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Chapter 3 : Perpetuation of Life

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Chapter 3 : Perpetuation of Life

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Chapter 3 : Perpetuation of Life

  1. 1. Chapter 3 PERPETUATION OF LIFE
  2. 2. PLANT REPRODUCTION
  3. 3. THESE PARTS PRODUCE SEX CELLS OR GAMETES IN THE FORM OF OVULES AND POLLEN GRAINS. THESE ARE THE REPRODUCTIVE PARTS OF THE PLANTS:
  4. 4. FLOWER IN FLOWERING PLANTS, SEX CELLS ARE PRODUCED IN CERTAIN FLORAL ORGANS.
  5. 5. Peduncle: The stalk of a flower. Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached. Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose a developing bud. Petal: The parts of a flower that are often conspicuously colored. Stamen: The pollen producing part of a flower, usually with a slender filament supporting the anther. Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is produced. Pistil: The ovule producing part of a flower. The ovary often supports a long style, topped by a stigma. The mature ovary is a fruit, and the mature ovule is a seed. Stigma: The part of the pistil where pollen germinates. Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are produced.
  6. 6. THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN IS CALLED THE STAMEN WHICH HAS TWO PARTS: THE ANTHER (PRODUCES THE POLLEN, WHICH CONTAINS THE MALE SPERM CELLS) AND THE FILAMENT (THAT HOLDS OR SUPPORTS THE ANTHER)
  7. 7. THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN IS PISTIL. THE OVULES ARE EQUIVALENT TO THE POLLEN GRAINS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN. OTHER PARTS OF PISTIL (STIGMA, STYLE, OVARY AND THE OVULE)
  8. 8. TYPES OF REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS SELF-FERTILIZATION/SELF-POLLINATION OCCURS IN BISEXUAL ORGANISMS,INCLUDING MOST FLOWERING PLANTS,NUMEROUS PROTOZOANS, AND MENY INVERTRBRATES.THE MECHANISM IS OBSERVED MOST OFTEN IN SOME LEGUMES SUCH AS PEANUTS.IN OTHER LEGUMES LIKE SOYBEANS, THE FLOWERS OPEN AND REMAIN RECEPTIVE TO INSECT CROSS POLINATION DURING THE DAY;IF THIS NOT ACCOMPLISHED,THE FLOWER MAY SELF-POLLINATED AS THEY ARE CLOSING.OTHER PLANTS THAT CAN SELF-POLLINATED ARE ORCHIDS,PEAS,SUNFLOWERS,TRIDAX,ETC.
  9. 9. CROSS-FERTILIZATION OCCUR BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE SAME SPECIES,FOR EXAMPLE,IT IS IMPOSIBLE TO CREATE A HYBRID OF A CUCUMBER AND A ZUCCHINI AS THEY SEPARATE SPECIES WITH IN THE SAME FAMILY,HOWEVER,IT WOULD BE POSIBLE TO CROSS A ZUCCHINI WITH ANOTHER SQUASH,LIKE PUMKIN AS THEY BELONG TO THE SAME SPECIES.CROSS-FERTILIZATIO ON PLANTS WHERE THE INSECTS ARE THE AGENTS (APPLES,PLUMS,PEARS,RASPBERRIES,BLACKBERRIES,BLACKCURR ANTS,STRAWBERRIES,RUNNER BEANS,PUMPKINS,DAFFODILS,TULIPS,HEATHER,LAVENDER,AND ETC. CROSS-FERTILIZATIO ON PLANTS WHERE WIND IS THE MAIN AGENT(GRASS,CATKINS,DANDELIONS,MAPLE TREES, AND GOAT’S BEARD)
  10. 10. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL (PARENT) IS CAPABLE OF PRODUCING OFFSPRING,AS A RESULT, THE OFFSPRING THAT ARE PRODUCED ARE NOT ONLY IDENTICAL TO ONE ANOTHER BUT ARE ALSO EXACT COPIES OF THEIR PARENT. ALL THESE METHODS OF REPRODUCTION WORK WELL.HOWEVER, THEY DO NOT MAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR PLANTS TO MOVE TO NEW LOCATIONS.IN ADDITION TO REPRODUCING ASEXUALLY,MOST LAND PLANTS ALSO REPRODUCE SEXUALLY.
  11. 11. A) BINARY FISSION (“DIVISION IN HALF”) IS A KIND OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION.ANOTHER TYPE OF FISSION IS MULTIPLE FISSION,WHICH IS ADVANTAGEOUS TO THE PLANT LIFE CYCLE.MULTIPLE FISSION,AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL OF OCCURS IN MANY PROTIST. B) BUDDING INVOLVES THE GROWTH OF A SMALL BULB-LIKE PROJECTION CALLED BUD.IT GROWS AND DETACHES ITSELF FROM THE PARENT CELL TO GROW INDEPENDENTLY INTO A NEW ORGANISM. C) FRAGMENTATION INVOLVES BREAKING DOWN OF FILAMENTS INTO FRAGMENTS THAT GROW IN TO YOUNG ONES.
  12. 12. D) ARTIFICIAL VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION THE PROCESS OF PROPAGATING PLANTS THROUGH ARTIFICIAL METHODS IS CALLED ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION.THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION ARE GRAFTING,CUTTING,LAYERING, AND TISSUE CULTURE I. GRAFTING THE METHOD WHICH INVOLVES DEVELOPMENT OF NEW VARETIES OF FRUIT PLANTS. II.CUTTING INVOLVES PLANTING A YOUNG CUTTING OF THE STEM WITH BUDS INTO MOIST SOIL. III.LAYERING INVOLVES BENDING OF A YOUNG STEM TOWARDS THE GROUND AND LET IT GROW UNDER THE SOIL. IV.TISSUES CULTURE A MASS OF TISSUE IS SELECTED FROM THE GROWING TIP OF PLANT. THIS IS TERMED AS CALLUS
  13. 13. E) NATURAL VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IS ALSO USED IN AGGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE TO PROPAGATE A PARTICULARLY DESIRABLE PLANT. MOST ROSES AND POTATOES,ARE VEGETATIVELY PROPAGATED. 1) STOLONS ARE STEMS WHICH GROW AT THE SOIL SURFACE OR JUST BELOW GROUND THAT FORM ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS AT THE NODES, AND NEW PLANTS FROM THE BUDS. 2) RHIZOMES ARE ALSO IMPORTANT REPRODUCTIVE SRUCTURES, PARTICULARLY IN GRASS AND SEDGES.IT INVADE AREAS NEAR THE PARENT PLANT, AND EACH NODE CAN GIVE RISE TO A NEW FLOWERING SHOT. 3) SUCKERS IS A PLANT GROWING NOT FROM A SEED BUT FROM A MERISTEM OF THE ROOT AT THE BASE OR AT A CERTAIN DISTANCE FROM A TREE OR SHRUB.
  14. 14. 4) ADVENTITIOUS LEAVES ADVENTITIOUS BUDS DEVELOP FROM PLACES OTHER THAN A SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM, WHICH OCCURS AT THE TIP OF A STEM, OR ON A SHOOT NODE, AT THE LEAF AXIL, THE BUD BEING LEFT THERE DURING THE PRIMARY GROWTH. 5) APOMIXIS AS REPLACEMENT OF THE NORMAL SEXUAL REPRODUCTION BY ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION, WITHOUT FERTILIZATION. F) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION INVOLVES TWO FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES: MEIOSIS, WHICH REARRANGES THE GENES AND REDUCES THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES, AND FERTILIZATION, WHICH RESTORES THE CHROMOSOME TO A COMPLETE DIPLOID NUMBER. IN BETWEEN THESE TWO PROCESSES, DIFFERENT TYPES OF PLANTS AND ALGAE VARY, BUT MANY OF THEM, INCLUDING ALL LAND PLANTS, UNDERGO ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS, WITH TWO DIFFERENT MULTICELLULAR STRUCTURES (PHASES), A GAMETOPHYTE AND A SPOROPHYTE. I. CONIFEROUS TREES A GROUP OF PLANTS CALLED GYMNOSPERM DEVELOPED WIND BORNE POLLEN LIKE THE CYCADS, GINKOS AND NEEDLE-BEARING TREES SUCH AS PINES AND REDWOODS. II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FLOWER A NEW GROUP OF PLANTS, THE ANGIOSPERMS,APPEARED ABOUT 110 MILLION YEARS AGO. THESE PLANTS DEVELOPED A NUMBER OF STRUCTURAL INNOVATIONS, THE MOST STRIKING OF WHICH IS THE FLOWER.
  15. 15. ORGANS OF PLANTS THE ORGANS OF PLANTS ARE DIVIDED INTO VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE .THE VEGETATIVE ORAGANS ARE THE LEAVES, STEM, AND ROOTS. THE LEAVES TAKE CARE FOR FOOD MANUFACTURE AND TRANSPIRATION. THE STEM SUPPORTS THE LEAVE AND PARTS OF THE PLANT. THE ROOTS ABSORB WATER AND MINERALS AND ANCHOR THE PLANT TO THE SOIL.THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PERPETUATION OF THE PLANT. THESE ARE THE FLOWERS, FRUIT AND SEEDS. I. FLOWER HAS TREE MAIN ORAGANS,NAMELY:ESSENTIAL ORAGANS WHICH FUNCTION FOR ATTRACTION;AND THE ACCESSORY ORGANS WHICH PERFORM FUNCTIONS LIKE SUPPORT AND PROTECTION
  16. 16. Most animals are capable of complex and relatively rapid movement compared to plants and other organisms. Most reproduce sexually, by means of differentiated eggs and sperm. Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material.
  17. 17. The Animals which give birth to live offspring are called live-bearing or viviparous. The animals which lay eggs are called egg-laying or oviparous.
  18. 18. Live-bearing or viviparous
  19. 19. Egg Laying or Oviparous
  20. 20. Asexual Reproduction
  21. 21. Parthenogenesis
  22. 22. Example of Parthenogenesis
  23. 23. Budding What is budding? Budding is a type of asexual reproduction. It is most commonly associated with bacteria and yeast, but some animal species reproduce via budding, too. A parent organism creates a bud from its own cells, which then form the basis of the offspring organism and develop into an organism resembling the parent.
  24. 24. Fragmentation What is Fragmentation? Fragmentation is a form of asexualreproduction where a new organism grows from afragment of the parent. Each fragment develops into a fully grown individual. Fragmentation is seen in many organisms such as animals (some annelid worms and sea stars), fungi, and plants.
  25. 25. Binary Fission What is a binary fission? - Binary fission is the primary method of reproduction of prokaryotic organisms. In protists, binary fission is often differentiated into types, such as transverse or longitudinal, depending on the axis of cell separation. - Asexual reproduction in free-living species usually involves nuclear division and the division of the cell into two identical daughter cells of equal size by binary fission.
  26. 26. Example of Binary Fission
  27. 27. Sexual Reproduction
  28. 28. Example of Hermaphroditism
  29. 29. Example of sequential hermaphroditism
  30. 30. How Genes Work
  31. 31. A gene is a segment of DNA that encodes a unique protein that performs a specialized function in the cell. It is a functional unit of heredity. A gene is capable of storing information and capable of self-replication and can undergo mutations. It acts as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes.
  32. 32. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features
  33. 33. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DNA • DNA means deoxyribonucleic acid • Found within the nucleus of each cell • Your DNA is like your thumbprint. No one else in this world has exactly the same DNA as you. • DNA holds the genetic information needed to make and control all cellular activities within a living organism. • DNA has four bases: Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Thymine(T) and Cytosine (C)
  34. 34. • A and G are double-ring structures called purines; T and C are single-ring structures called pyrimidines. • The nucleotide is the building block of DNA ~It is made up of four bases , a five carbon sugar deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. • Humans have 3 billion bases, • The order or sequence of these bases determine the information available for building and maintaining an organism.
  35. 35. DNAare found in every cell of a person’s body. It is mostly located in cell nucleus (Nuclear DNA) but a small amount of DNAfound in the mitochondria (mitochondrial DNA/ mtDNA). Each strand in the double helix can serve as a pattern for the duplicating the sequence of bases.
  36. 36. WATSON AND CRICK MODEL In 1953, James Watson and Frances Crick worked out that DNA is like a “double helix”. The DNA is a double helix because of the two strands which wind around each other. The two sugar-phosphate backbones make up the sides and the base pairs make up the rung or steps of the winding staircase. The model shows that paired nucelotide, which always occur as A-T or G-C, are linked by hydrogen bonds. This is called the complementary base pairing.
  37. 37. Why is DNA Important? All the characteristics that you have are affected by the DNA in your cells. It controls the color of your eyes, hair, complexion, height and many more. These characteristics, are traits that can be inherited. How traits appear in you depends on the kind of proteins your cells make. DNA stores the blueprints for making proteins.
  38. 38. How DNA Copies Itself Step 1: an enzyme breaks the bond between the nitrogen bases. The two strands of DNA splits. Step2: The bases attach to each strand then pair up with the free nucleotides found in the cytoplasm Step 3: The complementary nucleotides join to form new strands.
  39. 39. The DNA replication is known as semi- conservative replication because one of the old strands is conserved in each daughter molecule.
  40. 40. Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. This genetic material is known as Mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria which are located in the cytoplasm. Mitochondria also produces energy called oxidative phosphorylation. This process uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate(ATP). A set of enzyme complexes, designated as I-V, carry out oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria.
  41. 41. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. 13 of these genes provide instructions from making enzymes. The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNAs(tRNAs) and ribosomal RNA(rRNAs) which are chemical cousins of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks(amino acids)into functioning proteins.
  42. 42. DNA RNA Function Stores genetic information Involved in protein synthesis Location Remains in the nucleus Leaves the nucleus Structure Double helix Usually single strand Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Pyrimidines Cytosine, Thymine Cytosine, Guanine Purines Adenine, Guanine Adenine, Guanine What is RNA? RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is a long strand made up of a building block called nucleotides. RNA has a single chain and does not entwine in a double helix.
  43. 43. Protein Synthesis Part I- Transcription 1. mRNA travels from the cell’s cytoplasm into the nucleus 2. In the nucleus, DNA unzips 3. mRNA nucleotides float into unzipped DNA following the order of the nitrogenous bases 4. Nitrogenous base pairing in the chart below 5. mRNA carries DNA’s code, in its strand, out into cytoplasm 6. In the cytoplasm mRNA joins with tRNA for next step, translation 7. Nitrogenous Base Pairing
  44. 44. DNA RNA G C T A C G A U
  45. 45. Part II- Translation 1. mRNA travels to and joins to a ribosomal unit at the 5’ untranslated region. 2. A tRNA carrying a “start” codon and the amino acid attaches to the codon of mRNA 3. The ribosome moves in the 3’ direction down the mRNA by three bases of one codon shifting the tRNA and protein(polypeptide chain) 4. tRNA ejected from the ribosome. 5. Process continues until a “stop” codon is reached which finishes the process releasing the protein.
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Chapter 3 : Perpetuation of Life

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