SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 21
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
Ayalneh Bogale and Manzamasso Hodjo
Building Resilience to Multiple Shocks and Stresses
to Protect Development Gains in Ethiopia
#2023 AGRODEP CONFERENCE
 Introduction
 Main triggers of natural and human-induced disasters in Ethiopia
 Genesis and institutionalization of effective response and resilience
building in Ethiopia
 Salient features of policies and strategies for effective response and
resilience
 Empirical evidence on change in household resilience
 Lessons learned: drivers of effective response and resilience building
 Strategic pathways
Outline of the presentation
1. Introduction
 Background
 Mounting evidence points to profound economic transformation Ethiopia has
achieved from 1995 to 2016
 Ethiopia is also exposed to a wide range of disasters: natural and human induced
 If the country continues a business-as-usual approach to crisis response, it will not
be able to manage the increasing scale of the challenges
 Thus, there is call by all stakeholders for a paradigm shift in the way the country
deals with communities at risk if it has to sustain the recent development gains
 Main objective - reviewing and documenting strategic interventions by the GoE in
terms of adopting policies, strategies and programmes, building the necessary
institutional structures that enhance resilience to multiple shocks.
Figure 1. Ethiopia basic statistics
GDP (Cons 2015 US$)= 95.07 bill
37% 24% 39%
CPI = 34.7
Food = 43.4
Foreign exchange
earning = US$ 3.62 bill
(%)
25.1
15.8
15.8
11.1
4.4
114.6 mil
2.53%
US$ 827
3.48%
Share of pop. in extreme
poverty = 22%
 Ethiopia has characterized its economic policy as
“agricultural development-led industrialization,” in mid-
1990s.
 Puts an emphasis on raising productivity of smallholder
farmers, improve food security and generate broadly
shared income gains
 Results
 agricultural output more than tripled between 1993 and
2018, (average 5% per year)
 share of the Ethiopian population subsisting on less
than US$1.90/day had been cut in half by 2015,
 fraction of children under age five suffering from
stunting fell from 67 percent in 1992 in to 37 percent
in 2019
 Since 2015, however, agricultural output in Ethiopia
appears to have stagnated
 resilience and sustainability
 Conceptual understanding of resilience
 The concept of resilience has been defined, researched, and
debated across many academic disciplines as well as operational
sectors and agencies, and has grown increasingly popular in recent
years in development and policy discourse
 UNISDR (2005), DFID (2011), USAID (2012), UN Common
Guidance on Helping Build Resilient Societies (UN, 2020)
 FAO (2021) - “the ability to prevent disasters and crises as well as
to anticipate, absorb, accommodate or recover from them in a
timely, efficient and sustainable manner. This includes protecting,
restoring and improving livelihoods systems in the face of threats
that impact agriculture, nutrition, food security and food safety."
 Resilience is not an outcome, but a capacity that influences
outcomes: common and crucial capabilities:
 Anticipative capacity: ability to take early action in anticipation of a potential threat,
 Preventive capacity: ability to implement activities and take measures to reduce
existing risks and avoid the creation of new risks,
 Absorptive capacity: ability to take protective action and ‘bounce back’ after a shock,
 Adaptive capacity: The ability to make incremental adjustments, modifications or
changes to the characteristics of systems,
 Transformative capacity: The ability to create a fundamentally new system when
ecological, economic or social structures make the existing system untenable.
Figure 2. The Resilience Conceptual Framework
Source: DFID, 2011
2. Main Triggers of Natural and Human-induced Disasters in Ethiopia
- Ethiopia: Disaster risk
profile
- Among the most disaster-prone
countries in Africa
- Rely disproportionately on annual
crops cultivated on marginal lands
- Insecure land tenure
- Land productivity is generally very
low
Drought and
Weather-
related
Disasters
1972–1973
The 1972/73 Famine:
“The unknown famine”
1984–1985
The 1984/85 Famine:
Drought, War and
Policy Failure
2010–2011
The 2010/11 Drought:
Ethiopia avoided
famine- a step towards
resilience
2015–2016
The 2015/16 Drought:
From saving lives to
protecting livelihoods
3. Genesis and Institutionalization of effective response and
resilience in Ethiopia
 1974 The pioneering organization was the Relief and Rehabilitation
Commission (RRC) established in 1974
 1995 RRC was restructured and named Disaster Prevention and Preparedness
Commission (DPPC) in 1995 with significant changes in mandate to
strengthen the linkages between relief and early warning and response
 2004 DPPC was renamed again as the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness
Agency (DPPA) in 2004 without significant change in the mandate
 2007 Transformed into Disaster Risk Management and Food Security Sector
(DRMFSS) in 2007
 2015 The latest institutional change created the National Disaster Risk
Management Commission (NDRMC) in 2015
The National Disaster Preparedness and Prevention
Strategy (NDPPS) – 1989
The National Policy on Disaster Prevention and
Management (NPDPM) - 1993
The National Policy and Strategy on Disaster Risk
Management (NPSDRM) - 2013
National and Sectoral Policies and Strategies
Disaster Risk Management Strategic Programme and
Investment Framework (DRM SPIF) - 2014
International Conventions and Instruments
4. Salient features
of policies and
strategies for
effective response
and resilience
5. Empirical
evidence on
change in
household
resilience
 Resilience has become promising concept
for understanding how households cope
with and recover from shocks and stressors
 Many attempts at measuring resilience have
been proposed over recent years:
quantitative and qualitative
 Employs Resilience Index Measurement and
Analysis (RIMA)
 RIMA approximates household resilience
using the resilience capacity index (RCI).
 RCI is a statistic that summarizes a
household’s status with respect to some
selected welfare indicator (food insecurity)
 It is based on four pillars, namely access to
basic services (ABS), assets (AST), social
safety nets (SSN) and adaptative capacity
(AC).
 Two stage procedure to estimate RCI
 Factor analysis (FA) to identify the attributes, or “pillars,” that
contribute to household resilience, starting with observed
variables.
 RCI was obtained using a latent variable model, termed
MIMIC (Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes)
 The RCI of a household, i at time t, is a function of:
 Access to Basic Services (ABS)
 Assets (AST)
 Adaptive Capacity (AC)
 Social Safety Networks (SSN)
 Employed the web-based Shiny RIMA tool
Item Variables
Means
difference St Err t-value
2011 2018
RCI Resilience Capacity Index 22.56 24.48 1.92*** 0.425 4.5
ABS
Inverse distance to water point 0.033 0.143 0.11*** 0.011 9.85
Access to toilets 0.459 0.568 0.108*** 0.025 4.4
Inverse distance to medical centre 0.191 0.379 0.188*** 0.04 4.75
Access to electricity 0.202 0.501 0.298*** 0.024 12.45
Assets
Wealth Index 0.06 0.144 0.084*** 0.007 11.3
Agric tools index 0.088 0.097 0.008* 0.005 1.65
Tropical livestock Units 2.841 2.776 -0.065 0.204 -0.3
Agriculture Land area 0.698 0.382 -0.316*** 0.05 -6.4
Use of fertilizers 0.477 0.244 -0.233*** 0.033 -7.1
SSN
Cash assistance 330.4 1494.5 1164.11*** 63.393 18.35
Informal Transfer 479.4 2197.8 1718.45*** 472.9 3.65
In kind Assistance 36.46 110.31 73.847*** 11.931 6.2
Food assistance 495.0 1021.6 526.596*** 83.899 6.3
AC
Access to education 0.399 0.123 -0.276*** 0.021 -13.15
Inv dependency ratio 1.397 1.621 0.225*** 0.054 4.15
Ag diversity Index 0.119 0.105 -0.014*** 0.007 -1.9
Income diversity index 0.352 0.537 0.185*** 0.009 20.6
Food security
FCS 6.065 6.232 0.167*** 0.043 3.9
HDDS 39.37 39.573 0.2 0.338 -0.6
Table 1. Two-sample T-test results for change in RCI and its pillar variables b/n 2011 and 2018
Figure 5. Relative importance of pillars in household RCI for
2011 and 2018
Figure 6. Change in resilience for male and female-headed households
21.21 21.43
24.76
25.87
MALE FEMALE
RCI
Gender
2011 2018
Figure 7. Relative importance of pillars in RCI for male
and female-headed households
2011 2018
6. Lessons
Learned:
Drivers for
Effective
Response and
Resilience
Building
Sustained Economic Growth and Mainstreaming
DRR
Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP)
Early Warning System and Coordination of
Response/actors
Focus on most Vulnerable Livelihoods- Pastoral
Livelihoods
Conflict Reduction and Peace Building
7. Strategic
pathways
Conflict management and peace building
Promote public and private investment in agriculture
and natural resources
Adaptation to climate change
Promote access to input and output markets
Strengthen governance structure
Emphasize on inclusion of the most vulnerable groups
and environment
THANK YOU

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Ähnlich wie Ayalneh Bogale_2023 AGRODEP Annual Conference

Maw protracted crisis cairo
Maw protracted crisis cairoMaw protracted crisis cairo
Maw protracted crisis cairoNE Kim
 
Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...
Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...
Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...SIANI
 
John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...
John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...
John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...Lina Abdelfattah
 
Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...
Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...
Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...FAO
 
Index‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural Ethiopia
Index‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural EthiopiaIndex‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural Ethiopia
Index‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural Ethiopiaessp2
 
drm governance ethiopia.ppt
drm governance ethiopia.pptdrm governance ethiopia.ppt
drm governance ethiopia.pptDaniWondimeDers
 
Role of Policy Research in the Recovery Process
Role of Policy Research in the Recovery ProcessRole of Policy Research in the Recovery Process
Role of Policy Research in the Recovery ProcessESSP1
 
LM Report Final V2.0 5-11-2011 JS CTH
LM Report Final V2.0  5-11-2011 JS CTHLM Report Final V2.0  5-11-2011 JS CTH
LM Report Final V2.0 5-11-2011 JS CTHJames Schmitt
 
Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development Some Co...
Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development   Some Co...Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development   Some Co...
Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development Some Co...Ln Perch
 
Global Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda
Global Food Security: New Trends and Emerging AgendaGlobal Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda
Global Food Security: New Trends and Emerging AgendaShenggen Fan
 
Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries Liter...
Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries  Liter...Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries  Liter...
Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries Liter...Todd Turner
 
Issues of Food Security and Insurance
Issues of Food Security and InsuranceIssues of Food Security and Insurance
Issues of Food Security and InsuranceLinda Morris Kelley
 
Rural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and Resilience
Rural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and ResilienceRural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and Resilience
Rural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and ResilienceThe Transfer Project
 
Index-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocks
Index-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocksIndex-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocks
Index-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocksILRI
 
Chapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptx
Chapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptxChapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptx
Chapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptxMarvinAlegado
 
Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience? Experiences from su...
Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience?  Experiences from su...Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience?  Experiences from su...
Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience? Experiences from su...Pascal Corbé
 

Ähnlich wie Ayalneh Bogale_2023 AGRODEP Annual Conference (20)

Maw protracted crisis cairo
Maw protracted crisis cairoMaw protracted crisis cairo
Maw protracted crisis cairo
 
Livestock Insurance in Kenya
Livestock Insurance in KenyaLivestock Insurance in Kenya
Livestock Insurance in Kenya
 
Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...
Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...
Surviving Shocks and Enhanced Food Security in Ethiopia: The Role of Social P...
 
The Road to Resilience Rethinking Responses to Food Crises
The Road to Resilience Rethinking Responses to Food Crises The Road to Resilience Rethinking Responses to Food Crises
The Road to Resilience Rethinking Responses to Food Crises
 
John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...
John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...
John McDermott (A4NH IFPRI) • 2021 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series: "COVID-19 less...
 
Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...
Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...
Webinar 4 on resilience: SHOCK-RESPONSIVE SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR RESILIENCE BU...
 
Index‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural Ethiopia
Index‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural EthiopiaIndex‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural Ethiopia
Index‐based Rainfall Insurance in Rural Ethiopia
 
drm governance ethiopia.ppt
drm governance ethiopia.pptdrm governance ethiopia.ppt
drm governance ethiopia.ppt
 
Role of Policy Research in the Recovery Process
Role of Policy Research in the Recovery ProcessRole of Policy Research in the Recovery Process
Role of Policy Research in the Recovery Process
 
LM Report Final V2.0 5-11-2011 JS CTH
LM Report Final V2.0  5-11-2011 JS CTHLM Report Final V2.0  5-11-2011 JS CTH
LM Report Final V2.0 5-11-2011 JS CTH
 
rural devt 6.pdf
rural devt 6.pdfrural devt 6.pdf
rural devt 6.pdf
 
Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development Some Co...
Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development   Some Co...Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development   Some Co...
Linking Adaptation And Mitigation In Climate Change And Development Some Co...
 
Global Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda
Global Food Security: New Trends and Emerging AgendaGlobal Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda
Global Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda
 
Crises and Social Programs
Crises and Social ProgramsCrises and Social Programs
Crises and Social Programs
 
Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries Liter...
Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries  Liter...Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries  Liter...
Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies In Developing Countries Liter...
 
Issues of Food Security and Insurance
Issues of Food Security and InsuranceIssues of Food Security and Insurance
Issues of Food Security and Insurance
 
Rural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and Resilience
Rural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and ResilienceRural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and Resilience
Rural Social Protection: Economic Inclusion and Resilience
 
Index-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocks
Index-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocksIndex-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocks
Index-insurance to protect pastoralists from drought shocks
 
Chapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptx
Chapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptxChapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptx
Chapter-6_Towards-a-Sustainabl-World.pptx
 
Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience? Experiences from su...
Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience?  Experiences from su...Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience?  Experiences from su...
Social Protection – A main Pillar in Drought Resilience? Experiences from su...
 

Mehr von AKADEMIYA2063

AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptxAKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAugustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS ConferenceAKADEMIYA2063
 
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxLea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxPrince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxSilver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference AKADEMIYA2063
 
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMs. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAKADEMIYA2063
 

Mehr von AKADEMIYA2063 (20)

AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptxAKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56]  -  Read-Only (1).pptx
AKADEMIYA2063_SE-GH2forEnergyTransition_MD[56] - Read-Only (1).pptx
 
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxAugustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Augustin Wambo Yamdjeu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Kenao Lao - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Mr. Wondwosen Tefera - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Keith Fuglie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Greenwell Matchaya et al - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Getaw Tadesse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fatima Kareem - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Fleur Wouterse - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ebenezer M. Kwofie - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Dr. Agnes Quisumbing - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxLea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Lea Magne-Domgho - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxPrince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Prince Agyemang - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Paul Guthiga - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. John Ulimwengu - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxSilver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Silver Nanema - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
Mrs. Tsitsi Makombe - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference
 
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxMs. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Ms. Julie Collins - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr. Ousmane Badiane - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptxDr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
Dr Jean Paul Latyr FAYE - 2023 ReSAKSS Conference.pptx
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 ReportUN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 ReportEnergy for One World
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 232024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23JSchaus & Associates
 
Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat
Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. ReplatItem # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat
Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replatahcitycouncil
 
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1KelleyWasmund
 
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.Christina Parmionova
 
April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.
April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.
April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.Christina Parmionova
 
2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.
2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.
2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.Christina Parmionova
 
PPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdf
PPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdfPPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdf
PPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdfahcitycouncil
 
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.Christina Parmionova
 
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.Cristal Montañéz
 
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...Christina Parmionova
 
2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx
2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx
2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptxMariaFionaDuranMerqu
 
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, IndiaISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, IndiaTrinity Care Foundation
 
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...Christina Parmionova
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 192024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19JSchaus & Associates
 
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human DignityPope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human DignityEnergy for One World
 
Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure ProcessesItem # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processesahcitycouncil
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 222024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22JSchaus & Associates
 
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!Christina Parmionova
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.Christina Parmionova
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 ReportUN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
UN DESA: Finance for Development 2024 Report
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 232024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
 
Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat
Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. ReplatItem # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat
Item # 4&5 - 415 & 423 Evans Ave. Replat
 
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
Madison Cat Project Foster Training - Lesson 1
 
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
Everyone, everywhere has the right to good mental health.
 
April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.
April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.
April 7th - World Health Day 2024 - My Health. My Right.
 
2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.
2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.
2nd edition of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights.
 
PPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdf
PPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdfPPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdf
PPT Item # 6 - TBG Partners Landscape Architectural Design Services.pdf
 
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
Health rights correspond to a checklisk.
 
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
Phase 8 Hope For Venezuelan Refugees Soup Meal Program-Periods 4-6.
 
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...
 
2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx
2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx
2023 Barangay Officials pre assumption PPT.pptx
 
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, IndiaISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
 
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
Actions to take at the global, national and local levels to realize the right...
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 192024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 19
 
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human DignityPope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
 
Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure ProcessesItem # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
Item # 7 - Demolition & Replacement Structure Processes
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 222024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 22
 
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!Get the World Health Day 2024  action toolkit!
Get the World Health Day 2024 action toolkit!
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -16 April.
 

Ayalneh Bogale_2023 AGRODEP Annual Conference

  • 1. Ayalneh Bogale and Manzamasso Hodjo Building Resilience to Multiple Shocks and Stresses to Protect Development Gains in Ethiopia
  • 2. #2023 AGRODEP CONFERENCE  Introduction  Main triggers of natural and human-induced disasters in Ethiopia  Genesis and institutionalization of effective response and resilience building in Ethiopia  Salient features of policies and strategies for effective response and resilience  Empirical evidence on change in household resilience  Lessons learned: drivers of effective response and resilience building  Strategic pathways Outline of the presentation
  • 3. 1. Introduction  Background  Mounting evidence points to profound economic transformation Ethiopia has achieved from 1995 to 2016  Ethiopia is also exposed to a wide range of disasters: natural and human induced  If the country continues a business-as-usual approach to crisis response, it will not be able to manage the increasing scale of the challenges  Thus, there is call by all stakeholders for a paradigm shift in the way the country deals with communities at risk if it has to sustain the recent development gains  Main objective - reviewing and documenting strategic interventions by the GoE in terms of adopting policies, strategies and programmes, building the necessary institutional structures that enhance resilience to multiple shocks.
  • 4. Figure 1. Ethiopia basic statistics GDP (Cons 2015 US$)= 95.07 bill 37% 24% 39% CPI = 34.7 Food = 43.4 Foreign exchange earning = US$ 3.62 bill (%) 25.1 15.8 15.8 11.1 4.4 114.6 mil 2.53% US$ 827 3.48% Share of pop. in extreme poverty = 22%
  • 5.  Ethiopia has characterized its economic policy as “agricultural development-led industrialization,” in mid- 1990s.  Puts an emphasis on raising productivity of smallholder farmers, improve food security and generate broadly shared income gains  Results  agricultural output more than tripled between 1993 and 2018, (average 5% per year)  share of the Ethiopian population subsisting on less than US$1.90/day had been cut in half by 2015,  fraction of children under age five suffering from stunting fell from 67 percent in 1992 in to 37 percent in 2019  Since 2015, however, agricultural output in Ethiopia appears to have stagnated  resilience and sustainability
  • 6.  Conceptual understanding of resilience  The concept of resilience has been defined, researched, and debated across many academic disciplines as well as operational sectors and agencies, and has grown increasingly popular in recent years in development and policy discourse  UNISDR (2005), DFID (2011), USAID (2012), UN Common Guidance on Helping Build Resilient Societies (UN, 2020)  FAO (2021) - “the ability to prevent disasters and crises as well as to anticipate, absorb, accommodate or recover from them in a timely, efficient and sustainable manner. This includes protecting, restoring and improving livelihoods systems in the face of threats that impact agriculture, nutrition, food security and food safety."
  • 7.  Resilience is not an outcome, but a capacity that influences outcomes: common and crucial capabilities:  Anticipative capacity: ability to take early action in anticipation of a potential threat,  Preventive capacity: ability to implement activities and take measures to reduce existing risks and avoid the creation of new risks,  Absorptive capacity: ability to take protective action and ‘bounce back’ after a shock,  Adaptive capacity: The ability to make incremental adjustments, modifications or changes to the characteristics of systems,  Transformative capacity: The ability to create a fundamentally new system when ecological, economic or social structures make the existing system untenable.
  • 8. Figure 2. The Resilience Conceptual Framework Source: DFID, 2011
  • 9. 2. Main Triggers of Natural and Human-induced Disasters in Ethiopia - Ethiopia: Disaster risk profile - Among the most disaster-prone countries in Africa - Rely disproportionately on annual crops cultivated on marginal lands - Insecure land tenure - Land productivity is generally very low
  • 10. Drought and Weather- related Disasters 1972–1973 The 1972/73 Famine: “The unknown famine” 1984–1985 The 1984/85 Famine: Drought, War and Policy Failure 2010–2011 The 2010/11 Drought: Ethiopia avoided famine- a step towards resilience 2015–2016 The 2015/16 Drought: From saving lives to protecting livelihoods
  • 11. 3. Genesis and Institutionalization of effective response and resilience in Ethiopia  1974 The pioneering organization was the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (RRC) established in 1974  1995 RRC was restructured and named Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) in 1995 with significant changes in mandate to strengthen the linkages between relief and early warning and response  2004 DPPC was renamed again as the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Agency (DPPA) in 2004 without significant change in the mandate  2007 Transformed into Disaster Risk Management and Food Security Sector (DRMFSS) in 2007  2015 The latest institutional change created the National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC) in 2015
  • 12. The National Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Strategy (NDPPS) – 1989 The National Policy on Disaster Prevention and Management (NPDPM) - 1993 The National Policy and Strategy on Disaster Risk Management (NPSDRM) - 2013 National and Sectoral Policies and Strategies Disaster Risk Management Strategic Programme and Investment Framework (DRM SPIF) - 2014 International Conventions and Instruments 4. Salient features of policies and strategies for effective response and resilience
  • 13. 5. Empirical evidence on change in household resilience  Resilience has become promising concept for understanding how households cope with and recover from shocks and stressors  Many attempts at measuring resilience have been proposed over recent years: quantitative and qualitative  Employs Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA)  RIMA approximates household resilience using the resilience capacity index (RCI).  RCI is a statistic that summarizes a household’s status with respect to some selected welfare indicator (food insecurity)  It is based on four pillars, namely access to basic services (ABS), assets (AST), social safety nets (SSN) and adaptative capacity (AC).
  • 14.  Two stage procedure to estimate RCI  Factor analysis (FA) to identify the attributes, or “pillars,” that contribute to household resilience, starting with observed variables.  RCI was obtained using a latent variable model, termed MIMIC (Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes)  The RCI of a household, i at time t, is a function of:  Access to Basic Services (ABS)  Assets (AST)  Adaptive Capacity (AC)  Social Safety Networks (SSN)  Employed the web-based Shiny RIMA tool
  • 15. Item Variables Means difference St Err t-value 2011 2018 RCI Resilience Capacity Index 22.56 24.48 1.92*** 0.425 4.5 ABS Inverse distance to water point 0.033 0.143 0.11*** 0.011 9.85 Access to toilets 0.459 0.568 0.108*** 0.025 4.4 Inverse distance to medical centre 0.191 0.379 0.188*** 0.04 4.75 Access to electricity 0.202 0.501 0.298*** 0.024 12.45 Assets Wealth Index 0.06 0.144 0.084*** 0.007 11.3 Agric tools index 0.088 0.097 0.008* 0.005 1.65 Tropical livestock Units 2.841 2.776 -0.065 0.204 -0.3 Agriculture Land area 0.698 0.382 -0.316*** 0.05 -6.4 Use of fertilizers 0.477 0.244 -0.233*** 0.033 -7.1 SSN Cash assistance 330.4 1494.5 1164.11*** 63.393 18.35 Informal Transfer 479.4 2197.8 1718.45*** 472.9 3.65 In kind Assistance 36.46 110.31 73.847*** 11.931 6.2 Food assistance 495.0 1021.6 526.596*** 83.899 6.3 AC Access to education 0.399 0.123 -0.276*** 0.021 -13.15 Inv dependency ratio 1.397 1.621 0.225*** 0.054 4.15 Ag diversity Index 0.119 0.105 -0.014*** 0.007 -1.9 Income diversity index 0.352 0.537 0.185*** 0.009 20.6 Food security FCS 6.065 6.232 0.167*** 0.043 3.9 HDDS 39.37 39.573 0.2 0.338 -0.6 Table 1. Two-sample T-test results for change in RCI and its pillar variables b/n 2011 and 2018
  • 16. Figure 5. Relative importance of pillars in household RCI for 2011 and 2018
  • 17. Figure 6. Change in resilience for male and female-headed households 21.21 21.43 24.76 25.87 MALE FEMALE RCI Gender 2011 2018
  • 18. Figure 7. Relative importance of pillars in RCI for male and female-headed households 2011 2018
  • 19. 6. Lessons Learned: Drivers for Effective Response and Resilience Building Sustained Economic Growth and Mainstreaming DRR Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) Early Warning System and Coordination of Response/actors Focus on most Vulnerable Livelihoods- Pastoral Livelihoods Conflict Reduction and Peace Building
  • 20. 7. Strategic pathways Conflict management and peace building Promote public and private investment in agriculture and natural resources Adaptation to climate change Promote access to input and output markets Strengthen governance structure Emphasize on inclusion of the most vulnerable groups and environment