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♣ Has only one (1) cotyledon.
♣ Its veins are usually PARALLEL.
♣ Its vascular bundles are complexly
♣ It has fibrous root system.
♣ Its floral parts usually in multiples
of three (3).
♣Have two (2) cotyledons.
♣Its veins are usually NET-LIKE
♣Its vascular bundles are arranged in
♣Taproot is usually present.
♣Its floral parts are usually in
multiples of five (5)
or four (4).
The root is an essential in a
plant. Without it, a plant can’t get
nutrients from the soil and the stem
(containing the leaves and flowers)
will not be able to grow upward.
Stems is an organ of the plant
that supports the leaves and of
course, the flowers in the best
position. It is the passageway of
nutrients from the soil to the parts
of the plant.
Some plant species have modified
stems that are especially suited to a
particular habitat and environment.
There are types of modified stems,
the UNDERGROUND STEMS and
AERIAL STEMS, but we will focus on
Underground stems, by being
situated below the surface of the
soil, protect themselves against
unfavourable conditions of weather
and the attack of animals, and serve
as the store houses for reserve food
and in vegetative propagation. The
underground stems are of four types:
Rhizome is a horizontal
underground stem of some plant that
sends out roots and shoots from its
nodes. Gingers are RHIZOMES.
Bulbs are underground buds with
the stem reduced to a small knob on
which fleshy storage leaves are
clustered. A good example of a bulb is
an ONION ( ).
Corms are upright underground
fleshy stems covered by leaves reduced
to dry, covering scales.
Tubers are fleshy underground
stems modified to store . The
“ ” are the nodes with an axillary
bud in each (the peel is periderm
tissue). (kamote) is an
example of Tubers.
Leaf is a flattened, green, lateral
appendage that carries out the function
of photosynthesis and transpiration. It is
also responsible for taking in CO2 and
releasing O and water vapour.
CHLOROPHYLL is responsible for the
leaf’s green colour.
Bracts are the
leaves at the base
of the flower.
shoots with thin,
Stolons are sometimes called
RUNNERS; they are thin, above
the ground, horizontal stems of
indeterminate growth and long
internodes that grow out from the
Plants organs are composed of
three (3) tissue systems:
It is the
the plant. It
in the plant.
It is composed of
XYLEM and PHLOEM,
which function in the
transport of water and
There are 3 types of Ground tissues:
Parenchyma is located throughout
the plant. It has a spherical shape. It
is assigned for ,
Collenchyma is located beneath the
epidermis in young stem and in leaf
veins. It has elongated cells with
unevenly thickened cell wall. Its
function is to the flexible support
Sclerenchyma is located in the
fibers in woods, bark, leaves, and
stems. Its assigned or the structural
A plant’s growth and development,
on its processes. Growth is irreversible
increase in mass results from the cell
division and cell expansion while
development is the sum of all changes
that progressively happens in an
responsible for the division of new cells
where zones are actively dividing cells
can be found and where it allows the
organisms to have indeterminate growth
which insures that plant can grow
throughout its life.
Cell division occurs solely in
meristemic regions, while expansion may
There are three (3) types of
It is the region of actively dividing
cells and provides plant growth.
Cells in this region grow
longitudinally causing the root to grow
Region of mature primary tissues
where active water and minerals are
Meristematic tissues are groups
of young cells that undergo
continuous state of division. These
tissues are mostly found at the
APICES of ROOT and SHOOT.
, their characteristics
♣They are living and thin walled.
♣Vacuoles are few and small in sizes
♣The cells contain dense protoplasm and
♣The cells are SPHERICAL, OVAL or
POLYGONAL in shape.
♣They do not store reserve food material
and are in an active state of
There are three different types of
♣Promeristem or Primordial Meristem
It is a group of meristematic
cells of a growing organ. It is the early
embryonic meristem from which other
advanced meristems are derived. In a
plant, it occupies a small area at the
tip of the stem and root.
♠ PROMERISTEM or
They are present under
the Primordial Meristem at the
shoot and root apices.
♠ PRIMARY MERISTEM
It is derived from
primary permanent tissues which
have the capacity of division.
♠ SECONDARY MERISTEM