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Sociology of Gender : Sex & Gender

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Sociology of Gender : Sex & Gender

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Content :
- Sex
- Concept of Gender
- Gender & Socialization
- Theories of Gender
1.Functionalist Theory
2.Conflict Theory
3.Symbolic Interaction Theory
- Major Differences

Content :
- Sex
- Concept of Gender
- Gender & Socialization
- Theories of Gender
1.Functionalist Theory
2.Conflict Theory
3.Symbolic Interaction Theory
- Major Differences

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Sociology of Gender : Sex & Gender

  1. 1. SEX & GENDER Syed Aasim Suhail (MA Sociology)
  2. 2. ‫سنج‬ ( SEX ) ‫٭‬ Biological Orientation ‫اٹن‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ںیم‬‫اخونں‬‫و‬‫د‬‫٭ےسج‬ ‫ے؛‬‫ا‬‫تاب‬ ‫ذمرک‬ ( Male ) ‫ث‬‫ن‬‫وم‬ ( Female ) ‫ک‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫رسیتا‬ Exception ‫ے‬ ‫ےسج‬ Intersex ‫۔وج‬‫ںیہ‬‫ےتہک‬ Biological Disorder ‫ے۔ےسج‬ ‫سنئ‬‫سا‬‫لکی‬‫ڈ‬‫ی‬‫م‬ ‫ںیم‬ DSD ( Differences of Sex Development ) ‫امسجین‬‫وک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬‫ےن‬‫ت‬‫٭دقر‬ ‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫انب‬‫اسیک‬‫رپ‬‫وطر‬‫ایحایتیت‬ ‫ے۔‬‫ا‬‫ب‬ • ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫ف‬‫یت‬‫دقر‬‫ںیم‬‫ت‬‫وعر‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫رمد‬‫د‬‫رما‬‫ےس‬‫سنج‬ ‫ےوجہک‬ ‫ز‬‫ن‬‫وم‬‫اہر‬ ‫وصخ‬‫امسجین‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫دیپا‬‫ب‬‫سب‬‫ےک‬‫ایصت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬‫وہےت‬ Biological & Physical characteristics of Male & Females • ‫ے۔‬‫ا‬‫وہب‬‫ںیہن‬‫ںیم‬‫ایتخر‬‫ا‬‫ےک‬‫ں‬‫سا‬‫ن‬‫ا‬‫نیعت‬‫اک‬‫سنج‬ ( Inherited by birth ) • ‫لح‬‫رما‬ STAGES : .1 ‫م‬‫و‬‫ومر‬‫رکو‬ Chromosomes : ‫ے‬‫امہر‬ Cells ‫ںیم‬ ‫سم‬‫و‬‫ومر‬‫رکو‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬‫وہےت‬‫وموجد‬ .2 ‫ں‬‫ا‬ ‫سم‬‫و‬‫ومر‬‫رکو‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫اینیجیت‬ ‫ہ‬‫امد‬ ‫اینب‬‫یک‬‫م‬‫و‬‫ومر‬‫رکو‬‫۔‬‫ے‬‫ا‬‫وہب‬‫وموجد‬ ‫۔‬‫ںیہ‬‫ےتہک‬‫ نی‬‫وک‬‫ ی‬‫اک ی‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ .3 ‫ےک‬‫ نی‬ ‫و‬‫د‬ ‫ء‬‫زجا‬‫ا‬ ‫ےسج‬‫ے‬‫ا‬‫وہب‬‫لم‬‫ا‬‫س‬‫ےس‬‫ث‬‫ن‬‫تا‬‫یک‬‫امں‬‫وج‬‫ک‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ے‬ " ‫ہضیب‬ Ovum " ‫ںیہ‬‫ےتہک‬ ‫ےسج‬‫ےس‬‫ث‬‫ن‬‫تا‬‫یک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫رسا‬‫و‬‫د‬‫ہکبج‬ " ‫ہفطن‬ Sperm " ‫ے۔‬‫ےتہک‬ .4 XY ‫م‬‫و‬‫ومر‬‫رکو‬ – ‫ہکبج‬‫ںیم‬‫ذمرک‬ XX ‫م‬‫و‬‫ومر‬‫رکو‬ – ‫اک‬‫ث‬‫ن‬‫وم‬ ‫اینیجیت‬ ‫اخہک‬ ‫انبےت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ .5 ‫ےلہپ‬‫رپ‬‫اینبد‬‫یک‬‫وصخایصت‬‫یسنج‬ ‫اینبد‬‫ں‬‫ا‬ ‫ین‬‫ر‬‫دنو‬‫ا‬ ‫ریب‬‫رھپ‬ ‫ین‬‫و‬ Structures ‫ںیہ۔‬‫وہےت‬‫ایتر‬ ( Organs ‫ںیہ‬‫وہےت‬‫ایتر‬ ) Sex & Gender 2
  3. 3. ‫فنص‬ ( GENDER ) • ‫سنج‬ ( SEX ) ‫ایح‬‫وموجد‬‫ایمں‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫ےک‬‫ت‬‫وعر‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫رمد‬‫ث‬‫ق‬‫و‬‫رکےت‬‫امعتسل‬‫ا‬‫الح‬‫ط‬‫ص‬‫ا‬‫یک‬ ‫ایت‬ ‫الافت‬‫ی‬‫خ‬‫ا‬‫امسجین‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫یت‬ ‫فنص‬‫ہکبج‬‫ںیہ‬‫وہےت‬‫د‬‫رما‬ ( GENDER ) ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫اعمرشیت‬‫امنیب‬‫ےک‬‫ت‬‫وعر‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫رمد‬‫د‬‫رما‬‫ےس‬ ‫دمت‬ ‫ین‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬‫الافت‬‫ی‬‫خ‬‫ا‬ Socially constructed characteristics of Male & Female • ‫اھکی‬‫د‬‫ںیم‬‫رظنم‬‫سپ‬‫یخی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫تاےئ‬ ‫فنص‬‫وت‬ Gender ‫ا‬‫ب‬‫یب‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫ک‬‫ب‬‫ا‬ Linguistic ‫امعتس‬‫ا‬‫رپ‬‫وطر‬‫ےک‬‫الح‬‫ط‬‫ص‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وہیت‬ ‫یھت۔نکیل‬ ‫وک‬‫الح‬‫ط‬‫ص‬‫ا‬‫س‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ملع‬ ‫امسایجت‬ ‫رمہبت‬‫ی‬‫ہل‬‫پ‬ ‫ےس‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫ںیم‬ ‫نی‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ےلک‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ( Ann Oaklay ) ‫ےن‬ ‫۔‬‫ایک‬‫امعتسل‬‫ا‬ ‫ےلک‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫یکن‬‫رپا‬‫ق‬‫ر‬‫ف‬‫ےک‬‫فنص‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫سنج‬‫ےن‬ ‫اتکب‬ SEX, GENDER AND SOCIETY ( 1972 ) ‫ںیم‬ ‫ےس‬‫لیصفت‬ ‫اھکلے۔‬ ‫ں‬‫ا‬ ‫ںیہ‬‫و‬‫ے‬‫یت‬‫دقر‬‫اینبد‬‫یک‬‫سنج‬‫اطمقب‬‫ےک‬ ‫ریمعت‬‫اقثیتف‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫امسیج‬‫ک‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫فنص‬ ‫ے‬ ‫۔‬ • ‫ولہپ‬‫مہ‬‫ا‬‫نیت‬‫قلعتم‬‫ےس‬‫فنص‬ : .1 ‫رپ‬‫حطس‬ ‫د‬‫رفنا‬‫ا‬ Gender ‫ب‬‫خ‬‫انش‬‫ین‬‫سا‬‫ن‬‫ا‬ ( Human Identity ) ‫ے۔‬‫ہعی‬‫ر‬‫د‬‫مہ‬‫ا‬‫ک‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫اک‬ .2 ‫حطس‬‫الیتم‬‫ع‬ ( Symbolic Level :) ‫اقثیتف‬‫امتم‬‫ں‬‫ا‬‫ہی‬ ‫ت‬‫ا‬‫ایعمر‬ ‫ایقونیس‬‫د‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ا‬‫وصتر‬ ( Stereotypes ) ‫وجہک‬ ‫اک‬‫فنص‬‫یھب‬‫ہ‬‫و‬‫ںیہ‬‫ہتسب‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫ےس‬‫ت‬‫وعر‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫رمد‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬‫ولہپ‬‫رسا‬‫و‬‫د‬ .3 ‫حطس‬‫یتخ‬‫سا‬ ( Structured Level :) ‫میسقت‬‫یک‬‫تنحم‬‫رپ‬‫اینبد‬‫یک‬‫سنج‬ ( Division of Labour ) ‫یھب‬ ‫ر‬‫ڈ‬‫ی‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ‫ے۔‬‫ولہپ‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫ک‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ ی‬‫اک‬ Social Construct ‫اخونں‬‫و‬‫د‬ ‫ے‬‫ا‬‫تاب‬‫اٹن‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ںیم‬ ‫؛‬ ‫وجتیل‬‫ر‬ ( Masculinity ) ‫تین‬‫وسنا‬ ( Femineity ) Sex & Gender 3
  4. 4. ‫نی‬َ‫ا‬ ‫ےلک‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫اک‬ ‫انہک‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ہک‬ ‫فنص‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ریمعت‬ ‫ںیم‬ Socialization ‫اک‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫ا‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫لخ‬‫د‬ ‫ےہ۔سج‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےعی‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫نپچب‬ ‫یہ‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫ڑلےک‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ڑل‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫فنص‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫ف‬ ‫اقمئ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬‫اجت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ‫پروسیس‬ : .1 ‫ن‬‫سا‬‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫نپچب‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫ےلہپ‬ ‫ینپ‬‫ا‬ ‫یت‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫ب‬‫خ‬‫انش‬ Manipulation ‫ےک‬ ‫ےعی‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫اتھکیس‬ ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ث‬‫م‬‫ےہ۔‬ : ‫امنیئ‬ ‫ےٹیب‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫یٹیب‬ ‫وک‬ ‫فلتخم‬ ‫ڑپکے‬ ‫ا‬‫انہپت‬ ‫ع‬‫رشو‬ ‫رکیت‬ ‫ںیہ۔وج‬ ‫یت‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫ب‬‫خ‬‫انش‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ب‬‫ی‬‫خ‬‫ال‬‫ص‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫اضہف‬‫ا‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ب‬‫سب‬ ‫ا‬‫ث‬‫ب‬‫ت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ .2 ‫یفنص‬ ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫ف‬ ‫اقمئ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬‫اجت‬ ‫ےہ۔وچبن‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ہی‬ ‫وعشر‬ ‫دیپا‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬‫اجت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ہک‬ ‫ںیھن‬‫ا‬ ‫یسک‬ ‫رطح‬ ‫اک‬ ‫امسیج‬ ‫لمع‬ ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ‫س‬‫ےہا‬ ‫لمع‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ڑلےک‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ڑلیک‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫یفنص‬ ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫ف‬ ‫اقمئ‬ ‫رکےن‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےئل‬ ‫ںیھن‬‫ا‬ ‫فلتخم‬ ‫ایشءرطف‬‫ا‬ ‫لقتنم‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬‫اجت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫اہجن‬ ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫رطف‬ ‫ڑلےک‬ ‫ی‬‫اگر‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫دنب‬ ‫ق‬‫و‬ ‫ےسیج‬ ‫امن‬‫سا‬ ‫ولھکےن‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫وطر‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫امعتسل‬‫ا‬ ‫رکےت‬ ‫ںیہ‬ ‫ںیہ‬‫و‬ ‫ڑلویکن‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ڑ‬‫گ‬ ‫نچک‬ ‫ب‬‫سب‬ ‫ےسیج‬ ‫ولھکےن‬ ‫ایہم‬ ‫ےئک‬ ‫اجےت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےعی‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ےگ‬‫ا‬ ‫یک‬ ‫دنیگ‬‫ر‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ےکن‬‫ا‬ ‫گل‬‫ا‬ ‫گل‬‫ا‬ ‫امسیج‬ ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫رکد‬ ‫نیعتم‬ ‫رک‬ ‫ےن‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫دمد‬ ‫یتلم‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ .3 ‫ین‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫رگی‬‫د‬ ‫اک‬ ‫لمع۔سج‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ڑلےک‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ڑلویکن‬ ‫وک‬ ‫فلتخم‬ ‫افلظ‬‫ا‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫اخمبط‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬‫ث‬‫م‬‫ےہ۔‬‫ا‬‫اجت‬ Good boy, Good girl ‫ریغہ‬‫و‬ ‫سج‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ہج‬‫و‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫ےچب‬ ‫ےنپ‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ث‬‫م‬ ‫الس‬‫ت‬ ‫رکےت‬ ‫ںیہ‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ےنپ‬‫ا‬ ‫مہ‬ ‫فنص‬ ‫ن‬‫و‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫یک‬ ‫لقن‬ ‫یھب‬ ‫رکےن‬ ‫ےتگل‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ ( Follow ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ) .4 ‫سنج‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اطمقب‬ ‫وچبن‬ ‫وک‬ ‫فلتخم‬ ‫رسرگویمن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫رطف‬ ‫املئ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬‫اجت‬ ‫ےہ۔ڑلویکن‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ر‬‫ث‬‫ک‬‫ا‬ ‫رھگ‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اکومن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫رطف‬ ‫یپسچل‬‫د‬ ‫اھیئ‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫اجیت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ںیہ‬‫و‬ ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫سکع‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫ڑلوکن‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ی‬‫ر‬‫ہ‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫اکومن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫رطف‬ ‫املئ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ا‬‫اجت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ‫ر‬‫ڈ‬‫ی‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ‫اک‬‫امسح‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ Sex & Gender 4
  5. 5. Sociologists argue that gender is learnt through socialization. Every culture asserts the behaviors and attitudes that are appropriate for one’s sex. The sociological significance of gender is that it is a device by which society controls its members. Sociologists reinforce that the types of work men and women do in each society are determined not by biology but by social arrangements. Biology “causes” some human behavior, but they are related to reproduction or differences in body structure. Sociologists are of the opinion gender roles and gender identity are more fashioned by nurture. Conventional wisdom, culture create and sustain gender identity and gender roles in a society. Gender appropriate behaviors are learnt from the people around who play a significant role in gender socialization. “ Navaneeta Rath ” Brief Gender? Sex & Gender 5
  6. 6. THEORIES OF GENDER Sex & Gender 6 ‫اسپینسر‬ : • ‫رمد‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫ڑ‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫۔ہکبج‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ایمن‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ھچک‬ Biological Differences ‫وموجد‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • ‫ںیت‬‫وعر‬ ‫ن‬‫و‬‫رمد‬ ‫یک‬ ‫امتحت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ( Subordination of women by men ) ‫کومٹ‬ : • ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫وک‬ ‫رمد‬ ‫رپ‬ Emotional ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ Spiritual ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ث‬‫مب‬‫ا‬ ‫احلص‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • ‫ہکبج‬ ‫ونن‬‫و‬‫د‬ ‫ںیم‬ Biological Differences ‫وموجد‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • ‫نکیل‬ ‫ہی‬ ‫الف‬‫ث‬‫خ‬‫ا‬ ‫یھب‬ ‫وتن‬‫وعر‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ن‬‫و‬‫رمد‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ل‬‫ت‬‫اقم‬ ‫یت‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ذ‬‫ج‬ ‫وطر‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫وبضمظ‬ ‫ا‬‫انبت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ‫درکھائم‬ : • ‫نیت‬‫وخا‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ھچک‬ ‫اخص‬ ‫وصخایصب‬ ‫وہیت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫وج‬ ‫ںیہن‬‫ا‬ ‫ینہ‬‫د‬ ‫ص‬‫رما‬‫ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےیل‬ ‫ہ‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫اسحس‬ ‫انبیت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ( (more sensitive for mental disease • ‫نیت‬‫وخا‬ ‫ن‬‫و‬‫رمد‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اقمےلب‬ ‫ی‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫س‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ہ‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫وفحمظ‬ ‫وسحمس‬ ‫رکیت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ ( Women feel more secure in marriage ) ‫جون‬ ‫بولبی‬ ( John Bowlby ) : • ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫رکد‬ ‫وچبن‬ ‫ےک‬ Socialization ‫ںیم‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫دیلکی‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • ‫نج‬ ‫وچبن‬ ‫دلہ‬‫ا‬‫وکو‬ ‫یک‬ ‫وغس‬‫ا‬ ‫رسیم‬ ‫ںیہن‬ ‫یت‬‫ا‬ ‫ہ‬‫و‬ ‫امسیج‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ایسفنیت‬ disorder ‫ںیم‬ ‫ال‬‫ث‬‫مب‬ ‫وہاجےت‬ ‫ںیہ‬ ‫۔ےسج‬ ‫ی‬‫لب‬‫وب‬ Mental Deprivation ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ق‬ ‫ےتی‬‫د‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ Functionalist Theory
  7. 7. Sex & Gender 7 ‫ٹیلکوٹ‬ ‫پارسنز‬ : • ‫ن‬‫و‬‫رمد‬ ‫وک‬ ‫زنس‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ےن‬ ‫لیفک‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫وطر‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫اھکی‬‫د‬ ‫ےہسج‬ ‫اک‬ ‫اکم‬ ‫انتو‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫رھگا‬ ‫وہا‬ ‫ا‬‫وہت‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ےہا‬ ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫انتو‬ ‫وک‬ ‫مک‬ ‫رک‬ ‫ےن‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫ویبی‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ل‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫مہ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫وہت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • ‫زنس‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اطمقب‬ ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ل‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫امسح‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫امن‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ویبی‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫وطر‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫مہ‬‫ا‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ‫زنس‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ہچب‬ ‫دیپا‬ ‫رکےن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫وقب‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫رھپ‬ ‫وچبن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫رتتیب‬ ‫رکےن‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ل‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫وک‬ ‫امسح‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ن‬‫ر‬‫وتا‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ی‬‫ر‬‫رضو‬ ‫اتی‬‫د‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ق‬ ‫ےہ۔امسح‬ ‫ی‬‫اکر‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫امن‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫رکد‬ ‫ب‬‫س‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫مہ‬‫ا‬ ‫رتنی‬ ‫ا‬‫وہت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • Man fill Instrumental Role in Society Task Oriented Leader ( ‫ےنپ‬‫ا‬ ‫اکم‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫وفسک‬ ‫ہک‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ‫رھگ‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ت‬‫ل‬‫افک‬ ‫اجنم‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬‫د‬ ‫اجےکس‬ ‫۔‬ Food & Shelter ‫اک‬ ‫اظتنم‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ) • Women fill Expressive Role in Society Social Emotional Behaviour ( ‫رھگ‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ہم‬‫د‬ ،‫ی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫الد‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫یک‬ ‫رتتیب‬ ) • Domestic Division of Labour Women are naturally suited to nurturing the family Men are naturally suited to be Provider for the family ‫قدیم‬ ‫سماج‬ : • ‫دقمی‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫د‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫رمد‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ایمن‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ن‬‫ر‬‫وتما‬ division of labour ‫وموجد‬ ‫اھت۔اخص‬ ‫وطر‬ ‫رپ‬ Hunting & Gathering Society ‫ںیم۔‬ ‫رمد‬ Hunter ‫اک‬ ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫رکد‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ‫اھت‬ ‫ہکبج‬ ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫امن‬ ، ‫رنس‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ Housekeeping ‫اک‬ ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫رکد‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬‫ا‬ ‫رکیت‬ ‫یھت۔‬ • ‫یس‬‫ا‬ ‫ےئل‬ Functionalist ‫فنص‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫یت‬‫دقر‬ ‫میسقت‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫وطر‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫ےتھکی‬‫د‬ ‫ںیہ‬ ‫وج‬ ‫ونن‬‫و‬‫د‬ ‫وسنجن‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫امسجین‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫یٹ‬‫انبو‬ ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫ف‬ ‫یک‬ ‫اینبد‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫ینبم‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • Murdock held this issue as, Sexual division of labour exists in every culture.
  8. 8. Sex & Gender 8 ‫کارل‬ ‫مارکس‬ : • ‫سک‬‫امر‬ ‫امسح‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ت‬‫ل‬‫اغ‬ ‫وہن‬‫رگو‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ایمن‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫لئ‬‫سا‬‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫عئ‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫یک‬ Struggle ‫یک‬ ‫لکش‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫اتھکی‬‫د‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • In terms of Struggle for Economic Resources between dominant groups • ‫سلجنی‬‫ا‬ ‫ےن‬ ‫سک‬‫امر‬ ‫اکفر‬‫ےکا‬ ‫اک‬ ‫زجتہی‬ ‫رکےت‬ ‫وہےئ‬ ‫ےس‬ُ‫ا‬ ‫شیپ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ( ‫یلمیف‬ structure ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ذ‬‫ث‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ‫ل‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫رپ‬ ) • ‫ر‬‫ذ‬‫ث‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫انترظ‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫ب‬‫خ‬ ‫امسح‬ ‫وک‬ ‫ےتھکی‬‫د‬ ‫ںیہ‬ ‫وت‬ men as the dominant group ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ women as the subordinate group ‫۔‬ ‫وچہکن‬ Conflict ‫ی‬‫ویھتر‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اطمقب‬ ‫امسیج‬ ‫ہلئسم‬ ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ق‬‫و‬ ‫دیپا‬ ‫ا‬‫وہت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ب‬‫خ‬ dominant ‫ب‬‫رگو‬ subordinate ‫ب‬‫رگو‬ ‫وک‬ exploit ‫ا‬‫ت‬ oppress ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ • ‫سلجنی‬‫ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اطمقب‬ ‫امسح‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫وج‬ ‫م‬‫اصتد‬ ‫اتلچ‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫یہ‬‫و‬ ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫یلمیف‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫یھب‬ ‫وموجد‬ ‫ےہ۔رمد‬ ‫وچہکن‬ ‫ا‬‫امکت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ےئلس‬‫ا‬ ‫ہ‬‫و‬ ‫وتقر‬‫طا‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫وعر‬ ‫یکس‬‫ا‬ ‫امتحت‬ ‫سلجنی‬‫ےہ۔ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اطمقب‬ ‫رسامہی‬ ‫ہن‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫اظنم‬ ‫یہ‬ male dominance ‫وک‬ ‫ذ‬‫ت‬‫ر‬‫م‬ ‫وتقر‬‫طا‬ ‫ا‬‫انبت‬ ‫سج‬،‫ےہ‬ ‫یک‬ ‫نیت‬ ‫احںیتل‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ • ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ Capitalist Society ‫ںیم‬ Unequal distribution of Wealth ‫وہےن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ہج‬‫و‬ ‫ےس‬ Inequalities ‫ے‬‫ڑ‬‫ب‬ ‫امیپےن‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫وموجد‬ ‫وہیت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ .1 ‫رسامہی‬ ‫ہن‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫اظنم‬ ‫رمد‬ ‫وک‬ high income ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ Private Property ‫اک‬ ‫اچسن‬ ‫اتی‬‫د‬ ‫ےہ۔سج‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےعی‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ہ‬‫و‬ ‫وتقر‬‫طا‬ ‫ا‬‫ث‬‫ب‬‫ت‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ .2 ‫ںیت‬‫وعر‬ ‫امسح‬ ‫ںیم‬ consumer ‫نب‬ ‫ںیئگ۔ویکہکن‬ ‫ہ‬‫و‬ ‫ھچک‬ produce ‫ںیہن‬ ‫رکیت‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ینپ‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ر‬‫رضو‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےئل‬ ‫ر‬‫ہ‬‫وش‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫رصحنم‬ ‫وہیت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ .3 ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫اظنم‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫اکومن‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫یسنج‬ ‫اینبد‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫رفتقی‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫یھک‬‫ر‬ ‫اجیت‬ ‫ےہ۔رمد‬ ‫رٹکیفی‬ ‫ںیم‬ ‫اکم‬ ‫رکےت‬ ‫ںیہ‬ ‫ہکبج‬ ‫ںیت‬‫وعر‬ ‫ن‬‫رھگو‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ںیم۔ا‬ ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫رطح‬ ‫ہ‬‫و‬ ‫رمد‬ ‫وک‬ ‫اکم‬ ‫یک‬ ‫اینبد‬ ‫رپ‬ ‫رجب‬‫ا‬ ‫ے‬‫د‬ ‫رک‬ ‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫ہک‬ ‫رمد‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اکومن‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫دقر‬ ‫تمیق‬‫و‬ ‫ےہ۔‬ ‫وتن‬‫وعر‬ ‫یک‬ ‫رجب‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫و‬‫رمد‬ ‫ےس‬ ‫ہ‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫وہیت‬ ‫ںیہ۔‬ ( Cheap Labours ) ✓ Conflict ‫ی‬‫ویھتر‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اطمقب‬ ‫ر‬‫ذ‬‫ث‬‫ب‬‫ج‬ ‫یھب‬ ‫امسیج‬ ‫دعم‬ ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫اسمو‬ ‫ر‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫اصتد‬ ‫یہ‬ ‫اک‬ ‫ک‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ dimensions ‫زسکم‬‫ےہ۔امر‬ ‫رسامہی‬ ‫ی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اخہمت‬ ‫یک‬ ‫ذ‬‫ت‬‫وجت‬ ‫یہ‬ ‫شیپ‬ ‫ا‬‫رکت‬ ‫ےہ‬ ‫س‬‫ا‬ ‫اصحتسل‬‫ا‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫اخےمت‬ ‫ےک‬ ‫ےئل‬ ‫یھب۔‬ Engel sees marriage as a protection for both women and men. For Women – it is protection for their sexuality, for Men – it is protection for their private property. Conflict Theory women as disadvantaged because of power inequalities
  9. 9. Sex & Gender 9 • Micro perspective and examine gender stratification on a day-to-day level. • This theory does not say anything about goodness or badness of gender. • They see gender as a factor which provides us to form a relationship in daily life. • Symbolic Interaction Theory claims that concepts such as – race, ethnicity or gender – are not naturally and objectively existed, but they occurred through society. Society named “females” or “males” are endowed with distinct character features defined as feminine or masculine. Gender does not exist by self, but with the interaction among people in society. • According to Goffman’s explanation, we have some roles inside of us and when their time comes, we use them in front of the stage. Thus, gender is one of our roles and we present them as male and female in society. • Gender plays a role in order to shape all relationship of people in daily life. Symbolic Interaction Theory individuals create their social reality via daily interactions symbols are socially created and not natural, and fluid, not static, we act and react to symbols based on the current assigned meaning.
  10. 10. Imagine that you walk into a bank hoping to get a small loan for school, a home, or a small business venture. If you meet with a male loan officer, you may state your case logically by listing all the hard numbers that make you a qualified applicant as a means of appealing to the analytical characteristics associated with masculinity. If you meet with a female loan officer, you may make an emotional appeal by stating your good intentions as a means of appealing to the caring characteristics associated with femininity. Sex & Gender 10
  11. 11. MAJOR DIFFERENCES Sex Biological & Physiological differences between Male & Female Social, Cultural, Behavioral & Emotional differences between Men & Women Main categories : Male & Female Main categories : Masculine & Feminine Inherited by Birth Influenced by Social, Cultural & Behavioral Factors Gender is an Acquired Identity Sex Role can’t be change sex is fixed and based in nature. Flexible - Gender Role can be changed by time & culture (gender is fluid and based in culture.) Created by Reproductive Needs Created by Social Norms Aspects of sex don’t vary substantially between different human societies Aspects of gender vary with societies with varying cultures. Sex & Gender 11
  12. 12. THANK YOU Syed Aasim Suhail MA Sociology Syasim786@gmail.com

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