:
  17. 17. 17IGNEOUS ROCKS 1) INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS ✓ cool slowly ✓ forms coarse grained rock ✓ presence of crystal growth 2) EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS ✓ cool quickly ✓ forms fine-grained rock ✓ lack of crystal growth General Types:
  18. 18. 18IGNEOUS ROCKS General Types:
  19. 19. 19IGNEOUS ROCKS Examples of Igneous Intrusive or Plutonic Igneous Rocks: Granite Gabbro Diorite
  20. 20. 20IGNEOUS ROCKS Examples of Igneous Extrusive or Volcanic Igneous Basalt Obsidian Pumice
  21. 21. 21SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • formed by the compaction and cementing together of sediments (broken pieces of rock-like gravel, sand, silt, or clay)
  22. 22. 22SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Importance Processes Involved: • Lithification - a process of sementing soft, unconsolidated sendiments into hard rocks. • Deposition - process when rocks are fragmented into tiny bits, then carried to low areas and settled at the bottom. • Sedimentation - process of building up of deposited rocks after many years.
  23. 23. 23SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Stages in the Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
  24. 24. 24SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Three (3) Main Types: 1. Clastic- are formed from mechanical weathering debris. 2. Chemical – are formed when dissolved materials precipitate from solution. 3. Organic – are formed by accumulated sedimentary debris caused by organic processes.
  25. 25. 25SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Three (3) Main Types: TYPE EXAMPLES CLASTIC • Conglomerate – composed of pieces pebble-size or larger • Sandstone - composed of sand-size pieces • Shale - composed of pieces smaller than fine sand CHEMICAL • Limestone – a whitish or grayish rock made of the mineral calcite. • Rock salt, iron ore, chert, flint, some dolomites, and more. ORGANIC • coal, lignite, oil shale, or black shale • Chalk • Limestone with fossils • Coquina
  26. 26. 26METAMORPHIC ROCKS • The metamorphic rocks get their name from “meta” (changed) and “morph” (form). • Movement of earth causes rock to be pressed or buried that leads to an increase in temperature and pressure.
  27. 27. 27METAMORPHIC ROCKS Metamorphism is the transformation of the rock’s minerology and physical characteristics.
  28. 28. 28METAMORPHIC ROCKS Metamorphism is the transformation of the rock’s minerology and physical characteristics.
  29. 29. 29 Types of Metamorphism 1) CONTACT (THERMAL) Metamorphism ✓ evolves when rock near igneous intrusive gets heated. ✓ produces non-foliated metamorphic rocks. 2) REGIONAL (PRESSURE) Metamorphism ✓ affects a large area due to mountain formation. ✓ foliated rocks are produced and strong pressure effects. METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  30. 30. 30 Two (2) Main Types: 1) NON-FOLIATED ✓ formed around the igneous intrusive. ✓ their atoms recognize while becoming more compact and dense. ✓ shows color bands that reflects very small impurities. 2) FOLIATED ✓ formed within the earth’s interior. ✓ extremely high temperature and unequal pressure. ✓ better identified on the basis of their texture. METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  31. 31. 31 Two (2) Main Types: METAMORPHIC ROCKS • Marble - derived from limestone-its parent rock. A hard crystalline rock and the most beautiful rock because of its shimmering luster. • Quartzite - derived from sandstone, its hard and durable. • Slate – derived from shale. • Serpentine – originates from basalt. • Gneiss – derived from conglomerate. Contains feldspar or quartz.
  32. 32. 32 Examples: METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  33. 33. 33METAMORPHIC ROCKS PROTOLITH - the original / parent rock or the unmetamorphosed rock from which a given metamorphic rock is formed - From the Greek words: “proto” means first and “lithos” means rock
  34. 34. 34METAMORPHIC ROCKS PROTOLITH
  35. 35. 35TYPES OF ROCKS
  • ChristineMaeEspinosa

    Feb. 24, 2021
  • JovenDelaCruz2

    Nov. 26, 2020

EARTH MATERIALS AND PROCESSES Topic: Classification of Rocks / Types of Rocks Senior High School | Earth and Life Science Learning Competency: Classify rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. (S11/12ES-Ib-10) Senior High School | Earth Science Learning Competency: Classify rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. (S11ES-Ic-6) Please LIKE / FOLLOW and SHARE my other social media accounts.  Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Simple-ABbieC-131584525051378/ ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Youtube: http://tiny.cc/SimpleABbieC ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/AbbieMahinay ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Blogger: https://simpleabbiec.blogspot.com/?m=1

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