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Plastic waste management

18. Mar 2019
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Plastic waste management

  1. Compiled by : Ankit Kumar Thakur B.Tech 3rd Year Plastics Engineering Roll No. 1518987013 Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology Lucknow A Seminar Presentation
  2. What is Plastic Waste ? • Plastics are synthetic polymers derived from petro fossil feedstock and made-up of long chain hydrocarbons with additives. • When after use plastic in any form is littered or disposed in wrong manner it becomes a major source of pollution in the environment and this untreated bulk mass is termed as plastic waste. • For e.g., Polyethylene bags littered on land causes land pollution as PE takes a very long span of time to degrade and due to this land pollutes leading to infertility of land. • The waste quantities increased from 46 million tones in 2001 to 65 million tones in 2010. Report says that per capita per day production will increase to 0.7 kg in 2050.
  3. Types of Plastic Waste
  4. Sources of Plastic Waste
  5. Plastic Production Source: Plastic Europe, 2008
  6. Darks due to plastic waste • Today wrong treatment of plastic disposal has made it one of the biggest source of pollution on the earth. • Indiscriminate plastic waste disposal on land and in water bodies makes the land infertile due to its impervious nature and severely pollutes the water bodies. • Burning of plastics generates toxic emissions such as Carbon Monoxide, Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid, Dioxin, Furans, Amines, Nitrides, Styrene, Benzene, 1, 3- butadiene, CCl4, and Acetaldehyde. • The concern has become so serious that several state governing authorities are banning use of plastic in different ways.
  7. Darks due to plastic waste Nasa has created a visualisation of this pollution highlighting the extend to which humanity is ruining the oceans with waste.
  8. Plastic Waste Management
  9. The conventional way…  Landfilling Landfill is the conventional approach to waste management, but space for landfills is becoming scarce in some countries.  Incineration Incineration reduces the need for landfill of plastics waste, however, there are concerns that hazardous substances may be released into the atmosphere in the process.  Recycling of plastics through environmentally sound manner.  Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
  10. The modern way….  Plasma Pyrolysis Technology (PPT) • Pyrolysis is the thermal disintegration of carbonaceous material in oxygen-starved atmosphere. • The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of Plasma Pyrolysis technology enable it to dispose of all types of plastic waste including polymeric, biomedical and hazardous waste in a safe and reliable manner.  Conversion of Plastics Waste into liquid fuel • Waste plastics while heating up to 2700 to 3000 C convert into liquid-vapour state, which is collected in condensation chamber in the form of liquid fuel.
  11. The modern way….  Conversion of Plastics Waste into liquid fuel • Waste plastics while heating up to 2700 to 3000 C convert into liquid-vapour state, which is collected in condensation chamber in the form of liquid fuel.  Bio degradable plastics • Manufacture of plastics that are eco-friendly. They have a decomposing nature.
  12. The modern way….
  13. Innovations  Plastic Roads • A Government order in November 2015 has made it mandatory for all road developers in the country to use waste plastic, along with bituminous mixes, for road construction. • The technology for this was developed by the ‘Plastic Man’ of India, Prof Rajagopalan Vasudevan, Professor of Chemistry at Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai. • The plastic waste items that can be used for road construction are various items like plastic carry bags, plastic cups, plastic packaging for potato chips, biscuits, chocolates, etc.
  14. Innovations  Plastic Roads • The plastic waste material is first shredded to a particular size using a shredding machine. The aggregate mix is heated at 165°c and transferred to the mixing chamber, and the bitumen is heated to 160°c to result in good binding. • The shredded plastic waste is then added to the aggregate. It gets coated uniformly over the aggregate within 30 to 60 seconds, giving an oily look. The plastic waste coated aggregate is mixed with hot bitumen and the resulting mix is used for road construction. The road laying temperature is between 110°c to 120°c. The roller used has a capacity of 8 tons.
  15. Innovations Fuel X Plastic • The technology can convert plastic into high-grade gasoline and diesel with nil sulphur quantity, LPG being produced as a by-product during the process. Lesser emissions and a lot cheaper, the new fuel could in fact answer all our urban energy woes as fossil fuels step closer towards depletion. • This tremendous innovative idea was first ignited to Researchers at Indian Institute of Petroleum , Dehradun. • The idea is in still development stage.
  16. Innovations Packaging Inspired by Nature The University of Pittsburgh team applies Nano-engineering to create a recyclable material that can replace complex multi- layered packaging that is unrecyclable. This mimics the way nature uses just a few molecular building blocks to create a huge variety of materials. Recyclable packaging, with help from magnets Aronax Technologies Spain proposes a magnetic additive that can be applied to a material, creating better air and moisture insulation — making it suitable to protect sensitive products such as coffee and medical products, while still being possible to recycle.
  17. Innovations Packaging from food waste Working together, Full Cycle Bioplastics, Elk Packaging and Associated Labels and Packaging make a compostable high- performance material from renewable materials, agricultural by-products and food waste to pack a broad range of products from granola bars and crisps to laundry detergent. 'Plastic' made from wood The VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has created a compostable multi- layer material from agricultural and forestry by-products, which could be used for stand- up food pouches for products such as muesli, nuts, dried fruit and rice. Full Cycle Bioplastics, Elk Packaging and Associated Labels and Packaging are collaborating on a compostable, high-performance material.
  18. Innovations  How plastic-eating bacteria actually work? • Scientists recently discovered a strain of bacteria that can literally eat the plastic used to make bottles, and have now improved it to make it work faster. The effects are modest – it’s not a complete solution to plastic pollution – but it does show how bacteria could help create more environmentally friendly recycling. • Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 could digest the plastic used to make single-use drinks bottles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). It works by secreting an enzyme (a type of protein that can speed up chemical reactions) known as PETase. This splits certain chemical bonds (esters) in PET, leaving smaller molecules that the bacteria can absorb, using the carbon in them as a food source. • A community of Ideonella sakaiensis working in a specific way could break down a thin film of PET over the course of six weeks if the temperature were held at a steady 86 degrees Fahrenheit.
  19. Special Thanks to Dr. Smita Mathur CIPET Lucknow Don’t say NO to plastics , say KNOW to plastics….
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