◦The east cost river system in peninsular India is a composite
system of rivers. Its main constituents are river Mahanadi,
Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery. The total combined length is
about 6,437km this system drains the entire peninsular India
(from east of Western Ghats in the west of bay of Bengal in
the east) and southern parts of central India (including
Chhota Nagpur hill ranges)
◦ River Mahanadi rises from Sihawahills( near village Pharsia) in south-west of
Paipur district in Chhattisgarh with a total length of about 857km, in Chhattisgarh
Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
◦ It drains an area of about 141,600km2.
◦ After a brief run westwars it turns north and then eastwards at Khargoni to reach
Mahadeopalli, 140km away, where Hirakund dam is located on this river.
◦ After Hirakud reservoir, it runs east for about 415km in the state of Odisha
before joining Bay of Bengal at Paradip.
FISH AND FISHERIES
◦ From river Mahanadi 253 species of fish belonging to 73 families have been
recorded. Quantitative data of fish landing from different stretches of river
Mahanadi are only available through an exploratory survey of the entire river,
conducted by the CIFRI in 1995-96. In the upper stretch (origin to Hirakud
dam) fish landings were observed at 9 fish markets. During the above survey
the average annual catch at these 9 centres was estimated to be 142.47 tons
comprising major carps 14.2%, minor carps 29.7%, cat fishes 39.9% and
miscellaneous 16.2%. The main species contributing to the fisheries were:
Labeo fimbriatus, L. calbasu, Cirrahinus mrigala, Catla catla, Sperata
seengala, Wallago attu, Pangasius pangasius, Hilsa ilisha, and the prawn
◦ River Godavari, the largest of peninsular rivers and the third largest river in
India (next to rivers Ganga and Bhramaputhra) is about 1465km long from its
origin near Triambakeswar in deolali hills near Nasik (Maharastra) in northern-
western Ghats to its tidal limits below Rajamundry(Andrapradsh) it flows
across the deccan plateau from western to eastern Ghats through Maharastra
(about 693km) and Andhra Pradesh(about 772km).
beowdhawaleshwasram(Andhra Pradesh) river Godavari splits into a northern
distributary (goudami Godavari) and southern one ( Vasishta Godavari). The
goudamy joins Bay of Bengal 19km below Yanam.
◦ Vasishta further divides into vainateyam and the main Vasishta
before opening into bay of Bengal near narapur and vadalarevu
respectively. Between these distributaries lies the excentensive
fertile region of Godavari delta. The main major tributaries of river
Godavari are manjira, wainganga, and indiravati with rivers poorna,
maner, and sabari and a host of revulets and seasonally active
streams as minor tributaries. The catchment area of river Godavari
is about 312,812km2in maharastra 48.6%, andra Pradesh 23.8%,
madya Pradesh 20.7%, Odisha ( 5.5%) and Karnataka ( 1.4%).
◦Two reservoirs (Gangapur and Nathsagar are situated on
main stream of reservoirs Godavari in Maharashtra. A 321
km long irrigation barrage is also situated on this river at
Vishnupuri near Nanded in this state. In Andhra Pradesh a
large reservoir has been formed at Pochambed in
Nisambad district in this river.
◦During the exploratory survey of river Godavari
conducted by CIFRI during 1997- 1999 Quantitative
data on its fishery were not collected. However this
survey reported occurance of 3 species ( Rhinomugil
corsula, Osteobrama vigorsi, Oreochromis
◦ The Krishna river system has a total length of about 1280 km from
its origin in Mahabaleswar hills in the western Ghats south of Pune,
Maharashtra to its delta on the east coast. It has a catchment area
about 233,299 sq. km. Krishna and Godavari water sheds are
contiguous over major terrain of Deccan plateau . The main
tributaries of river Krishna are Bhima and Thungabhadra rivers.
◦ Many reservoirs have been built within the Krishna drainage (
Thungabhadra, Koyna, Osman sagar etc).
◦ Quantitative survey in river Krishna by CIFRI during 2001-2003
reported the presence of Catla catla, Cyprinus caprio, Cirrhinus
mrigala, Labeo calbasu, L. fimbriatus, Mystus spp., Ompok spp.,
Wallago attu etc. in the lower stretch ( Andhra Pradesh) L. rohita, L.
calbasu, L. boga, L. gonius, C. mrigala, C. reba, Pangasius
pangasius, Eutroplus suratensis, P. ticto, Channa spp., Notopetrus
notopetrus, and the prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M.
malcomsonii and Penaeus monodon.
Water quality parameters
temperature : 27.8- 30.50 C
transparency : 57-108 cm
dissolved oxygen : 6.4- 8.0 mg/ L
pH : 8.1- 8.2
alkalinity : 149 mg/ L
hardness: 160 mg/L
conductance : 1039 µmhos
dissolved solids : 520 mg/ L
chloride : 254 mg/L
◦ It is the longest perennial river south of river Krishna. It originates
from the Brahmagiri hills on to western Ghats in Karnataka and
flows in a south- easternly direction for about 850 kms before
emptying into Bay of Bengal in Thanjavoor district of Tamil Nadu.
In the Thanjavoor delta, the river divides into a northern branch,
river Coleroon and a southern branch, river Cauvery proper. The
main tributaries of river Cauvery are rivers Bhavani, Noyil and
Amaravati. This is one of the most tamed rivers of the country. A
number of reservoirs ( Bhavani sagar, Krishna sagar, Mettur etc..).
FISH AND FISHERIES
◦80 species of fish belonging to 23 families were reported
from river Cauvery. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus
mrigala, L. fimbriatus, Channa spp.,Tor khudree and exotic
fishes like Oreochromis mossambicus,
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella,
Cyprinus carpio, the O. mossambicus was observed to be
well established throughout in this river.
Water quality parameters
temperature : 24.6- 28.10 C
dissolved oxygen : 6.6-7 mg/ L
pH : 6.9- 7.9
alkalinity : 98 mg/ L
hardness: 89 mg/L
conductance : 295 µmhos
dissolved solids : 191 mg/ L
chloride : 20.8 mg/L
◦ The dragnets, gillnets and hook are commonly used by fishers to
catch fish. Dragnets of 2 types small ( less than 300 m in length)
and large ( greater than 300 m in length) are in use. Hooks and lines
are mainly used in upper and middle stretch whereas traps are used
in some districts of Bihar stretch. Small scoop nets are also used.
◦ . Limited no of dip nets were observed in some parts of Uttar
Pradesh stretch. Majority of the gill nets in use were of smaller
mesh size. Mesh size of gill nets varied from 18- 26 cm and in
some drag net fishing more than 2cm mesh was operated.
◦ In some districts of Bihar and Varanasi, Ghazipur and Balia districts
of Uttar Pradesh use of large dragnets of mosquito net clothing with
minimal mesh size is common. These gears are highly destructive
both to fish stocks and ecosystem as well.
◦ In the recent past the use of dragnets, traps, hooks and lines has
declined sharply as compared to sixties. At present the availability
and use of gill nets had increased manifold in all stretches.