2. Scope : The opportunities or possibilities
for doing something.
Trend : A general direction in which
something is developing or Changing.
Autonomy : Freedom of action.
Accountability : Responsible for ones
actions and expected to explain them
3. Delegate : A person sent to represent
Competence : The quality of being
Holistic : Treating the whole person
rather than just the symptoms of Diseases
4. Healing methods : Methods may incorporate
or base themselves on traditional medicine,
folk knowledge, spiritual beliefs, or newly
conceived approaches to healing
Ayurveda : Hinduism an ancient medical
treatise on the art of healing and prolonging
life, sometimes regarded as a fifth Veda
5. Siddha : Sanskrit means "one who is
accomplished" and refers to perfected
masters who, according to Hindu belief
Unani : It traditionally makes use of a
variety of techniques including diet, herbal
treatments, manipulative therapies, and
6. Homeopathy :it is a holistic system of
treatment that originated in the late
eighteenth century. The name homeopathy is
derived from two Greek words that mean "like
Naturopathy : Medicine, is a form of
alternative medicine based on a belief in
vitalism, which posits that a special energy
called vital energy
7. Acupunture : Acupuncture is one of the main
forms of treatment in traditional Chinese
medicine. It involves the use of sharp, thin
needles that are inserted in the body at very
Biofeedback : By watching biological
measurements, one can learn how to alter
functions of body by relaxing or holding pleasant
images in mind.
Imagery :the formation of mental
images, figures, or likenesses of things, or of
such images collectively:
8. Relaxation : relief from bodily or mental
work, effort, stress
Hypnosis : an artificially induced trance
state resembling sleep, characterized by
heightened susceptibility to suggestion.
Detoxication : a period of medical
treatment, usually including counseling,
during which a person is helped to overcome
physical and psychological dependence on
alcohol or drugs
The range of practise is the range of roles,
functions, responsibilities and activities which
a registered nurse is educated, competent
and has the authority to perform
10. promotion and maintenance for the best
quality health service for the population.
Expansion of the practice must be made in
the context of the definitions of nursing
Expansion of practise must only be made
with due consideration to legislation, national
policy, local policy and guidelines.
Nurse is competent to carry out the role
11. Develop and maintain the competence
necessary for professional practise.
Expansion of the practise must be
based on appropriate assessment,
planning, communication and
The nurse is accountable for the
decision to delegate..
12. In making decisions about an individual nurse‘s
scope of practise, the best interest of the patient
/client and the importance of promoting and
maintaining the highest standards of quality in
the health services should be foremost.
Nursing care should be delivered in a way that
respects the uniqueness and dignity of each
patient regardless of culture and religion.
Fundamental nursing practise is the therapeutic
relationship between the nurse and the
patient/client that is based on trust,
understanding, and support and serves to
empower the patient/client to make life choices
20. Ayurveda is the ancient Indian medical science,
the origin of which can be traced back to more
than 5000 years. The source of Ayurveda are the
vedas , the oldest available classics..
- It is only system of medicine which
incorporates suggestions and remedies for both
healthy and diseased people.
ayurveda was dealing with the mental, physical
and social well being of an individual.
21. According to Ayurveda every individual is
made up of five elements, namely:
Prithvi or earth.
Apa or water.
Tejas or fire.
Vayu or air.
Akash or space.
23. According to Ayurveda, health is a state of
balance between the body, mind and
consciousness.. Disease is a condition of
disharmony in any of these factors. The root
cause of imbalance, or disease, is an
aggravation of 3 dosha, vata-pitta-kapha
24. -there are 122 undergraduate colleges in
India and 24 post graduate instistutions
-There are 5000 licenced pharmacies and 13
governmental assisted pharmacies which
manufacturing ayurvedic drugs
-ayurvedic pharmacopia committee has been
set up to evolve uniform standards in
preparation of drugs
25. Generally the basic concepts of the Siddha
medicine are almost similar to ayurveda.
The only difference appears to be that the
siddha medicine recognizes predominance of
vata, pitta and kapha in childhood, adulthood
and old age respectively, whereas in ayurveda
it is totally reversed: kapam is dominant in
childhood, vata in old age and pitham in
26. - According to the experts, there were 18
principal siddhar Of these 18, agasthiyar is
believed to be the father of siddha medicine.
-Siddhars were of the concept that a healthy
soul can only be developed through a healthy
So they developed methods and medication
that are believed to strengthen their physical
body and thereby their souls.
27. Na (tongue): black in vatha, yellow or red in
pitha, white in kapha, ulcerated in anaemia.
Varna (colour): dark in vatha, yellow or red in
pitha, pale in kapha;
Svara (voice): normal in vatha, high pitched in
pitha, low pitched in kapha, slurred in
Kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red
in pitha, pale in kapha.
Sparisam (touch): dry in vatha, warm in pitha,
chill in kapha, sweating in different parts of the
28. Mala (stool): black stools indicate vatha,
yellow pitha, pale in kapha, dark red in ulcer
and shiny in terminal illness.
Neer (urine): early morning urine is examined;
straw colour indicates indigestion, reddish
yellow excessive heat, rose in blood pressure,
saffron colour in jaundice and looks like meat
washed water in renal disease.
Nadi (pulse): the confirmatory method
recorded on the radial artery
29. The treatment in siddha medicine is aimed at
keeping the three humors in equilibrium and
maintenance of seven elements.
Internal medicine was used through the oral
route and further classified in to 32 categories
based on their form, methods of preparation,
shelf life, etc.
External medicine includes certain forms of
drugs and also certain applications like nasal, eye
and ear drops and also certain procedures like
leech application.it also classified in to 32
30. The undergraduate programme is for 5 years
and PG programmes for 3 years
-The standareds are maintained by central
council of Indian medicine
-the research in siddha medicine has been
done by central council for research in
ayurveda and siddha
-siddha pharmacopia committee is
consituted to establish standards of single
and compound drugs
31. -Unani medicine as the name suggests,
originated in greece or unan
Hippocrates (460-377BC) who freed medicine
from the realm of superstition and magic and
gave the status of science
33. The fundamental principle of the unani
system recognises that disease is a natural
process and symptoms of a disease are
body's reaction to disease.
The chief function of the physician is to aid
the natural forces of the body
-Unani also postulates that the body contains
a self-preservative power, which strives to
restore any disturbance within the limits
prescribed by the constitution or state of the
34. The unani Physician-called Hakim diagnoses a
disease by feeling the Nabz(pulse) and rhythmic
expansion of arteries by fingers. stool and urine
examination also help in diagnosis. Four types of
treatment lines are available:
(1) (regimental therapy),
(3) (Pharmacotherapy) and
35. -The regimental therapy includes procedures like
venesection, cupping, Turkish bath, massage,
exercise and leeching among others. These
therapies involves working on specificbody
reflexes, most commonly by massage.
- dietotherapy involves administration of specific
diets or regulation of quantity and quality of
food, where as
pharmacotherapy deals with administration of
drugs derived from plant and mineral sources.
36. An early assertion that like cures like was
made by Hippocrates about 400 BC, when he
prescribed mandrake root, which produced
mania, to treat mania, by prescribing a dose
smaller than what would produce mania
-Homeopathy is based on the theory of
similia simbilibus currentis or let like be
treated by like which means that any
substance capable of producing artificial
symptoms on healthy individuals can cure the
same symptoms in anatural disease
37. 1.the law of direction of cure:-The direction of cure
states that during curative process the symptoms
disappear in the reverse order of its apearence from
downwards ie ,from more important organs to less
2.the law of remedy:homeopathy generally uses only
a single medicine whic has a true similarity of
symptom with that of remedy
3.the law of minimum doses;the doses applied are
the minimum possible ,just sufficient to correct the
4.the theory of chronic diseases :this theory states
that most of the diseases are due to irregular living
,constant exposure to unhealthy situation ,emotional
stress,atmospheric influences etc
38. Bachelor of homeopathic medicine and
surgery and doctor of medicine in
homeopathy are avialable now
-Homeopathic pharmacopia laboratory has
been set up national level .It include
conducting research and preparing
homeopathic pharmaceutical codex of
39. It, is a form of alternative medicine based on a
belief in vitalism
-It is based on application of simple laws of
-The system is closely associated with ayurveda
- Naturopathic practitioners are split into two
groups, traditional naturopaths and naturopathic
physicians. Naturopathic physicians employ the
principles of naturopathy within the context of
conventional medical practices.
40. -the treatment modalities mainly based on
the regulation of eating styles,adaptation of
purifactory measures ,use of hydrotherapy
,massages and variety of measures
-It is a holistic system and it helps to
promote physical mental social and spiritual
health by self regulation of life activities on a
normal and natural basis
42. Body tissues are manipulated to promote
wellness and reduce pain and stress. Massage
is the manipulation of superficial and deeper
layers of muscle and connective tissue to
enhance function, aid in the healing process,
and promote relaxation and well-being
43. massage has been shown to help relive
muscle soreness ,pain due to back injuries
and fibromyalgia and to help relieve anxiety
in cancer patient.
There are over eighty different recognized
massage modalities. The most cited reasons
for introducing massage as therapy have
been client demand and perceived clinical
46. This is an alternative system of medicine
which treats ailments by insertion of needles
at acupoints. To be effective a specific
sensation called Quichi or Teichi should be
elicited during needling
47. Analgesia i.e. pain-relieving effects useful in
variety of painful conditions.
Sedation or calming effects useful in epilepsy,
insomnia & mental disease like mania &
Homeostasis or maintaining the normal
balance of the body.
Immunity improvement –better immunity &
protection from infection.
48. -Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) states
that the body is made up of five hollow
–These are represented on the body surface
according to their energy flow on ‘Meridians’.
-Specific points or acupoints were charted
out on these meridians.
- The stimulation of these points by needles
leads to a balance of energy forces and this is
responsible for cure of diseases caused by
imbalance of body energy.
it is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline,
originating in ancient India whose goal is the
attainment of a state of perfect spiritual
insight and tranquility.
The word is associated with meditative
practices in Hinduism Buddhism and Jainism
50. - The goals of yoga are varied and range
from improving health to achieving Moksha.
In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is
variously described as entering the world of
In the present view ,yoga is one of the most
helpful and healthy forms of experience to
manage the influence of thinking by turning
psychological and physical force in to
spiritual energy.yoga therapy eases oneself
from cramped tension
51. Most practices in yoga therapy are used as
complimentary practices to conventional
medicine .some of the se practices are
exercise ,meditation and massage .
According to practioners of yoga therapy it is
safer and more effective for treatment of
common medical problems
Yoga therapy consists of three basic parts of
our body which work together :
-physical posture , breathing technique
52. Yoga therapy shows positive results in
-Deep breathing associated with yoga is
beneficial incontrolling premature ventricular
-yoga therapy is beneficial in post treating
strategy, breast cancer
53. -improve nerve function and lower blood
-In rhematoid arthritis cases yoga will
increases muscle strength
-It helps in weight reduction
55. It is quieting the mind by focusing one’s
A sense of oneness withself, universe and
Greater Power is felt.
56. It is the therapeutic form of meditation. One
technique of relaxation isprogressive muscle
relation (PMR). The client focuses on skeletal
muscles and alternatively contracts and
relaxes them. Nurses in all settings can learn
and teach relaxation response to clients.
57. -,In which people are trained to improve
their health by using signals from their own
In the late 1960s research showed that
certain involuntary activities like brain
activity, blood pressure, heart rate can be
altered by tuning into our body.
58. Simply put biofeedback is the technique of
looking into the signals from our body, for
example measuring one’s weight or temperature
are simple methods of biofeedback, as both
devices feedback information about the body.
-Biofeedback is used in a variety of situations. It
is generally used by physical therapists to help
stroke victims regain movement in paralyzed
muscles. Psychologists use it to help tense and
anxious clients learn to relax
Clinical biofeedback techniques are widely used
to treat a host of conditions. These include:
Disorders of the digestive system
Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and
many other types of pain
High blood pressure and low blood pressure
Cardiac arrhythmias (abnormalities, sometimes
dangerous, in the rhythm of the heartbeat)
Raynaud's disease (a circulatory disorder that
causes uncomfortably cold hands)
Paralysis and other movement disorders
60. Biofeedback demands the patients to
examine their day-to-day lives and to find
out if they may be contributing to their own
They must commit themselves to practicing
biofeedback or relaxation exercises every
day, change bad habits and even ease up on
some good ones
61. combined with imagery and guided suggestions
induce alteredstate of consciousness (a trance).
Hypnotised persons become absorbed in the
images suggested by hypnotherapist and are are
able tonsuspend disbelief .It can be also used to
help people to change their behaviour and thus
improve their health
It can be also used to treat psychological
Hypnosis has been used with some success to
help people to stopsmocking and lose of weight.
62. It is a type of thinking using one’s senses to
evoke the imagination.
Nurses can create guided imagery for clients who
are capable of hearing and following
nurse’ssuggestions of meaningfully positive,
Patent with fracture canbe shown stages of bone
healing with the help of a chart/model and asked
to imaginethese stages happening in his own
Imagery can also be used for distracting
theclients’ attention from pain and negative
emotions, for decision making (quittingsmoking)
and for altering behaviours.
63. MUSIC THERAPY:
Music therapy is an allied health profession
and one of the expressive therapies
consisting of an interpersonal process in
which a trained music therapist uses music
and all of its facets—physical, emotional,
mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to
help clients to improve or maintain their
64. Music therapists primarily help clients
improve their health across various domains
(e.g., cognitive functioning, motor skills,
emotional and affective development,
behavior and social skills, and quality of life)
by using music experiences (e.g., singing,
songwriting, listening to and discussing
music, moving to music) to achieve treatment
goals and objectives
66. . Some commonly found practices include
developmental work with individuals with
special needs, songwriting and listening in
reminiscence/orientation work with the
elderly, processing and relaxation work, and
rhythmic entrainment for physical
rehabilitation in stroke victims.
68. Bioelecromagnetic therapy is the application
of electromagnetic feilds to treat and prevent
disease and promote health
Whenever current passes through a wire ,it
includes a magnetic feild
70. Living tissue is essentially transparent to
magnetic feilds .when a varying electromagnetic
feild is placed close to a conductive medium
such as the humanbody ,it will include electrical
Some of the doccumented effects of
electromagnetic feilds include accelerated
healing ,greater cellular energy ,vasodilation
,reduced inflammation ,muscle relaxation ,cell
membrane changes ,enhanced movemens of
electrolytes ,reduced stress and better mood.
71. Photoenergy therapy devices
emit infra red light typically at
a wavlength of 880 nm .
This wavelength is believed to
stimulate the release of nitric
oxide which will improve the
vasodilation of the capillaries
in the microcirculatory
72. Photoenergy therapy devices seem to address
the underlying problem of neuropathies ,poor
microcirculation ,which leads to pain and
numbness in the exremities
73. Detoxication therapy involves the removal of
..Our body naturally eliminates or
neutralises toxins ..
..Firstly a brief physical checkup is made ,x-
ray is taken ,urine and blood samples and
sent for testing
..Colonic irrigation ,fasting ,special diets
,hyperthermia ,and other treatments
nutrional suppliments are some methods of
..Avoid detoxication therapy for the patients
having liver and kidney problems ,high or
low B P ,heart diseases ,epilepsy and
asthmaand blood coagulation disorders
74. Laughing is found to lower blood pressure
,reduce stress hormones ,increase muscle
flexion ,and boost immune function ,which
produce disease destoying antibodies .
laughter also triggers the release of
endorphines ,and produces a general sense
of wellbeing .
participants gather in early morning for the
purpose of laughing
75. this is the use of water ,both internally and
externally in the form of baths ,packs
,copressess ,packs ,sprays
it can give a remarkable result in the
treatment of both acute and chronic
76. Aromatherapy is the practice of using volatile
plant oils, including essential oils for
psychological and physical well-being.
-Essential oils, the pure essence of a plant, have
been found to provide both psychological and
physical benefits when used correctly and safely.
-In addition to essential oils, aromatherapy
encourages the use of other complementary
natural ingredients including cold pressed
vegetable oils, jojoba (a liquid wax), hydrosols,
herbs, milk powders, sea salts, sugars (an
exfoliant), clays and muds.
78. • Massage: This popular method can be experienced
by getting essential oils mixed in massage lotions
applied directly to the skin through a massage. The
application of oil on the skin improves the
functioning of the immune system, and kills bacteria.
The massage can create a feeling of relaxation and
reduce depression by calming frayed nerves.
• Olfactory: The healing fragrances of the essential
oils are released by burning scented candles or by
mixing bath salts in warm water. The fragrance of the
essential oils can release chemicals like Serotonin,
Endorphins, and Enkephalin, which induce relaxation.
• Cosmetic: In this, the essential oils are applied on
the body, skin and hair. The oils are often mixed with
cosmetic products like bath soaps and face creams