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A flexible X-haul network for 5G and beyond

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Jörg-Peter Elbers and Jim Zou were in Fukuoka, Japan for OECC/PSC 2019, discussing the challenges and opportunities of 5G X-haul architecture.

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A flexible X-haul network for 5G and beyond

  1. 1. A flexible X-haul network for 5G and beyond OECC/PSC 2019, Fukuoka, Japan Jörg-Peter Elbers and Jim Zou This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under Grant Agreement No. 762057 (5G-PICTURE).
  2. 2. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.22 5G is more than a new radio … Key performance indicators (KPIs) • 1000 times higher cell capacity • 100 times higher peak data rates • 10 times lower latency • 10 times better reliability
  3. 3. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.33 … and offers very different services source: ITU-R M.2083-0 eMBB mMTC URLLC
  4. 4. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.44 5G features are covered by 3GPP Release 15 and 16 specifications 5G standardization timeline Source:XiangLiu,Huawei,OFC2019
  5. 5. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.55 Decomposition into central unit, distributed unit and radio/remote unit From 4G to a new (5G) RAN architecture Source:ITU-TG.Sup66
  6. 6. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.66 ~10ms round-trip time~1ms round-trip time ~5ms round-trip time Very low latency Low latencyUltra low latency There will not be a one-size-fits-all configuration Latency determines location of RAN functions RU: radio unit DU: distributed unit CU: central unit MEC: multi-access edge computing UPF: user plane function RU: radio unit DU: distributed unit CU: central unit MEC: multi-access edge computing UPF: user plane function RU: radio unit DU: distributed unit CU: central unit MEC: multi-access edge computing UPF: user plane function ~1000 sites ~100 sites ~10 sites ~1000 sites ~100 sites ~10 sites ~1000 sites ~100 sites ~10 sites Source: NGMN Overview on 5G RAN Functional Decomposition
  7. 7. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.77 [NokiaWhitePaper„EvolutiontoCentralizedRANwithMobileFronthaul“,2016] CPRI option 10 already defined (V7.0): 24 330 240 Mb/s. CPRI requires 13-17x higher bitrate than user data rate and very accurate timing The CPRI fronthaul challenge
  8. 8. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.88 Agreement on higher layer split (F1), but no agreement yet on lower layer (Fx) Introducing new functional splits in 5G RAN Backhaul Higher layer split (HLS) Lower layer split (LLS) RRC: radio resource control, PDCP: packet data convergence protocol, RLC: radio link control MAC: medium access control, PHY: physical layer, RF: radio frequency Similar timing requirements as CPRISimilar timing requirements as backhaul >10x user rate ~1-2x user rate ~1-2x F1 rate Source:ChinaMobileResearchInstitute,2016
  9. 9. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.99 3GPP IEEE P802.1CM eCPRI New standards for 5G fronthaul O-RAN Higher layer functional split (HLS) TSN for fronthaul Ethernet transport requirements Lower layer functional split (LLS): O-RAN 7.2x Ethernet becomes convergence layer for 5G transport
  10. 10. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1010 10Gbit/s and 25Gbit/s interfaces appear adequate for F1 and Fx transport Illustrative throughput comparison Radio configuration Interface Cell peak rate @ quiet time Mean cell rate @ busy time Aggregate tri-cell rate (peak + 2x mean) 100MHz carrier, 8 MIMO layers, 64T64R F1 4.7Gbit/s 2Gbit/s 8.7Gbit/s 100MHz carrier, 16 MIMO layers, 64T64R Fx (ORAN 7.2x) 13.1Gbit/s 2.6Gbit/s (20% of peak) 18.3Gbit/s 100MHz carrier, 16 MIMO layers, 64T64R CPRI 269.5Gbit/s 269.5Gbit/s 808.5Gbit/s Source: P. Sehier et al, JOCN, 04/2019
  11. 11. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1111 From CPRI to eCPRI eCPRI leverages Ethernet transport & OAM and offers ~10x reduction in bandwidth
  12. 12. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1212 Frame delay includes fiber latency (approx. 5µs/km) eCPRI latency CoS Traffic Max. one- way frame delay Use case Max. one-way frame loss ratio High25 User plane (fast) 25µs Ultra-low latency applications 10-7 High100 100µs Full LTE or NR performance High200 200µs Installations with long fiber links High500 500µs Large latency installations Medium User plane (slow), C&M plane (fast) 1ms All 10-7 Low C&M plane 100ms All 10-6
  13. 13. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1313 Rule of thumb: A few µs per network element Ethernet aggregator latencies – examples Source: iCirrus paper “Fronthaul evolution: from CPRI to Ethernet“, OFT 2015
  14. 14. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1414 Deterministic latency for high-priority traffic without central scheduling Reduces average frame delay variation, but neither peak delay variation nor worst case latency Reduces peak delay variation Can in principle eliminate packet delay variation, but requires network-wide flow scheduling Scheduled traffic (IEEE 802.1Qbv) Gap preservation (FUSION) Strict priority queuing (IEEE 802.1p) Frame preemption (IEEE 802.1Qbu & 802.3br) Ethernet TSN technologies for 5GPartofIEEE802.1CMFurthermeasures
  15. 15. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1515 Requirements holds for clock synchronization, not user or C&M data transport eCPRI timing accuracy Category Maximum time error |TE| at UNI Maximum time alignment error TAE between antenna ports Typical LTE applications Typical 5G NR applications T-TSC in radio equipment T-TSC in transport network T-TSC with |TEmax|=70ns (Class B) T-TSC with |TEmax|=15ns A+ (relative) n/a n/a 20ns 65ns MIMO or TX-diversity transmission, at each carrier frequency A (relative) n/a 60ns 70ns 130ns Intra-band contiguous carrier aggregation Intra-band contiguous carrier aggregation* (450 MHz – 6 GHz) B (relative) 100ns 190ns 200ns 260ns Intra-band non- contiguous or inter-band carrier aggregation* Intra-band contiguous carrier aggregation* (24.25 – 52.6 GHz) C (absolute) 1100ns 3µs Time-division duplex (TDD), dual connectivity Intra-band non- contiguous or inter- band carrier aggregation*, TDD, dual connectivity *With or without MIMO or transmitter (TX) diversity
  16. 16. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1616 Ethernet is simplest; TDM-PON, FlexE and OTN add additional protocol layers 5G transport layer stack Optical underlay Backhaul Fronthaul F1 Fx eCPRI CPRI IEEE1914.3 NGS1 Timing&Sync Ethernet 802.1 CM grey optics WDM Fiber TDM-PON FlexE2.1 or OTN OAM&Serviceassurance
  17. 17. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1717 Ethernet-based network with WDM underlay option Converged 5G X-haul architecture RU RU RU RU+DU RU RU+DU RU+DU CU Fx fronthaul F1 fronthaul NG backhaul Core RU
  18. 18. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1818 Low-latency Ethernet aggregation ECOC 2018 Best Demo Award RoE BH TrafficAnalyzer 10G 100G100G 10G 1G IEEE 1588v2 PTP (grand master) IEEE 1588v2 PTP slave (probe) 10G10G 10G10G 10G 10G BBU GNSS RRH PTP 10G 10G Central Office Remote Node … RoE RoE NETCONF/YANG Controller 100G100G FUSION IP Core MAC 100G PHY MAC 10G PHY MAC 10G BH … x6…8 10G PHY 100G MAC100G PHY FUSION IP Core MAC MAC 100G Aggregator Node (time sensitive) 1G PTP 100GMAC 100G PHY 10G PHY MAC10G FH 10G FH … x4 1G PHY 10G PHY … 10G 10G … Backhaul Service Configuration and Monitoring … … … PTP TrafficEmulator … Traffic Generator 100G Transport Node (time sensitive) … … SM GST 100GbE ingress treated as GST FH bounded delay aggregation Dagg = Store-fw MTU@10G + serve all other streams (F  1) MTU@100Gbps + transmission of packet MTU@100Gbps 100G 1G ECOC Paper Tu3B.3 Fronthaul traffic (1522 Byte MTU) • <3.1µs agg+deagg latency (1µs from MAC/PHY) • <0.6µs transit node latency • 5µs per fiber-km IEEE 1588v2 PTP traffic • <±75ns time error (w/o additional means)
  19. 19. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.1919 Low-cost, auto-tunable transceiver modules are key to operational simplicity G.metro – passive WDM for mobile fronthaul Optical network units (tail-end) Optical line terminal (head-end) RU Transparent l-services λ-control and -tuning Passive remote node(s) C-band filters Single-fiber ops Remotely controlled Hardened T-SFP+ CU/DU DWDM filter ... ... ... Linear add/dropOLT 1G-10G Standards G.694.1 DWDM grid G.694.2 CWDM grid G.698.1 Multichannel DWDM with single channel optical interfaces G.698.4 (G.metro) Multichannel bi- directional DWDM applications with port agnostic single- channel optical interfaces
  20. 20. © 2019 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved. Confidential.2020 NFV and edge compute Passive WDM and fiber monitoring Ethernet/IP connectivity Precision timing delivery Summary: With 5G, radio transport goes Ethernet … Different solutions depending on fiber infrastructure and network requirements
  21. 21. Thank you IMPORTANT NOTICE The content of this presentation is strictly confidential. ADVA Optical Networking is the exclusive owner or licensee of the content, material, and information in this presentation. Any reproduction, publication or reprint, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. The information in this presentation may not be accurate, complete or up to date, and is provided without warranties or representations of any kind, either express or implied. ADVA Optical Networking shall not be responsible for and disclaims any liability for any loss or damages, including without limitation, direct, indirect, incidental, consequential and special damages, alleged to have been caused by or in connection with using and/or relying on the information contained in this presentation. Copyright © for the entire content of this presentation: ADVA Optical Networking. jelbers@advaoptical.com

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