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  1. 1. Counselling
  2. 2. Global statistics  Globally, WHO says that around 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression and it is the leading cause of suicide among 15-29-year-olds. “  An Assocham study released last year revealed that 42.5 percent of employees suffer from depression.  It said, “Because of demanding schedules, high-stress levels, and performance- linked perquisites in private sectors, nearly 42.5 percent of employees in private sectors are afflicted with depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to government employees with lesser levels of psychological demand at work.”
  3. 3. One out of every two employees in corporate India suffers from anxiety and depression  In the study conducted by 1to1Help.net, a professional counselling company, on ‘The Mental Health Status of Employees in Corporate India,’ over 6000 employees in different cities, across organizations voluntarily completed the depression scale.  Here are the other findings of the study:  Eighty percent of the respondents, who exhibited symptoms of anxiety, and 55 percent with symptoms of depression, were going through it for over a year before seeking professional help.  The study observed that the number of people who came with the risk for suicidal behavior has gone up from 2.1 out of 10 (2008) to 8.21 (July 2016).  Prolonged ongoing stress due to personal and work contexts was identified as triggers for mental illness.
  4. 4. Counselling for your managers  With the recent restructuring and the faster cycle of business, My staff is finding work pressure difficult to cope with. I am finding it hard to coach them to cope with the transition.” Concerned Line Manager  “I have become very anxious lately due to my heavy workload and family responsibilities. I start taking medicine to calm myself, but it doesn't seem to help.” Worried Employee  “Findings from our employee survey show a worrying trend of loss of work- life balance. We need to do something before this starts hampering Productivity and staff well-being.” Human Resources Director
  5. 5. Krishna – the greatest counsellor  Indian Medical Association chief KK Aggarwal says Krishna, in the true sense, was the first and perhaps the most celebrated counsellor, whose “sessions with his patient, Arjuna, not only led to his spectacular recovery but also constituted” one of the most revered ancient texts -- the 700-verse Bhagavad Gita.  Arjuna, who gets an acute panic reaction in the battlefield, goes to Krishna, who holds 18 counselling sessions with him  Arjuna narrates his symptoms to Krishna, who counsels him in great detail, which is nothing but modern day talk therapy
  6. 6. Corporate initiatives for counselling  Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) has set up a network “Maitree” in 2005 to counsel its 30,000 employees. Under the initiative, 90% of TCS offices organize family get-togethers and activities such as ball dancing and yoga classes and theatre workshop, helping employees working long hours keep healthy.  At Wipro, to reduce employee stress after long working hours, HR initiated “Mitr”, an in house counseling service, in 2003, the set up trains employees in counseling to help out colleagues in distress,” said a senior HR manager with Wipro Technologies  Asian Paints is taking the initiative every year through an NGO Deepalaya. In 2015-16, 2000 students were impacted by Asian Paints efforts.  Reliance Industries Ltd. organised career counselling sessions in Jhajjar, Haryana and Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh. Over 340 students participated in and benefitted through the sessions. The sessions involved one-to-one counselling as well as a screening of motivational films and presentations.  Bharat Petroleum has provided career counselling to ITI students and spent Rs. 1,80,735. It also provided for secondary level students and spent Rs. 1,17,000. Similarly,  Marico conducted a career counselling programme, “Sakshar Beti Sudradh Samaj”, for girls at the Dehradun & Paonta Sahib factory locations and in the nearby villages.
  7. 7. Counselling  Counselling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals and families , and groups to accomplish mental health , wellness, education & career goals.  It deals with wellness , personal growth , career , education & empowerment concerns.  It is diverse and multicultural  It is dynamic process  Its emphasis was on prevention & purposefulness  Guidance focusses on helping people make important choices that affect their lives such as choosing a preferred lifestyle.  Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
  8. 8. Eight core areas of counselling A. Human growth and development B. Group work C. Research and program evaluation D. Counselling theories/helping relationships E. Professional Orientation F. Career and lifestyle development G. Ethics and social & cultural foundations H. Appraisal
  9. 9. What should multinational organizations with operations in India be looking for from an EAP provider?  Availability of different modes of counselling (in person, online, by telephone, text and smart phone app) to provide ease of access, depending on employee preference  Willingness on the part of the EAP provider to partner with the employer and provide the most effective solutions in the particular context  Around-the-clock support via a 24-hour hotline  Awareness building of the program to help fight stigma and encourage EAP use  Wellness resources to promote maintenance of good health  Programs for different groups of employees, e.g., managers, women, senior leadership  Qualified counsellors available across all company locations  Dedicated account managers to ensure high utilization
  10. 10. Types of Counselling  1. Directive Counselling  2. Non Directive Counselling: Under non directive counselling counsellor does not issue directions but observe the behavior and attitude of the counselee towards his work and his colleagues and superiors and subordinates. If he errs then counsellor comes to his rescue and corrects him realizing him that he was wrong. He will not issue him any instructions or will not direct him. The nondirective approach was originated by the American counseling psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940s and influenced other individual and group psychotherapeutic methods.  3. Cooperative Counselling: This is a kind of counselling that can be done through extending full cooperation to the counsellee and makes him realize his mistakes relating to his behavior and attitudes so that he himself will be back on the track and improve himself. It is winning the heart of the counsellee through cooperation and improve his confidence.  4. Marital and Family Counselling: Employees need counselling in respect of marriage and family problems. The troubled employees can discuss out their problems with the counsellor who can take them into confidence and prescribe solutions for their ills.
  11. 11. Directive Counseling (prescriptive counselling)  E.G WILLIAMSON is the chief exponent in this viewpoint. (1900-1979)  Counsellor – centered : the counsellor direct the client to take steps in order to resolve his conflicts.  It is based on assumption that the client cannot solve his own problems for lack of information.  The counsellor plays an important role; he tries to direct the thinking of counselee by informing , explaining, interpreting and advising.  It gives more importance to intellectual aspect than emotional aspects.  During which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
  12. 12. Steps of Directive Counselling  Williamson's approach initially grew out of the ideas of Frank Parsons.  Williamson has given six steps of directive counselling : 1. Analysis 2. Synthesis 3. Diagnosis 4. Prognosis 5. Counselling 6. Follow up
  13. 13. Basic Assumptions of Directive Counseling  According to Willy, the following can be the basic assumptions of directive counseling-  a) Competency in giving Advice-: The counselor posses the best training experience and information. He is more competent to provide an advice to problem.  b) Counseling as an intellectual process -: An client’s intellectual is not destroyed as a result of mal-adjustment. Hence counseling is primarily an intellectual process .It stresses upon the intellectual aspects of a person instead of emotional aspects of the personality.  c) Counseling objectives as problem solving situation-: The objective counseling are achieved through problem solving situation.  d) Client’s incapability of solving the process-: The counselor does not posses the capability for solving the problem always.
  14. 14. Non-directive Counselling  CARL R. ROGER is the chief exponent in this viewpoint.  This school of thought is just reverse to that of directive counseling.  It is a client-centred process.  In this, the counselee is the pivot of the whole counselling process.  The main function of the counsellor is to create an atmosphere in which the client can work out his problem.
  15. 15. Client- centered therapy  It is a non-directive form of talk therapy, meaning it allows the client to lead the conversation and does not attempt to steer the client in any way.  Its approach rests on one vital quality: unconditional positive regard.  This means that the therapist refrains from judging the client for any reason, providing a source of complete acceptance and support (Cherry, 2017).  The use of the term “client” rather than “patient.”
  16. 16. The necessary and sufficient conditions  Therapist–client psychological contact  Client incongruence: that incongruence exists between the client's experience and awareness.  Therapist congruence, or genuineness The therapist is deeply involved him or herself  Therapist unconditional positive regard (UPR): the therapist accepts the client unconditionally, without judgment, disapproval or approval.  Therapist empathic understanding:  Client perception
  17. 17. Three key qualities that make for a good client- centered therapist  Genuineness  Unconditional positive regard – the therapist offers an acceptance and prizing for their client for who he or she is without conveying disapproving feelings, actions or characteristics and demonstrating a willingness to attentively listen without interruption, judgement or giving advice.  Empathy
  18. 18. Research has found that effective therapies seek to  • Disrupt symptoms or remove symptoms  • Enhance the agency/competence of the patient  • Increase tolerance for emotional experience  • Provide dramatic relief, restoration of some immediate self-efficacy and extinction of problematic
  19. 19. A counselor can help in leveraging core capacities of employees  Can help create a culture for greater synergy in organizational learning and development.  Can help employees increase their self-awareness regarding their thinking patterns and behavioral tendencies so as to make them more effective as an individual and in turn effective in their job also.
  20. 20. Dimensions that can be added to workplace counseling  Managers could be trained in some basic counseling skills.  Some growth and development workshops can be conducted in emotional Intelligence, Transactional Analysis, can also be conducted by the counselor.
  21. 21. Professional counselors who can stimulate personal growth in others; offer help in addressing many situations that cause emotional stress, including, but not limited to:  Anxiety, depression, and other mental and emotional problems and disorders  Family and relationship issues  Substance abuse and other addictions  Sexual abuse and domestic violence  Absenteeism  Career change and job stress  Social and emotional difficulties related to disability and illness  Adopting to life transitions  The death of a loved one  Appropriate referrals after assessment.  Good indicators of when you should seek counsellor
  22. 22. Potential Benefits of Counseling  The client not only learns more about him/herself, but also acquires new skills. Sometimes, counseling involves learning more about a particular condition (e.g., depression, anxiety, eating disorders) by which the client is affected, so that he/she can better understand treatment options  Improved communication and interpersonal skills  greater self-acceptance and self-esteem  ability to change self-defeating behaviors/habits  Better expression and management of emotions, including anger  Relief from depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions  increased confidence and decision-making skills  ability to manage stress effectively  improved problem-solving and conflict resolution abilities
  23. 23. Psychoanalysis  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Founder of psychoanalysis  Abraham Maslow (1921-1970) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Classical conditioning phenomenon  Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Social Cognitive Theory - self-efficacy  Erick Erikson (1902-1994) Psychosocial Development  Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Theory of Cognitive Development mostly for children where intelligence is not a fixed trait.  Aaron Beck (1960s) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s,
  24. 24. Erick Erikson (1902-1994) Psychosocial Development
  25. 25. Psychoanalysis  A method, developed by Freud and others, of investigating mental processes and of treating neuroses and some other disorders of the mind.  It is based on the assumption that such disorders are the result of the rejection by the conscious mind of factors that then persist in the unconscious as repressed instinctual forces, causing conflicts which may be resolved or diminished by discovering and analyzing the repressions and bringing them into consciousness through the use of such techniques as free association, dream analysis, etc.
  26. 26. Purpose of counselling theories  Decide whether they are likely to be able to help a particular person with a given set of concerns.  Collaborate with clients in establishing goals that are realistic in terms of the treatment approach that is being use.  Develop an overall plan for helping people achieve their goals.  Individualize treatment by emphasizing and selecting interventions and strategies that are most likely to be helpful to a particular person.  Assess a person’s progress against that made by other people who received similar treatment and modify treatment if it does not seem effective.  Deepen their knowledge of and skill in their chosen theory through experience, reading, training, and supervision.
  27. 27. ABC Model –Rational emotive therapy  ABC Model is a major part of his rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT).  REBT served as a sort of precursor to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and the ABC Model is now a treatment commonly used in CBT interventions.  The basic idea behind the ABC model is  that “external events (A) do not cause emotions (C), but beliefs (B) and, in particular, irrational beliefs (IB) do”  Another way to think about it is that “our emotions and behaviours (C: Consequences) are not directly determined by life events (A: Activating Events), but rather by the way these events are cognitively processed and evaluated (B: Beliefs)” (Oltean et al., 2017).  Furthermore, as evidenced by the first quote, REBT divides beliefs into “rational” and “irrational” beliefs.  “a key element is helping clients see the connection between an event that may serve as a trigger, and how irrational evaluations may cause emotional and/or behavioral consequences that often in turn lead to increased distress or conflict”  ABC Model have been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as reducing dysfunctional thinking while increasing self-esteem and feelings of hope
  28. 28. ABC model  changing one’s beliefs in response to the environment around them, rather than changing the environment around them.  in treating anger issues as well/avoiding anger triggers.  In general, the ABC Model works by turning irrational beliefs about activating events into rational beliefs, which in turn leads to better consequences and emotions.  In some cases, however, such as grief, it is not about turning irrational beliefs into rational beliefs, but it is instead about “legitimizing and normalizing” the beliefs that are present. In most cases, though, the ABC Model targets irrational beliefs.  A: Activating Event (something happens to or around someone)  B: Belief (the event causes someone to have a belief, either rational or irrational)  C: Consequence (the belief has led to a consequence, with rational beliefs leading to healthy consequences and irrational beliefs leading to unhealthy consequences)  D: Disputation (if one has held an irrational belief which has caused unhealthy consequences, they must dispute that belief and turn it into a rational belief)  E: New Effect (the disputation has turned the irrational belief into a rational belief, and the person now has healthier consequences of their belief as a result)
  29. 29. Techniques of counselling as per REBT  Teaching clients learn the basic ideas of REBT & understand how thoughts are linked with emotions and behaviors  Disputing thoughts & beliefs has three forms:  Cognitive disputation  Imaginable Disputation  Behavioral Disputation  Bibliotherapy  Confrontation  Encouragement
  30. 30. Role of the counsellor in REBT  REBT counsellors are active and direct  Counsellors listen carefully for illogical or faulty statements & then challenge beliefs.  Desirable counsellors for REBT counsellors are:  Bright  Knowledgeable  Empathetic  Respectful ,genuine, persistent  Scientific in helping others.  It helps the client to change self defeating habits of thought and behavior through the ABCDE model of REBT.
  31. 31. Rational CBT sequence  Activating Event 1. Ask for a problem 2. Define and agree on the target problem 3. Assess the consequences of the problem 4. Assess the activating event 5. Identify and assess any secondary emotional problems  Belief System  Teach the connection between the beliefs and consequences  Assess beliefs  Consequences Connect irrational beliefs and emotional consequences  Dispute irrational beliefs Prepare the patient to deepen conviction in rational beliefs  Effective outlook Encourage the patient to put new learning into practice
  32. 32. Distortions in thinking  Black-and-White - Thinking or either / or thinking.  Making Unfair Comparisons – usually in the negative  Filtering – honing in on the negative, forgetting the positive.  Personalizing - The Self-Blame Game  Mind-Reading – thinking we know what others think (negatively)  Catastrophising – imagining the worst case scenario  Overgeneralising – “I always mess up…”  Confusing Fact with Feeling – “If I think or feel this way then my thoughts/feelings must be correct'.  Labelling – I’m a loser vs. I made a mistake.  'Can't Stand itis' – being unnecessarily intolerant
  33. 33. Example  Tanya work since recently for company XYZ. She is hired because company XYZ is consolidating three international offices in a centralized office that controls the regional markets. Tanya’s responsibility is to ensure smooth operations, and if necessary, discuss, request, and implement changes to standard ways of working.  Tanya is excited to successfully complete the job because challenges and hard work motivates her. She reports directly to the country manager but also gets assigned tasks from the department directors.  At the same time, Tanya’s direct supervisor, the country manager, assigned Tanya a job which he requested to be complete earlier as agreed because of some urgency. As a consequence, the country manager asked Tanya if the assignment was almost completed.  Tanya responded to her manager that the assignment was almost finished and that she will deliver it ASAP. However, in reality, Tanya was far from completing the job. She was annoyed because the continuous incremental work was too much for her.  However, she did not complain visibly, and she set new priorities and finalized the assignment as fast as she could.  When she finished the assignment, the country manager was surprised about how fast she completed the task. Tanya got praised, and her work and contributions were valued.
  34. 34. Cognitive Approach  The cognitive approach believes that abnormality stems from faulty cognitions about others, our world and us. This faulty thinking may be through cognitive deficiencies (lack of planning) or cognitive distortions (processing information inaccurately).  These cognitions cause distortions in the way we see things; Ellis suggested it is through irrational thinking, while Beck proposed the cognitive triad.  We interact with the world through our mental representation of it. If our mental representations are inaccurate or our ways of reasoning are inadequate then our emotions and behavior may become disordered.  The cognitive therapist teaches clients how to identify distorted cognitions through a process of evaluation.  The clients learn to discriminate between their own thoughts and reality. They learn the influence that cognition has on their feelings, and they are taught to recognize observe and monitor their own thoughts.
  35. 35. Cognitive behavioral therapy  Cognitive behavioral therapy was invented by a psychiatrist, Aaron Beck, in the 1960s.  CBT is based on the idea that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behavior) all interact together.  He was doing psychoanalysis at the time and observed that during his analytical sessions, his patients tended to have an internal dialogue going on in their minds — almost as if they were talking to themselves  He invented the term automatic thoughts to describe emotion-filled thoughts that might pop up in the mind.  Beck found that people weren’t always fully aware of such thoughts, but could learn to identify and report them. If a person was feeling upset in some way, the thoughts were usually negative and neither realistic nor helpful. Beck found that identifying these thoughts was the key to the client understanding and overcoming his or her difficulties.  therapy employs behavioral techniques as well.  dysfunctional assumption  It helps the person understand that this is what’s going on. It helps him or her to step outside their automatic thoughts and test them out.  Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an approach to psychotherapy that was originally created as a relapse- prevention treatment for depression.  Research indicates that it may be particularly effective for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD).The focus on MDD and cognitive processes is what distinguishes MBCT from other mindfulness-based therapies such as mindfulness- based stress reduction (MBSR), which is applicable to a broad range of disorders, and mindfulness-based relapse prevention which is used to treat detection.
  36. 36. Techniques of cognitive therapy  Challenging the way individuals process information  Identifying mistaken belief systems (faulty reasoning)  Self monitoring system to stop negative automotive thoughts improving communication skills, increasing positive self statements, and doing homework including disputing irrational thoughts.  Cognitive counsellors are active  Work with clients to make overt thoughts more covert.  Help clients modify unexamined and negative thoughts.- negative prediction , overgeneralization, labeling of oneself , self criticism  Counsellors work with clients on overcoming their lack of motivation
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Mindfulness  The term mindfulness is an English translation of the Pali word sati.  Pali was the language of Buddhist psychology 2,500 years ago, and mindfulness is the core teaching of this tradition.  Sati connotes awareness, attention, and remembering. Mindfulness in Psychotherapy is  (1) awareness,  (2) of present experience,  (3) with acceptance.  Acceptance = nonjudgmental, kindness, friendliness Mindfulness
  39. 39. Brief theories of counselling  Reality therapy – William glasser  Role of the counsellor- accept clients in warm involved way. They develop trust through friendliness, firmness and fairness. Pay attention to clients use of metaphors and themes.  They analyze clients choice to do or feel , positive constructive actions.  Formulating specific plans.  WDEP  Wants  Directions of their lives  Evaluation  Plan  Solution focused counselling- Steve Deshazer and Bill Hanlon  Determine how active and committed a client is to change.  Three categories of clients –visitors , complainant's ,customers  Helps clients understand their inner resources.
  40. 40.  Narrative counselling – Michael white and David Epston  They are masters of asking questions.  Engage clients with basic relationship skills – attending ,paraphrasing , clarifying , summarizing and checking  Address and eliminate problems.  Use negative reasoning.  Techniques of narrative counselling  Externalization  Awareness and objectivity  Crisis counselling ---Eric Linderman and Gerald Caplan.  Crisis counsellors need to be mature  Have good command of basic helping skills  Approximately 8-10 sessions  Techniques for counselling  Listening activities, acting strategies examining alternatives, follow up ,critical incident debriefing.
  41. 41. Dos for counselling 1.He should develop good relationship with counsellee.  2. Develop mutual understanding, respect for counsellee.  3. Be patient.  4. Listen to the grievances carefully.  5. Develop cooperative attitude.  6. Be simple and have sympathy with the counsellee.  7. Do make attempts to know the background of worries, threats, anxiety etc.  8. Make himself available to help the counsellee.
  42. 42. Counsellor should abstain from or try to avoid the following:  1. Should not develop conflict with counselee.  2. Do not have any vested interest in counselling.  3. Do not be angry with the counselee.  4. Don’t resist.  5. Avoid being biased, be impartial.  6. Don’t exploit the counsellee for self interest.  7. Do not use pressure tactics?
  43. 43. Techniques  Releasing Emotional Tension  Effective Communication  Clarifies thinking  Performance Counselling  Counselling against Alcohol and drug use
  44. 44. Methods of Employee Counseling 1. Desensitization: According to Desensitization, once an person has been shocked in a particular situation, it will continue to avoid it indefinitely. 2. Catharsis: Discharge of emotional tensions can be called catharsis. Emotional tensions can be discharged by talking them out or by relieving of the painful experience which engendered them.  It helps to gain insight into the ways an emotional trauma has been affecting the behavior. 3. Insight: With the help of insight one may find that he has devalued himself unnecessarily, or his aspirations were unrealistic, or that his childish interpretation of an event was inaccurate. Then he can overcome his weakness. 4. Developing the new patterns: Developing new patterns becomes very often necessary when other methods to deal with weak spots remain ineffective. In order to develop new, more satisfying emotional reactions, the individual needs to expose himself to situations where he can experience positive feelings.