• Early life
• Appointed Commander-in-Chief in 1951.
• Became a powerful political figure
• the government of Iskander Mirza was unpopular and the
political situation was chaotic.
• People were in despair
• 7 October 1958, martial law was declared by President
• Ayub Khan removed Iskander Mirza and took on the office of
• this event was known as the Glorious Revolution
a) Legal reforms
• introduced the Muslim Family Laws on March 2, 1961
b) Foreign policy
• allied Pakistan with the global U.S. military alliance against
the Soviet Union.
• Economy improved but increased inequality in the distribution of
President of Pakistan
REFORMS INTRODUCED BY Ayub Khan
1) RELATION WITH SOVIENT UNION
• relations deteriorated and improved again due to several events.
• In 1961, the Soviets agreed to begin exploring for oil and In 1963,
the Soviet government loaned Pakistan 11 million pounds
• In April 1965 an official visit was paid on trade and oil exploration
• In January 1966 the Soviet Union hosted a peace conference
between India and Pakistan at Tashkent
• In 1968 the Soviet Union began to supply arms to Pakistan against
2) RELATION WITH CHINA
• In 1963 “talks between China and Pakistan to settle their border
dipute’’ “announced a series of trade agreements’’ and “PIA began
regular flights to China’’
• In 1964 China made a statement supporting Pakistan’s policy in
• During the 1965 war China supplied military aid and applied
diplomatic pressure on India
3) RELATION WITH BRATIAN
• Relations with Britain got strained due to Relations with Britain got
• However Britain played an important role to resolve 1965 war dispute
• Britain had criticized India for crossing the international boundary on
6 September 1965
RELATION WITH USA
In 1958, General Ayub Khan stated that we are “the most allied ally”
of the United States”.
This shows that during this era Pakistan became more pro-west.
Ayub Khan believed that Pakistan could not make progress unless the
Kashmir problem was solved, which was not possible without the help
of the Western Bloc.
On the other side the United States aims were to help Pakistan and to
maintain her independence in an area threatened by communism.
• Karachi was unsuitable for various purposes for location,
• In 1967, Islamabad was officially made the capital.
• It is a modern and carefully planned city.
CONCLUSION OF AYUB FOREIGN POLICY
• His cultivation of China angered the US
• The war increased the socio-economic problems. Therefore,
Ayub Khan was not very successful in his foreign policy.
Shifting of Capital
Economic Condition And Role Of Ayub Khan
Have no Economic weapon to fight the battle of recovery
No industries to speak, almost no industrial raw material and no significant
industries and commercial groups
Difficult to see that how Pakistan Economy could grow more rapidly
The 1950’s was the period of apparent stagnation and mounting economic problems
Between (1958-62) Ayub Khan introduce a number of reforms that improve the
Economic Condition of Pakistan
Five Year Plans
First Five Year Plan:(1955-60)
Not implemented properly, but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment of
planning by establishing the planning commission
Second Five Year Plan:(1960-65)
The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities where
a great deal of profit could be made
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country
controls the supply of money to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The year 1959-60 marked the beginning of development of Country
It include gradual liberalization of import policy and introduce of bonus policy
From this period government granted liberal concessions to the private sectors to
establish industries in the country. Resulting an increase in monetary supply
First Plan (1955-60)-The monetary expansion amounted to Rs 1.95 Billion
Second plan(1960-65)-The money supply increased by Rs 2.80 Billion
The Bank credit both in the private and public sector expanded to Rs 1.62 Billion
during the first and during the second plan period it was equal to Rs 4.77 Billion
made Price control list
asked to return black
Ayub Khan era was generally known as ‘Decade of Development’.
The decade which saw growth at ~ 5.82%.
This was the decade during which Pakistan’s manufacturing base became
An automobile industry
A cement industry
Heavy manufacturing industries.
Manufacturing growth, standing at 8.51% in the history of Pakistan.
DECADE OF DEVELOPMENT
In February 1959, the Government announced a new industrial
policy of “Gradual liberalization of economy” to pave way for
smooth industrial growth.
Main emphasis on the utilization of raw materials available in the
The extreme bureaucratic restraints were removed by a more
Establishment of Financial and Development Corporations
Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) was set up
with a capital of R.s 1 billion.
It was put in charge to promote the following industries:
– Jute Paper-board and newsprint
– Heavy engineering
– Textiles, etc.
Four new estates for small industries were established in
In October 1958 the government took several measures
to check the rising spiral of prices.
Price control covers a large no of consumer good and
industrial raw material.
These measures lead to fall in prices and improvement
in supply position of a large no. of article
• Investment Promotion Bureau
Set up in April 1959.
To attract foreign investment for the establishment of new industries
To solve problems of foreign investors in the matter finding land, water, power,
Supply of credit
Credit was liberally provided to the industrial sector by both the
commercial banks & the specialized credit institutions,
e.g. Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP).
Foreign Aid and Loans
Loans were taken from more industrialized western countries, particularly the USA,
Germany and the UK.
These played a dominant role in the industrial and economic development of Pakistan.
Without that aid, the remarkable growth in that era could not be possible.
After the Report of the Commission on National Education which identified the
importance of education as an investment in national growth:
BUILDING NEW INSTITUTES
UNIVERSITY DEGREE COURCES
IMPROVED SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION
CIVIL DEFENCE TRAINING
Land Reform Comission:Appointed in October, 1958
A person could not own more than either 500 acres of
canal irrigated land or 1000 acres of unirrigated land.
UTILIZATION OF RESUMED AREA
CREATION OF POOLS
ABOLITION OF JAGIRS
PROTECTION TO TENANTS
RIGHTS FOR TENANTS
THREE MAJOR DAMS WERE BUILT.
AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT BANK WAS SET
LOANS FOR FARMER
GREEN REVOLUTION (GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE)
PHASES OF GREEN REVOLUTION
The phenomenal increase in growth took place in two phases.
▶ 1. 1960-1965
▶ Main cause of the growth was the increase in irrigation facilities, mainly tube wells.
▶ Between 1960-65, about 25,000 tube wells were installed, each costing R.s. 5000-
12000 and the farm area serviced by tube wells doubled.
▶ 2. 1966-1970
▶ Growth took place mainly because the expanded irrigation facilities were
supplemented by the technology package of
▶ High yielding varieties (HYV) seeds,
▶ Chemical fertilizers and
Focus on indirect controls on
imports and on domestic prices
of other goods.
A number of measures were taken on import
licensing that made market forces more important
in determining the ownerships of import licenses.
EXPORT BONUS SCHEME
• Introduced in 1959.
• A flexible and fascinating device which was used both to subsidize exports
and to allow a safety valve on imports, while maintaining the basic structure
of import controls and the official exchange rate at its existing level.
• Over 1959-64, total imports increased much more rapidly than exports or
GNP, and the composition of imports continued to shift towards the import
of capital goods and processed intermediate goods.
Export of raw
60% in 1958 20% in 1968
Exports of cotton
and jute textiles
8.3% in 1958 35% in 1968
Open General Licensing Scheme
Allowed newcomers to enter the trading sector.
A large amount of foreign exchange was allocated to the
OGL, and the new traders made substantial profits and
gains from possessing import licenses.
Permitted the import of certain goods without any
The Free List was extended over time from four items to
fifty in 1964
President Ayub Khan, who was very close to Dr. Abdus Salam
Established Pakistan's National Space Agency, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
(SUPARCO) on September 16, 1961. Ayub Khan also appointed dr. Abdus Salam as its head
It was Ayub Khan's administration when National Aeronautics and Space Administration began
training of Pakistani scientists and engineers in the NASA's headquarters
President Ayub Khan was eager to make Pakistan as space power, that is why he appointed a
noted aeronautical engineer and military scientist, Air Mar. Gen. W. J. M. Turowicz as Pakistan's
Rocket Program head
Gen. W. J. M. Turowicz efforts led Pakistan to developed ballistic missiles series by its own in the
General W. J. M. Turowicz had led a series of Rehbar Sounding Rockets fired from Pakistani soil.
However, after Ayub Khan's removal from office the Space Programed was frozen for more than 2
Constitution Of 1962
On 17 February 1960 Ayub Khan appointed a commission to report on the future political
framework for the country
The Commission was headed by the former Chief Justice of Pakistan, Muhammad Shahabuddin,
and had ten other members, five each from East Pakistan and West Pakistan, composed of
retired judges, lawyers, industrialists and landlords.
The report of the Constitution Commission was presented to President Ayub on 6 May 1961 and
thoroughly examined by the President and his Cabinet. In January 1962, the Cabinet finally
approved the text of the new constitution.
It was promulgated by President Ayub on 1 March 1962 and finally came into effect on 8
June 1962. The Constitution contained 250 articles divided into twelve parts and three
Name of the
Presidential elections were held in Pakistan on 2 January
1965. The vote was held amongst the 80,000 "basic
democrats", who were members of the urban and regional
Elections for the Presidency were to take place in
January 1965. Ayub Khan was nominated by a new
party, the Convention Muslim League, which he had
The five opposition
parties all agreed
It is believed that had the elections been held via the
direct method, Fatima Jinnah would have won. The
Electoral College consisted of only 80,000 Basic
Democrats, who were easily manipulated. The
importance of this election lay in the fact that a woman
was contesting the highest political office of the
country. The orthodox religious political parties,
including the Jamaat-e-Islami led by Maulana Maududi,
which had repeatedly declared that a woman could not
hold the highest office of a Muslim country.
There were riots in Karachi and East Pakistan in which 20
people were killed.
Address of Ayub Khan
Before 1965 War
"My dear countrymen, in this
hour of trial you have to remain
absolutely calm. You must know
that each one of you has to
perform a supreme duty which
demands complete dedication
and devotion… Be prepared to
strike and to strike hard; for
the evil which has raised its
head against your borders is
doomed to destruction. Go
forward and meet the enemy.
God is with you..."
Indo Pak War 1965
▶ General Ayub Khan arriving to take command of the Pakistan Army (1951) The turning point in
his rule was the Indo-Pak War of 1965, Despite many repulsed Indian attacks, the war
adversely affected Pakistan's then rapidly developing economy and it ended in a settlement
reached by Ayub at Tashkent, called the Tashkent Declaration.
▶ The settlement was perceived negatively by many Pakistanis and led Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to
resign his post and take up opposition to Khan.
▶ According to Morrice James, "For them [Pakistanis] Ayub had betrayed the nation and had
inexcusably lost face before the Indians."
▶ The war also increased opposition in East Pakistan [Now Bangladesh] where the Awami
League headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman sought more autonomy for the province
▶ General Ayub Khan, who had assumed office of the commander in chief in 1951, supported
Governor General Ghulam Muhammad when he dismissed the first constituent assembly on
the grounds "The constituent assembly being power hungry and having a tendency of being
▶ Moulvi Tamizuddin, the first speaker of the assembly, challenged the dismissal.
▶ Sindh court accepted the appeal but the Federal Court dismissed the Sindh court judgment as
the "Doctrine of necessity". Later on the decision has been the basis of all autocratic
adjustments in Pakistan.
▶ These were the years when Pakistan allowed the US to establish a USAF communications
monitoring facility near Peshawar at Badaber and use its air space and air bases to
conduct high-altitude spy-flights over the USSR. Due to this, and the soon-to-follow U2
incident led Pakistan into an open hostility with the USSR
4th Jan, 1966
Important clauses of the declaration
The President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India agreed to cultivate good
friendly and neighborly relations according to the Charter of the United Nation.
Under the UN Charter, they will use their energies to resolve their problems in a
The President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India agreed to withdraw from
They agreed not to interfere in each other’s internal affairs.
Both leaders agreed to discourage all those actions which could be harmful for the
other country and encourage those which could promote the friendly relationship
between the two countries.
▶They agree that Higher Commissioners of Pakistan and India should come
back to their posts and make efforts for future developments of both
▶They agree to make efforts for increasing bilateral trade and
strengthening economic ties between the two countries. They also agreed
to enhance communication and cultural information with each other.
▶Both leaders agreed to make some law of repatriation for the prisoners of
▶They agreed that in future they will discuss the problems of refugees
also. They also agreed for an agreement to return the property taken by
the either side because of the conflict.
Pakistani civilian nuclear programme started in 1956 under the government of
Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.
When Ayub Khan imposed martial law in Pakistan, Pakistani Civilian Nuclear
Programme was freezed till 1972.
On December 11, 1965, President Ayub Khan had a brief meeting with Pakistani
nuclear engineer Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan (late) at the Dorchester Hotel in London.
The meeting was arranged by Foreign Minister of Pakistan, Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
Munir Ahmad Khan estimated the cost of nuclear technology at that time, were
not more than 150 million dollars.
Ayub Khan clearly refused it to Munir Ahmad Khan's offer and said that Pakistan
was too poor to spend that much money.
Criticism against ayub khan
Government corruption and nepotism
Criticisms of his sons and family's personal wealth
Presidential elections against Fatima Jinnah
Gohar Ayub's corruption
Increasing price of sugar
man of great determination but lacking the quality of
‘listening to others.
He always did what he thought better in the light of his
His regime can be characterized with some
developments but he couldn’t maintain the national
harmony among the distant provinces of Pakistan