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  1. 1. School Leadership for Students With Disabilities Project #H325A120003 Course Enhancement Module Anchor Presentation #4
  2. 2. Provides Instructional Leadership Facilitates Inclusive Culture (2 parts) Facilitates Collaboration Involves Parents & Community Academic & Life Outcomes School Leadership District Leadership
  3. 3. Objectives • Identify the importance of high expectations for students with disabilities. • Explain key dimensions of instructional leadership and relevance to students with disabilities. • Describe the relevance of collective and distributed forms of leadership for students with disabilities.
  4. 4. What Is Instructional Leadership? What activities are part of instructional leadership?
  5. 5. Dimensions of Instructional Leadership • Three dimensions encompassing 10 specific instructional leadership functions (Hallinger et al., 2013): o Defining the school mission. o Managing the instructional program. o Developing the school learning climate. • Identify four school leadership activities (Leithwood, Harris, & Hopkins, 2008) o Building vision/setting directions. o Understanding and developing people. o Redesigning the organization. o Managing the teaching and learning program (p. 29).
  6. 6. Importance of Instructional Leadership (Elmore, 2004) “the skills and knowledge that matter in leadership . . . are those that can be connected to, or lead directly to, the improvement of instruction and student performance. Under this definition, principals’ core work is instructional improvement, and everything else is instrumental to it” (p. 58).
  7. 7. Instructional Leadership & Students With Disabilities (Billingsley, McLeskey, & Crockett, 2014) 1. Setting high expectations/academic press. 2. Promoting a positive disciplinary climate. 3. Facilitating high-quality instruction and progress monitoring. 4. Support teaching effectiveness.
  8. 8. 1. Academic Press/High Expectations • Normative emphasis on academic success. • Achievement goals and standards high and clear. • Review of 20 research studies demonstrate link between academic press and student achievement (Leithwood, Patten, & Jantzi, 2010). • School leaders help set expectations. • Staff and others involved in goal setting, communicating, and monitoring of learning goals (Robinson et al., 2008).
  9. 9. Clear Mission Ruleville Central Elementary: Provide “rigorous and relevant educational experiences daily that will enable students to develop positive social, emotional, and intellectual relationships and compete with students at premier institutions locally, nationally, and globally.” From http://www.swiftschools.org/april-2014
  10. 10. Academic Press in Practice • Specific practices that reinforce academic press: oSetting clear goals for student achievement. oFocus on instructional time. oCommunicate high expectations to students (e.g., expected classroom behavior, challenging assignments, homework).
  11. 11. Academic Press & Students With Disabilities • Establishing high expectations for all, including students with disabilities. • Students with disabilities expected to work toward the same standards as all students. • Strong achievement orientation a distinctive factor in successful inclusive schools (Dyson et al., 2004). • Collective responsibility for educating students with disabilities among all in school.
  12. 12. 2. Positive Disciplinary Climate (Leithwood et al., 2010) • Key goal is a safe, orderly, productive, and positive learning environment. • Linked to student achievement. • Academic press + a positive disciplinary climate: explains more achievement variation between schools than these two variables working alone (Leithwood et al., 2010).
  13. 13. Positive Disciplinary Climate in Practice • Orderly environment and student achievement. • Preventing disruptions. • School-wide frameworks to teach and improve behavior.
  14. 14. School-Wide Positive Behavioral Support (pbis.org) • Focused on prevention. • Three tiers of intervention with progress monitoring: o Primary (clear behavioral expectations, taught, supervised and reinforced). o Secondary (range of supports provided for those not responding to primary). o Tertiary (specialized and individualized supports for students exhibiting chronic and high-risk behaviors). • Linked experimentally to decreased behavior referrals and improved achievement (Horner et al., 2009).
  15. 15. Example of PBIS in Gwinnett County http://www.pbis.org/swpbs_videos/d efault.aspx
  16. 16. Positive Disciplinary Climate and Students with Disabilities • Students with disabilities, like other students, benefit from SWPBS systems. • Students with disabilities may be served at any tier. • Significant behavioral needs are addressed in Tier 3.
  17. 17. 3. High-Quality Instruction & Progressing Monitoring • Promoting the use of high-quality instructional practices. • Ensuring that teachers have opportunities to learn about and use instructional practices supported by research. • Protecting instructional time. • Monitoring student progress on regular basis to determine progress toward learning goals.
  18. 18. Response to Intervention (RtI) Three assumptions (Deshler & Cornett, 2012): 1.All students can learn. 2.Teacher instruction most powerful in predicting student success. 3.Schools must provide all students with supports to benefit from education.
  19. 19. Response to Intervention (RtI) • Universal screening. • High-quality instruction. • Data-based decision making. • Frequent progress monitoring. • Increasingly intense levels of instructional intervention: o Primary. o Secondary. o Tertiary. • Fidelity measures. From: IRIS Module (RTI for Mathematics) http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/rti-math/cresource/what-is- rti-for-mathematics/rti_math_02/#content
  20. 20. Ruleville Elementary From swift.org • Create protected time in the schedule so that Tier 1 literacy instruction occurs daily from 7:45-9:15 a.m. o Two adults in every classroom. • Additional Tier 2 and Tier 3 instruction at the end of the day. o Students in lowest quartile. o Small groups. o Highly qualified teachers.
  21. 21. Video: Response to Instruction Boulevard Elementary School http://www.rtinetwork.org/professional/video s/virtualvisits
  22. 22. Save the Last Word for Me • To deepen and extend our thinking about promoting effective instructional practices. • Groups of four. • Leader to be timekeeper. • Handout 1 and homework reading (Deshler & Cornett, 2012).
  23. 23. High-Quality Instruction & Students With Disabilities • Intensive, individualized instruction at Tier 3 may define special education (Brownell et al. 2010). • Use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) proved to enhance effectiveness for students with disabilities is key. • Importance of differentiated instruction/Universal Design for Learning (UDL). • Need for administrative support for differentiated instruction at the school level: o Professional learning. o Collaborative cultures. o Support individual teachers’ efforts.
  24. 24. 4. Supporting Teaching Effectiveness
  25. 25. Use of one’s “knowledge, skills, and abilities . . . in an environment conducive to teaching and learning” Ladson-Billings, 2008, p. 207 (emphasis added)
  26. 26. Promoting Teaching Effectiveness • Recruiting and hiring. • Teacher induction. • Ongoing, embedded professional learning (professional learning communities [PLCs]).
  27. 27. Promoting Teacher Effectiveness • Supportive culture: o Inclusive culture—collective responsibility. o Collaboration among teachers. o Effective communication. • Effective job design: o Clarity about valued activities. o Schedules that supports instruction and collaboration. • Instructional supports: o Resources. o Protects teachers from interruptions and unnecessary clerical tasks.
  28. 28. From a Special Educator "My environment is wonderful. I have a really strong support system, and the principal is flexible and gives us feedback. She gives us ideas about what to do with reading too. She trusts us and allows us to make the decisions, which is very powerful for teachers . . . I am not isolated. Isolation and student behavior is why a lot of my friends leave teaching.” (Bishop, Brownell, et al., 2010, p. 87)
  29. 29. Video: Instructional Leadership at Henderson School https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=NRR67_osT-Q
  30. 30. Distributed Leadership • Principals are not the only leaders. • Multiple individuals take responsibility for leadership. • Roles may be formal or informal. • Teachers play a major role in inclusive reform. • Numerous examples of teacher leadership in special education. Billingsley, 2007
  31. 31. References Billingsley, B. (2007). Recognizing and supporting the critical roles of teachers in special education leadership. Exceptionality, 15(3), 163-176. [In special issue, titled, The Changing Landscape in Special Education Administration]. Billingsley, B., McLeskey, J., & Crockett, J. B. (2014). Principal leadership: Moving toward inclusive and high-achieving schools for students with disabilities (Document No. IC-8). Retrieved from University of Florida, Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center website: http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/tools/innovation-configurations/ Bishop, A. G., Brownell, M. T., Menon, S., Galman, S., & Leko, M. (2010). Understanding the influence of personal attributes, preparation, and school environment on beginning special education teachers’ classroom practices during reading instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33(2), 75-93. Brownell, M. T., Sindelar, P. T., Kiely, M. T., & Danielson, L. C. (2010). Special education teacher quality and preparation: Exposing foundations, constructing a new model. Exceptional Children, 76, 357-377. Crockett, J., Billingsley, B., & Boscardin, M. L. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of leadership & administration for special education. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. Deshler, D. D., & Cornett, J. (2012). Leading to improve teacher effectiveness: Implications for practice, reform, research, and policy. In J. B Crockett, B. S. Billingsley, & M. L. Boscardin (Eds.), Handbook of leadership & administration for special education (pp. 239-259). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
  32. 32. References Dyson, A., Farrell, P., Polat, F., Hutcheson, G., & Gallannaugh, F. (2004). Inclusion and pupil achievement (Research Report No. 578). Retrieved from National Archives website: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publication s/eOrderingDownload/RR578.pdf Elmore, R. F. (2004). School reform from the inside out: Policy, practice, and performance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Goddard, Y. L., Neumerski, C. M., Goddard, R. D., Salloum, S. J., & Berebitsky, D. (2010). A multilevel exploratory study of the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of principals’ instructional support and group norms for instruction in elementary schools. The Elementary School Journal, 111(2), 336-357. Hallinger, P., Wang, W., & Chen, C. (2013). Assessing the measurement properties of the principal instructional management rating scale: A meta-analysis of reliability studies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 49(2), 272-309. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Todd, A., Nakasato, J., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized control trial of school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 133-144. Ladson-Billings, G. (2009). Opportunity to teach: Teacher quality in context. In D.H. Gitomer (Ed.). Measurement Issues and Assessment for Teacher Quality (pp. 206-222). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  33. 33. References Lee, V., Smith, J., Perry, T., & Smylie, M. A., (1999). Social support, academic press, and student achievement: A view from the middle grades in Chicago. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research. Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about successful school Leadership. School Leadership and Management, 28(1), 27-42. doi:10.1080/13632430701800060 Leithwood, K., Patten, S., & Jantzi, D. (2010). Testing a conception of how school leadership influences student learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(5), 671-706. doi:10.1177/0013161X10377347 Louis, K., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K., & Anderson, S. (2010). Investigating the links to improved student learning: Final report of research findings. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Robinson, V., Lloyd, C., & Rowe, K. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44, 635-674. doi:10.1177/0013161X08321509 Theoharis, G., & Brooks, J.S. (2012). (Eds.). What Every Principal Needs to know to create equitable and excellent schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Tomlinson, C. A. (2008). The goals of differentiation. Educational Leadership, 66(3), 26-30. York-Barr, J., & Duke, K. (2004). What do we know about teacher leadership? Findings from two decades of scholarship. Review of Educational Research, 74, 255-316. York-Barr, J., Sommerness, J., Duke, K., & Ghere, G. (2005). Special educators in inclusive education programmes: Reframing their work as teacher leadership. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 9(2), 193-215.