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Major sources and patterns of sectoral and regional demand for fish.pptx

  1. Major Sources and Patterns of Sectoral and Regional Demand Ayna Lalu MSc.Industrial Fisheries, CUSAT.
  2. Introduction  Fish is one of the most important source of nutrient which is rich in amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and trace elements and also it is very easy to digest due to lack of connective tissues ( Burger et al,1999).  Several researches have studied and investigated the nutritional value of fish and its importance in human diet. Some studies also showed the importance of fish in preventing cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers in humans, regulating blood pressure and cholesterol(Barberger-Gateau et al., 2002; McNaughton et al., 2008; Pieniak et al., 2008; Turan et al., 2006; Verbeke & Vackier, 2005).
  3.  Global consumption of aquatic foods has increased significantly, with the world now consuming more than five times the quantity consumed nearly 60 years ago. In 2019, global aquatic food consumption was estimated at 158 million tonnes, up from 28 million tonnes in 1961. Consumption increased at an average annual rate of 3.0 percent from 1961, compared with a population growth rate of 1.6 percent. Per capita consumption was influenced most strongly by increased supplies, changing consumer preferences, advancements in technology and income growth(SOFIA 2022).  Fish consumption, frequency, and preferences are affected by consumers’ geographic, social, economic, and cultural characteristics (Burger et al., 1999; Pieniak et al., 2011; Verbeke & Vackier, 2005). It is known that food preferences are also affected by a number of sensory (taste, smell, texture etc…) and non-sensory factors (behavior, beliefs, personal characteristics, risk perception, etc…) (Honkanen et al., 2005). And also the fish consumption figures vary between coastal and inland regions.
  4.  Geographic – include the place.  Social – buying habit, educational level,family size and structure.  Economic – the income.  Cultural –community religion and other factors.
  5. Demand for fish in global  Globally, the consumption of aquatic food increased and it reaches upto 158 million tones. The consumption rate increased at an average annual rate of 3% from 1961. The factors influencing the per capita consumption rate are increased supplies, changing consumer preference, advancement in technology and growth in income.
  6. Continent wise consumption  Out of 158 million tones of aquatic food available for human consumption in 2019, Asia accounted for 72% . On the other hand, the consumption of fish in Europe and USA decreases over time. The share of Europe went from 32 %(1961) to 10% and of USA went from 9% to 5%.  The main factors for the hike of consumption in Asia are (1) Asia become the main producer of aquatic products by the increase in aquaculture production.(2) the Asian continent is now facing a significant growth in economic in recent decades which results in the growth of income, a larger middle class and migration of rural populations to the cities where aquatic foods are more accessible.(3) higher imports and diversion of some exports towards the Chinese domestic market increased the diversity of aquatic foods available to Chinese consumers, it boosts their consumption.(SOFIA 2022).
  7. Demand in Europe  The Netherlands, Germany and Belgium are the Europe’s major seafood producers. These three adjacent north-western European countries have coasts bordering the North Sea.  Studies show that though COVID- 19 has impacted the European seafood market and imports from developing countries fell slightly, overall demand for seafood has remained largely stable throughout 2020. Companies in northern Europe and North America began making commitments to sustainable seafood in the early 2000s, and these commitments have expanded globally overtime.  For a long time, the demand for sustainable seafood was limited to north- western European and the Nordic countries. In the recent years, however, sustainable seafood is also on the rise in southern and Eastern Europe.  In the main European Union countries surveyed by the European Market Observatory for Fisheries and Aquaculture (EUMOFA), Germany, Spain, France, Italy and UK, 46,500 tones of unprocessed fishery and aquaculture products consumed in 2019 originated from organic production.
  8.  From this we can say that, in Europe, the main demand is for sustainable and organic seafood products.
  9. America  The consumer behavior to seafood changed a lot in the present situation. Several studies about the consumer behavior to fish shows that the many are preferring farm raised and sustainability certified fish safer to eat, better taste , higher quality, more fairly traded and more environmentally friendly fish. The main determinants of their perceptions are the frequency they eat fish, the taste of children, gender, ethnicity, and the age of consumers.  The consumers began to replace seafood for red meat (Clancy,1986).  They also changed their preferences among the species . since 2013, salmon has replaced canned tuna to be the second most favorite species. Tilapa and pangasius have been listed on the top most 10 consumed fish over the last five decades, while consumption share of canned and breaded frozen products have declined continuously, consumption shares of fresh and frozen product have significantly increased.  But there is reverse in the preference among consumers at the beginning of 21st century, wild-caught fish products have become more preferable to aquaculture products.
  10. Africa  Aquatic food consumption habits vary across Africa.  Despite a low average consumption of aquatic foods in Africa, eleven countries had a higher consumption than the world average.  These include some small island developing states in addition to Gabon, Congo, the Gambia, Ghana, Egypt.  For the other African countries the low consumption rate is due to several reasons including high population growth, the relatively small aquaculture sector, poor landing, road and market infrastructures, loss in post harvest and underdeveloped cold chains.
  11. China seafood consumption  In china, there are many factors which affect the consumer’s seafood choices. These include regional factors such as coastal and inland locations, socio- demographic factors such as traditions and age gender.  Education and income level affected household seafood purchasing power significantly. Compared to base group illiterate household head, higher educated household heads bought seafood more frequently per month. Geographic locations also had a strong influence on seafood consumption
  12. Demand for fish in Ghana  The demand for fish mainly depend on the  age of the consumer  fish consumption pattern includes – fishbone consumption, they consume fishbone due to the nutritional value of fishbone. Fishbone is known to provide calcium to the body , essential for the formation of robust bones.  section of fish consumed(head, middle and caudal section of fish)majority of the people preferred taking mid section of fish products while minority consumed both the middle and caudal parts of fish products.  small fish consumed wholly, the majority of consumer take small fish wholly while minority do not consume small fish entirely.  fish product consumed, smoked fish was the most preferred form fish product and dried fish as least.
  13. Demand for fish in India  The emerging production technologies, higher economic growth, population explosion and shifts in dietary pattern are the driving forces for rapid growth in the demand for food of animal orgin.  The consumption of fish has grown faster than that of any other animal product. Disparities in the fish consumption pattern exist widely across the income groups, location of the households (rural, urban, costal, etc.), and regions (Kumar and Dey, 2004).  The fish production and consumption in India is characterized by a large number of species coming from marine and inland sources. Each species varies with its commercial value which is governed by the catch and production pattern, consumer’s taste and preference. Production requirements, consumer’s preference and demand elasticity may vary across sources of fish and its species.(kumar.praduman, et al,2005).
  14.  Aquaculture and marine sector in India is technology driven. Therefore, total factor productivity plays an important role in fish production and consumption. As income of people increases their consumption expenditure on food and non-food also increases.  Beside income, population growth and shift of dietary pattern have also a significant effect on consumption. For a fast-growing nation like India, people are shifting towards wholesome and nutritious food. They are becoming more aware about their health.  So, demand for food of animal origin is increasing at very fast rate. Fish is a good example of nutritious food of animal origin. Fish is very good source of protein as well as vitamins. So, it is expected that demand for fish will increase in feature, as Indian economy is growing at a fast clip.  . Income elasticity of demand for fish in Delhi and NCR is found to be 0.32, which meant fish remained a normal good. The income elasticity of other non-vegetarian items was found to be positive but less than 1. Income elasticity of fish is decreased for lower income groups to higher income groups. (Kum21; Handbook on fisheries statistics , 2022).
  15. Kerala.  The local market for fish in Kerala is influenced by the consumers’ purchasing power along with their tastes and preferences. The percentage of non-vegetarians in India’s population ranges from 80-85.  The fish prices across Kerala are on the rise as the local market is growing at a rate of 25-30%. Intake of fish in Kerala is growing substantially with change in lifestyle and rising cost of meat. Kerala will be a net deficit State in terms of fish availability and needs to rely on arrivals or imports for domestic supply. For daily consumption, on an average of 2000-2500 t of fish is required and the domestic supply caters to only 60% .  The remaining has to be sourced or imported from other states or countries. The demand-supply gap will be widened every year, indicating that Kerala will require 50% of fish from other states to meet the demand in 2035 (The Business Line, 2017). The retail market turning unstable with the price spiral is a common experience.(salim,2020).
  16. Consumption of fish in wayanad region  price of fish ranked as first and foremost important factor affecting fish purchase and consumption of the tribes.  ‘availability of favorite fish’ emerged as the second most important factor influencing their fish purchase. Sardine and mackerel were found to be their most favored fish species.  ‘Market accessibility’ emerged as the third most important factor perceived as barrier for tribal fish purchase and consumption. This is due to the fact that tribes need to travel from inside their dwellings in forest and settlements to nearby markets to purchse fish and hence the factor may be acting as a barrier to frequent purchase and consumption.  Whether the fish is captured or farmed was found to be of importance to the tribes of Wayanad  ‘Safety of fish’ was found to be the fifth most important factor influencing tribal fish purchase and consumption in Wayanad.  . For the Wayanad tribes, quality of fish was another factor found having less influence on their purhcase decision.
  17. Fish consumption in Ernakulam  The average monthly income has a very good role on the fish consumption.  purchasing fish on a daily basis  depend on the retail centres for purchasing fish.  Mackerel remains the most preferred fish followed by Sardine  Despite of any income group there exists a high uniformity between the respondents in buying mackerel as as well as sardine. From Garrette ranking technique for constraints in fish consumption found that lack of fresh fish, high price and irregular supply are the major constraints for fish consumption.
  18. Sectoral Demand
  19. Urban Rural  In urban areas people mainly depend on supermarkets than traditional fish markets  They mainly focus to buy frozen seafood, curry cut fish products, or instant curries .  In rual, they depend on traditional fish farms, fish markets.  They usually tend to buy whole fish.  Prefernce of species depend on income and taste of the fish.
  20. Conclusion  Significant societal changes have influenced consumers’ decisions, particularly in affluent economies. Healthy eating has become a dominant trend in food consumption in a context of rising numbers of overweight people and obesity-related diseases in many countries. As a result, demand for healthy and nutritious foods, such as aquatic foods, has increased in recent years. Furthermore, this has been accompanied by increasing attention of consumers and major distributors to the sustainability of aquatic food systems, in particular its environmental and social dimensions. As a result, producers and retailers rely on a range of certification schemes and labelling to meet consumer demand for sustainable aquatic food. Besides healthy and sustainable aquatic products, consumers also want convenience, particularly in more advanced economies. Societal changes, including higher incomes, greater female participation in the workforce, urbanization, and decreasing family sizes, have increased the use of convenient food products.
  21. Reference  Shyam S salim. (2020):”Demand pattern and willingness to pay for high value fish consumption: case study from selected coastal cities in Kerala, south India”,Indian journal of fisheries,pp.137-138.  Ravi Shankar Kumar et al.(2021):”Estimation of demand for fish in Delhi and NCR, India “,socioeconomic challenges.  Samuel Amponsah(2020):”Pattern of fish consumption and fish distribution: a study on Sunyani municipality, Ghana.Researchgate November, 2020.pp.31-35.  M. V. Sajeev et al,(2021):” Factors Influencing the Fish Consumption Preferences: Understandings from the tribes of Wayanad, Kerala,Indian Journal of Extension Education volume 57.pp.26-27.  Praduman Kumar et al,(2005):” Demand for Fish by Species in India: Threestage Budgeting Framework, Agricultural Economics Research Review vol.18,pp.167-186.  Frank Asche et al,(2004):”Studies in the demand structure for fish and seafood products”,centre for fisheries economics.chapter 15.  Sajeev, M. V et al,(2021):” Factors influencing the fish consumption preference:understanding from the tribes of wayanad”, Indian Journal of Extension Education.pp.23-27.
  22.  S.S. Salim. Demand and supply paradigms for fish food security in India. Seafood Export Journal. 2013; 43(5), 34-40  Ly Nguyen et al,(2023):”Perception shifts in seafood consumption in the United States,Elsevier,vol 148.  Kumar, P., & Dey, M. M. (2004). A study on modelling of household demand for fish in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 59(3), 465.
  23. Reports  FAO. 2022. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022. Towards Blue Transformation. Rome, FAO.  Handbook on fisheries statistics . (2022, November). Department of fisheries,Government of India,New Delhi. Internet sources  Caiphas Wanjala(2021),”top 10 most consumed fish in the world in 2021”facts and life hacks. world-2021-photos.html February,7 2023  CBI, Ministry of Foreign Affairs(2021),”What is the demand for fish and seafood on the European Market”, demand March 22, 2023