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present, past and future prosepcts of castor and its hybrid seed production
PRESENT STATUS, PAST and FUTURE PROSPECTS
TECHNIQUES FOR HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION
SUBMITTED TO :
Dr. Subhash Chander
SUBMITTED BY :
SCIENTIFIC NAME : Ricinus communis
FAMILY : Euphorbiaceae
CHROMOSOME NO. : 2n=20
• Non-edible oilseed crop
• Inedible due to presence of toxic Ricin.
• Oil content = 40-55% i.e. highest
among all oilseed crops
• Grown in arid and semi arid regions.
• According to N.I. Vavilov
Absyynian centre is the centre of
origin for castor.
• But because of its wide
dissemination during ancient
times some scientists believe
Basin, Eastern Africa, and India as
its origin centres.
• The use of castor bean oil ("eranda") in India
has been documented since 2000 BC in lamps
and in local medicine as a laxative, purgative,
• Traditional Ayurvedic medicine considers castor
oil the king of medicinals for curing arthritic
diseases. It is regularly given to children orally,
India is the leading producer followed by China and Mozambique.
India alone meets the 90% world’s requirement for oil.
According to Indian Institute of Oilseed Research, Hyderabad,
In india during 2012-13 :
• Area under cultivation = 1.3 mha
• Production = 2.2 million tonnes
• Yield = 1653 kg/ha
Gujarat, rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the major castor growing
• Monoecious, male flowers 50-70%,
female flowers 30-50%
• Inflorescence – Raceme with female on
top and male flowers in basal region.
• Dioceious flowers may also be present.
• Protogynous situation.
• High temp., plant age and short day
length favour maleness, the reverse
• Geitnogamy and allogamy occur
HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION
Commercially hybrid seed production in castor is done by the following techniques :
1. Genetic Male Sterlity (GMS) :
• Male Sterlity : characterized by non-functional pollen grains in plant, while
female gametes function normally.
• Genetic Male Sterility: pollen sterility, which is caused by nuclear genes, is
termed as genic or genetic male sterility. It is usually governed by a single
recessive gene ms .
• Arise due to -spontaneous mutation.
-mutagens (ʏ-rays,EMS,Colchicine,ethidium bromide)
• This system is being exploited in USA in Castor.
Maintenance of female line
Parents ms ms Ms ms
(male sterile) (heterozygous isogenic)
F1 50% Ms ms – rogued out before pollen shedding
50% ms ms - used as female
Single cross hybrid seed
Parents ms ms Ms Ms
(male sterile) (male fertile)
F1 Ms ms(male fertile)
Used as hybrid seed.
DISADVANTAGE : The female line would contain both male sterile and
male fertile plants, the later must be identified and removed before
pollen shedding and due to this cost of hybrid seed is higher.
2. Pistillate Mechanism :
only in monoecious plants where some mutants produce only
pistillate flowers instead of male and female.
a) N Type Pistillate Lines-
• Pistillate condition governed by a single recessive gene (n),
produce only pistillate flowers.
• Maintained by crossing them with heterozygous monoecious (Nn)
• Comaparable to GMS in maintenance and hybrid seed production.
Maintenance of Pistillate line
(pistillate line) (heterozygous)
pistillate (nn) : monoecious(Nn)
1 : 1
(used as female) (rogued out)
b) S Pistillate Lines
o Developed in Israel by continued selection for the increased
expression of pistillate condition within sex reversal variants.
o sex reversal variants – plants which are pistillate to start with
but later turn to monoecy.
o Governed by polygenes.
o pistillate plants revert to monoecious state at different stages
of development ,e.g., second order reversion, third order
o Eg.- The female parent VP1 of castor hybrid GAUCH 1 and
Geeta for GCH-5 is based on this mechanism.
• pollinating pistillate plants with such sib plants that have
less than 20 % male flowers in their inflorescence.
• In late reversion, primary inflorescence of pistillate plants
wither in absence of pollination. Later inflorescences of
such plants develop interspersed male flowers (ISP), if
ambient temp. is above 35 °C.
The improved S type pistillate lines are, therefore, temp.
sensitive. These pistillate lines are pistillate lines are
propagated during hot season, above 35°C.
Maintenance of S Pistillate lines :
1st HYBRID IN INDIA
• first castor hybrid GCH-3 was developed using S-pistillate condition.
• A 100% pistillate line of castor released in USA in 1962, viz. TSP-10-R
(Texas S Pistillate-10), was obtained from Texas in 1965.
• This line was crossed with JI-15 in Gujarat and developed hybrid
named Gujarat Castor Hybrid-3(GCH-3).
• PARENTS = TSP-10-R x JI-15
c) NES PISTILLATE LINE :
• temperature sensitive N lines.
• Plants 100% pistillate when the temperature during flowering is below
35°C , but they produce male flowers a well if the temperature is above
• These lines are multiplied during hot seasons or at hot places where
temperature during flowering is 35°C .
• requires rouging only for off – types, and is the most suited for hybrid seed
• e.g. JP65 female parent of hybrid GCH6.
• High Yield
• Exploitation of pollination control mechanism at full scale.
• Decreasing Ricin content
• Cultivation to new season and environment i.e. Rabi season
• Wilt resistance hybrids and varieties
• Biotechnological tools to problems of Botrytis, Spodoptera and
Capsule borer etc.
• Resistance against several abiotic Stresses.
• Castor in India, Directorate of Oilseed Research, Hyderabad.
by D.M. Hegde, M. Sujatha, N.B. Singh
• Applied Genetics of Oilseed Crops, T. Ramanathan
Daya Publishing House.
• Plant Breeding Principles and methods, Singh B.D.
• General plant Breeding, A.R. Dabholkar.