Major sources and patterns of sectoral and regional demand for fish.pptx
Major Sources and Patterns
of Sectoral and Regional
Fish is one of the most important source of nutrient
which is rich in amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids,
vitamins and trace elements and also it is very easy to
digest due to lack of connective tissues ( Burger et
Several researches have studied and investigated the
nutritional value of fish and its importance in human
diet. Some studies also showed the importance of fish in
preventing cardiovascular diseases, various types of
cancers in humans, regulating blood pressure and
cholesterol(Barberger-Gateau et al., 2002; McNaughton
et al., 2008; Pieniak et al., 2008; Turan et al., 2006;
Verbeke & Vackier, 2005).
Global consumption of aquatic foods has increased significantly,
with the world now consuming more than five times the quantity
consumed nearly 60 years ago. In 2019, global aquatic food
consumption was estimated at 158 million tonnes, up from 28
million tonnes in 1961. Consumption increased at an average annual
rate of 3.0 percent from 1961, compared with a population growth
rate of 1.6 percent. Per capita consumption was influenced most
strongly by increased supplies, changing consumer preferences,
advancements in technology and income growth(SOFIA 2022).
Fish consumption, frequency, and preferences are affected by
consumers’ geographic, social, economic, and cultural
characteristics (Burger et al., 1999; Pieniak et al., 2011; Verbeke &
Vackier, 2005). It is known that food preferences are also affected
by a number of sensory (taste, smell, texture etc…) and non-sensory
factors (behavior, beliefs, personal characteristics, risk perception,
etc…) (Honkanen et al., 2005). And also the fish consumption
figures vary between coastal and inland regions.
Geographic – include the place.
Social – buying habit, educational
level,family size and structure.
Economic – the income.
Cultural –community religion and other
Demand for fish in global
Globally, the consumption of aquatic food increased and it reaches upto
158 million tones. The consumption rate increased at an average annual
rate of 3% from 1961. The factors influencing the per capita consumption
rate are increased supplies, changing consumer preference, advancement in
technology and growth in income.
Continent wise consumption
Out of 158 million tones of aquatic food available for human
consumption in 2019, Asia accounted for 72% . On the other hand,
the consumption of fish in Europe and USA decreases over time.
The share of Europe went from 32 %(1961) to 10% and of USA
went from 9% to 5%.
The main factors for the hike of consumption in Asia are (1) Asia
become the main producer of aquatic products by the increase in
aquaculture production.(2) the Asian continent is now facing a
significant growth in economic in recent decades which results in
the growth of income, a larger middle class and migration of rural
populations to the cities where aquatic foods are more accessible.(3)
higher imports and diversion of some exports towards the Chinese
domestic market increased the diversity of aquatic foods available
to Chinese consumers, it boosts their consumption.(SOFIA 2022).
Demand in Europe
The Netherlands, Germany and Belgium are the Europe’s major
seafood producers. These three adjacent north-western European
countries have coasts bordering the North Sea.
Studies show that though COVID- 19 has impacted the European
seafood market and imports from developing countries fell slightly,
overall demand for seafood has remained largely stable throughout
2020. Companies in northern Europe and North America began
making commitments to sustainable seafood in the early 2000s, and
these commitments have expanded globally overtime.
For a long time, the demand for sustainable seafood was limited to
north- western European and the Nordic countries. In the recent
years, however, sustainable seafood is also on the rise in southern
and Eastern Europe.
In the main European Union countries surveyed by the European
Market Observatory for Fisheries and Aquaculture (EUMOFA),
Germany, Spain, France, Italy and UK, 46,500 tones of unprocessed
fishery and aquaculture products consumed in 2019 originated from
From this we can say that, in Europe,
the main demand is for sustainable
and organic seafood products.
The consumer behavior to seafood changed a lot in the present situation.
Several studies about the consumer behavior to fish shows that the many
are preferring farm raised and sustainability certified fish safer to eat, better
taste , higher quality, more fairly traded and more environmentally friendly
fish. The main determinants of their perceptions are the frequency they eat
fish, the taste of children, gender, ethnicity, and the age of consumers.
The consumers began to replace seafood for red meat (Clancy,1986).
They also changed their preferences among the species . since 2013,
salmon has replaced canned tuna to be the second most favorite species.
Tilapa and pangasius have been listed on the top most 10 consumed fish
over the last five decades, while consumption share of canned and breaded
frozen products have declined continuously, consumption shares of fresh
and frozen product have significantly increased.
But there is reverse in the preference among consumers at the beginning of
21st century, wild-caught fish products have become more preferable to
Aquatic food consumption habits vary across Africa.
Despite a low average consumption of aquatic foods in
Africa, eleven countries had a higher consumption than
the world average.
These include some small island developing states in
addition to Gabon, Congo, the Gambia, Ghana, Egypt.
For the other African countries the low consumption rate
is due to several reasons including high population
growth, the relatively small aquaculture sector, poor
landing, road and market infrastructures, loss in post
harvest and underdeveloped cold chains.
China seafood consumption
In china, there are many factors which affect the
consumer’s seafood choices. These include regional
factors such as coastal and inland locations, socio-
demographic factors such as traditions and age gender.
Education and income level affected household seafood
purchasing power significantly. Compared to base group
illiterate household head, higher educated household
heads bought seafood more frequently per month.
Geographic locations also had a strong influence on
Demand for fish in Ghana
The demand for fish mainly depend on the
age of the consumer
fish consumption pattern includes – fishbone consumption, they
consume fishbone due to the nutritional value of fishbone. Fishbone
is known to provide calcium to the body , essential for the formation
of robust bones.
section of fish consumed(head, middle and caudal section of
fish)majority of the people preferred taking mid section of fish
products while minority consumed both the middle and caudal parts
of fish products.
small fish consumed wholly, the majority of consumer take small
fish wholly while minority do not consume small fish entirely.
fish product consumed, smoked fish was the most preferred form
fish product and dried fish as least.
Demand for fish in India
The emerging production technologies, higher economic growth,
population explosion and shifts in dietary pattern are the driving
forces for rapid growth in the demand for food of animal orgin.
The consumption of fish has grown faster than that of any other
animal product. Disparities in the fish consumption pattern exist
widely across the income groups, location of the households (rural,
urban, costal, etc.), and regions (Kumar and Dey, 2004).
The fish production and consumption in India is characterized by a
large number of species coming from marine and inland sources.
Each species varies with its commercial value which is governed by
the catch and production pattern, consumer’s taste and preference.
Production requirements, consumer’s preference and demand
elasticity may vary across sources of fish and its
species.(kumar.praduman, et al,2005).
Aquaculture and marine sector in India is technology driven. Therefore, total factor
productivity plays an important role in fish production and consumption. As income
of people increases their consumption expenditure on food and non-food also
Beside income, population growth and shift of dietary pattern have also a significant
effect on consumption. For a fast-growing nation like India, people are shifting
towards wholesome and nutritious food. They are becoming more aware about their
So, demand for food of animal origin is increasing at very fast rate. Fish is a good
example of nutritious food of animal origin. Fish is very good source of protein as
well as vitamins. So, it is expected that demand for fish will increase in feature, as
Indian economy is growing at a fast clip.
. Income elasticity of demand for fish in Delhi and NCR is found to be 0.32, which
meant fish remained a normal good. The income elasticity of other non-vegetarian
items was found to be positive but less than 1. Income elasticity of fish is decreased
for lower income groups to higher income groups. (Kum21; Handbook on fisheries
statistics , 2022).
The local market for fish in Kerala is influenced by the consumers’
purchasing power along with their tastes and preferences. The
percentage of non-vegetarians in India’s population ranges from 80-85.
The fish prices across Kerala are on the rise as the local market is
growing at a rate of 25-30%. Intake of fish in Kerala is growing
substantially with change in lifestyle and rising cost of meat. Kerala
will be a net deficit State in terms of fish availability and needs to rely
on arrivals or imports for domestic supply. For daily consumption, on
an average of 2000-2500 t of fish is required and the domestic supply
caters to only 60% .
The remaining has to be sourced or imported from other states or
countries. The demand-supply gap will be widened every year,
indicating that Kerala will require 50% of fish from other states to meet
the demand in 2035 (The Business Line, 2017). The retail market
turning unstable with the price spiral is a common
Consumption of fish in wayanad region
price of fish ranked as first and foremost important factor affecting fish
purchase and consumption of the tribes.
‘availability of favorite fish’ emerged as the second most important factor
influencing their fish purchase. Sardine and mackerel were found to be
their most favored fish species.
‘Market accessibility’ emerged as the third most important factor perceived
as barrier for tribal fish purchase and consumption. This is due to the fact
that tribes need to travel from inside their dwellings in forest and
settlements to nearby markets to purchse fish and hence the factor may be
acting as a barrier to frequent purchase and consumption.
Whether the fish is captured or farmed was found to be of importance to the
tribes of Wayanad
‘Safety of fish’ was found to be the fifth most important factor influencing
tribal fish purchase and consumption in Wayanad.
. For the Wayanad tribes, quality of fish was another factor found having
less influence on their purhcase decision.
Fish consumption in Ernakulam
The average monthly income has a very good role on the
purchasing fish on a daily basis
depend on the retail centres for purchasing fish.
Mackerel remains the most preferred fish followed by
Despite of any income group there exists a high
uniformity between the respondents in buying mackerel
as as well as sardine. From Garrette ranking technique
for constraints in fish consumption found that lack of
fresh fish, high price and irregular supply are the major
constraints for fish consumption.
In urban areas
They mainly focus
to buy frozen
seafood, curry cut
fish products, or
instant curries .
In rual, they
farms, fish markets.
They usually tend
to buy whole fish.
species depend on
income and taste
of the fish.
Significant societal changes have influenced consumers’ decisions,
particularly in affluent economies. Healthy eating has become a
dominant trend in food consumption in a context of rising numbers
of overweight people and obesity-related diseases in many
countries. As a result, demand for healthy and nutritious foods, such
as aquatic foods, has increased in recent years. Furthermore, this has
been accompanied by increasing attention of consumers and major
distributors to the sustainability of aquatic food systems, in
particular its environmental and social dimensions. As a result,
producers and retailers rely on a range of certification schemes and
labelling to meet consumer demand for sustainable aquatic food.
Besides healthy and sustainable aquatic products, consumers also
want convenience, particularly in more advanced economies.
Societal changes, including higher incomes, greater female
participation in the workforce, urbanization, and decreasing family
sizes, have increased the use of convenient food products.
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