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East Cost River System and Fisheries ppt.pptx

  2. Introduction ◦The east cost river system in peninsular India is a composite system of rivers. Its main constituents are river Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery. The total combined length is about 6,437km this system drains the entire peninsular India (from east of Western Ghats in the west of bay of Bengal in the east) and southern parts of central India (including Chhota Nagpur hill ranges)
  3. River Mahanadi ◦ River Mahanadi rises from Sihawahills( near village Pharsia) in south-west of Paipur district in Chhattisgarh with a total length of about 857km, in Chhattisgarh Madhya Pradesh and Odisha. ◦ It drains an area of about 141,600km2. ◦ After a brief run westwars it turns north and then eastwards at Khargoni to reach Mahadeopalli, 140km away, where Hirakund dam is located on this river. ◦ After Hirakud reservoir, it runs east for about 415km in the state of Odisha before joining Bay of Bengal at Paradip.
  4. FISH AND FISHERIES ◦ From river Mahanadi 253 species of fish belonging to 73 families have been recorded. Quantitative data of fish landing from different stretches of river Mahanadi are only available through an exploratory survey of the entire river, conducted by the CIFRI in 1995-96. In the upper stretch (origin to Hirakud dam) fish landings were observed at 9 fish markets. During the above survey the average annual catch at these 9 centres was estimated to be 142.47 tons comprising major carps 14.2%, minor carps 29.7%, cat fishes 39.9% and miscellaneous 16.2%. The main species contributing to the fisheries were: Labeo fimbriatus, L. calbasu, Cirrahinus mrigala, Catla catla, Sperata seengala, Wallago attu, Pangasius pangasius, Hilsa ilisha, and the prawn Macrobrachium malcomsonii.
  5. Water quality parameters  Temperature : 26.2 to 300C  Dissolved oxygen: 7.4 to 8.0mg/litre  Conductance : 164- 195 µmhos  Alkalininty: 70-89  Dissolved solids: 82-92  Hardness : 68-86  Chloride : 26.5- 37 mg/L  Phytoplanktons : 42.5- 99.7 %  Gastropods : 40- 61 %  Bivalves : 6-21%
  6. River Godavari ◦ River Godavari, the largest of peninsular rivers and the third largest river in India (next to rivers Ganga and Bhramaputhra) is about 1465km long from its origin near Triambakeswar in deolali hills near Nasik (Maharastra) in northern- western Ghats to its tidal limits below Rajamundry(Andrapradsh) it flows across the deccan plateau from western to eastern Ghats through Maharastra (about 693km) and Andhra Pradesh(about 772km). beowdhawaleshwasram(Andhra Pradesh) river Godavari splits into a northern distributary (goudami Godavari) and southern one ( Vasishta Godavari). The goudamy joins Bay of Bengal 19km below Yanam.
  7. ◦ Vasishta further divides into vainateyam and the main Vasishta before opening into bay of Bengal near narapur and vadalarevu respectively. Between these distributaries lies the excentensive fertile region of Godavari delta. The main major tributaries of river Godavari are manjira, wainganga, and indiravati with rivers poorna, maner, and sabari and a host of revulets and seasonally active streams as minor tributaries. The catchment area of river Godavari is about 312,812km2in maharastra 48.6%, andra Pradesh 23.8%, madya Pradesh 20.7%, Odisha ( 5.5%) and Karnataka ( 1.4%).
  8. ◦Two reservoirs (Gangapur and Nathsagar are situated on main stream of reservoirs Godavari in Maharashtra. A 321 km long irrigation barrage is also situated on this river at Vishnupuri near Nanded in this state. In Andhra Pradesh a large reservoir has been formed at Pochambed in Nisambad district in this river.
  9. Fisheries ◦During the exploratory survey of river Godavari conducted by CIFRI during 1997- 1999 Quantitative data on its fishery were not collected. However this survey reported occurance of 3 species ( Rhinomugil corsula, Osteobrama vigorsi, Oreochromis mossambicus ).
  10. Water quality parameters  Temperature: 28.2 – 29.30 C  Clarity of water : 72.8 cm  pH : 7.6- 8.0  dissolved oxygen : 6.9- 8.9 mg/L  conductance : 482µmhos  alkalininty :160 mg/L  dissolved solids : 242 mg/L  hardness : 125 mg/L  chloride : 25.6- 34.8 mg/L
  11. RIVER KRISHNA ◦ The Krishna river system has a total length of about 1280 km from its origin in Mahabaleswar hills in the western Ghats south of Pune, Maharashtra to its delta on the east coast. It has a catchment area about 233,299 sq. km. Krishna and Godavari water sheds are contiguous over major terrain of Deccan plateau . The main tributaries of river Krishna are Bhima and Thungabhadra rivers. ◦ Many reservoirs have been built within the Krishna drainage ( Thungabhadra, Koyna, Osman sagar etc).
  12. Fisheries ◦ Quantitative survey in river Krishna by CIFRI during 2001-2003 reported the presence of Catla catla, Cyprinus caprio, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo calbasu, L. fimbriatus, Mystus spp., Ompok spp., Wallago attu etc. in the lower stretch ( Andhra Pradesh) L. rohita, L. calbasu, L. boga, L. gonius, C. mrigala, C. reba, Pangasius pangasius, Eutroplus suratensis, P. ticto, Channa spp., Notopetrus notopetrus, and the prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. malcomsonii and Penaeus monodon.
  13. Water quality parameters  temperature : 27.8- 30.50 C  transparency : 57-108 cm  dissolved oxygen : 6.4- 8.0 mg/ L  pH : 8.1- 8.2  alkalinity : 149 mg/ L  hardness: 160 mg/L  conductance : 1039 µmhos  dissolved solids : 520 mg/ L  chloride : 254 mg/L
  14. RIVER CAUVERY ◦ It is the longest perennial river south of river Krishna. It originates from the Brahmagiri hills on to western Ghats in Karnataka and flows in a south- easternly direction for about 850 kms before emptying into Bay of Bengal in Thanjavoor district of Tamil Nadu. In the Thanjavoor delta, the river divides into a northern branch, river Coleroon and a southern branch, river Cauvery proper. The main tributaries of river Cauvery are rivers Bhavani, Noyil and Amaravati. This is one of the most tamed rivers of the country. A number of reservoirs ( Bhavani sagar, Krishna sagar, Mettur etc..).
  15. FISH AND FISHERIES ◦80 species of fish belonging to 23 families were reported from river Cauvery. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, L. fimbriatus, Channa spp.,Tor khudree and exotic fishes like Oreochromis mossambicus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, the O. mossambicus was observed to be well established throughout in this river.
  16. Water quality parameters  temperature : 24.6- 28.10 C  dissolved oxygen : 6.6-7 mg/ L  pH : 6.9- 7.9  alkalinity : 98 mg/ L  hardness: 89 mg/L  conductance : 295 µmhos  dissolved solids : 191 mg/ L  chloride : 20.8 mg/L
  17. GEARS ◦ The dragnets, gillnets and hook are commonly used by fishers to catch fish. Dragnets of 2 types small ( less than 300 m in length) and large ( greater than 300 m in length) are in use. Hooks and lines are mainly used in upper and middle stretch whereas traps are used in some districts of Bihar stretch. Small scoop nets are also used. ◦ . Limited no of dip nets were observed in some parts of Uttar Pradesh stretch. Majority of the gill nets in use were of smaller mesh size. Mesh size of gill nets varied from 18- 26 cm and in some drag net fishing more than 2cm mesh was operated.
  18. ◦ In some districts of Bihar and Varanasi, Ghazipur and Balia districts of Uttar Pradesh use of large dragnets of mosquito net clothing with minimal mesh size is common. These gears are highly destructive both to fish stocks and ecosystem as well. ◦ In the recent past the use of dragnets, traps, hooks and lines has declined sharply as compared to sixties. At present the availability and use of gill nets had increased manifold in all stretches.