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BIOL2050 - systematics in ecology

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BIOL2050 - systematics in ecology. Primer for test. Ecology at York University

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BIOL2050 - systematics in ecology

  1. 1. Systematics in ecology ALEX FILAZZOLA CRITICAL THINKING LAB 2
  2. 2. Different types of literature Primary sources – original materials, often empirical testing or experiments. Examples: - Journal articles - Experimental data - Communications
  3. 3. Different types of literature Secondary sources – interpretations or summarization of primary sources Examples: - Reviews - Meta-analyses - Commentaries
  4. 4. Different types of literature Tertiary sources – A distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources Examples: - Encyclopedias - Textbooks - Bibliographies
  5. 5. Different types of literature Grey literature – is information or researched produced by an organization or government. Examples: - Government documents - Newsletters - Technical reports
  6. 6. Synthesis tools Textbook examples Narrative reviews Vote counting Combining probabilities Systematic reviews Meta-analysis
  7. 7. hypothesis or problem predictions or queries
  8. 8. i. summarize knowledge ii. meta-analysis
  9. 9. Narratives - Reviews written about a subject that are not quantitative - Relatively easy to write - Biased towards authors of the article - Typically written by experts on the subject
  10. 10. - Reviews that are based from a systematic search through the literature of a topic - More difficult to write, requires reading many articles to make conclusions - Less biased towards authors, but biased towards the state of the literature - Written by any researcher Systematic reviews
  11. 11. - Reviews that are based from statistics conducted on multiple studies - Difficult because it requires specific data from many articles. - Generally unbiased, comparing effect sizes rather than studies - Written by any researcher Meta-analysis
  12. 12. Choosing search terms - Wild cards (*) to capture different spellings. - Do not truncate - Avoid ambiguity - Common names and latin names - define inclusion material
  13. 13. Refinement techniques - Refine to English language - Refine to empirical papers and exclude reviews for systematic reviews/meta-analyses - Refine to countries when targeting a geographic area - Refine to year when targeting a time frame.