5. What is IOT?
Definition (1) The Internet of Things, also called
The Internet of Objects, refers to a wireless
network between objects, usually the network will
be wireless and selfconfiguring, such as household
appliances. ------Wikipedia (2) By embedding
short-range mobile transceivers into a wide array
of additional gadgets and everyday items, enabling
new forms of communication between people and
things, and between things themselves. ------WSIS
6. What is IOT?
Definition (3) The term "Internet of Things" has
come to describe a number of technologies and
research disciplines that enable the Internet to
reach out into the real world of physical objects.
------IoT 2008 (4) “Things having identities and
virtual personalities operating in smart spaces
using intelligent interfaces to connect and
communicate within social, environmental, and
user contexts”. -------IoT in 2020
8. Why Do I Need It?
Shipped defaults are not optimized for security
Users need ease-of-use
Programmers want convenience
Neither groks security
9. M2M and IOT
the industry reserves the M2M moniker for more
industrial type applications where there is little
human involvement, and includes most consumer
applications under the broader umbrella term of
The Internet of Things
10. Product and discription
Radios Chips that provide connectivity based on various radio protocols
Sensors Chips that can measure various environmental/electrical variables
Microcontrollers Processors/Storage that allow low-cost intelligence on
Modules Combine radios, sensors, microcontrollers in a single package
Platform Software Software that activates, monitors, analyzes device
Application Software Presents information in usable/analyzable
format for end user
Device Integrates modules with app software into a usable form factor
Airtime Use of licensed or unlicensed spectrum for communications
Service Deploying/Managing/Supporting IoT solution
11. Solutions Enabled by IoT
Fleet Tracking: to save on fuel, downtime, maintenance &
to measure driver behavior, route optimization, engine
diagnostic, tire pressure, etc. A great example of an
extreme deployment is UPS, which measures over 200
variables on each truck through the use of sensors and
12. Home Automation
is the concept of being able to monitor, manage,
control, and automate just about every piece of
electronics in your home, such as your TV, music
system, lighting, thermostat, appliances, video
surveillance, door locks, etc.
14. Connected Car
Since 1980: original analog cell phone were sold
embedded devices within automobile
1980-2000: various telematics applications ,
including automatic crash notification, stolen
vehicle assistance, diagnostics, and turn-by-turn
LTE connectivity & infotainment systems & New
applications include remote downloading of
mapping/traffic information and streaming digital
music and video
24. Industrial Tank Monitoring
This solution allows for the monitoring of material
levels, temperature, and other data from remote
storage tanks in the oil/gas, agriculture, and
environmental services industries
31. Sensors: The True Magic of the
vendors includes micro-
electromechanical systems (MEMS)
ambient light sensors,●
fingerprint sensors and more
Hinweis der Redaktion
There are chipset vendors, module vendors, device vendors, and software vendors, and in some cases these are all one in the same. The table below highlights the value chain of technology companies that need to come together to make a solution for a commercial fleet operator, and gives only a small subset of each player in specific areas of the value chain.
Airtime Providers AT&T, Verizon, Kore Telematics, ORBCOMM
Software Applications Trimble, Omnitracs, MiX Telematics, TomTom
Device Vendors Digi International, Trimble, TomTom
Cellular Module Vendors Sierra Wireless, Gemalto, Telit
Cellular Radio Vendor QUALCOMM, ST Ericsson, Intel
smart home,,,,, grow to nearly 20 million home by 2017…which excludes the high-end luxury market…. likes of Control4, Savant, Crestron, AMX, and others that sell for thousands of dollars and can control just about every electronic device in your home. Then there are point solutions from appliance vendors such as Nest Labs with its thermostat and smoke detector offerings, Logitech’s Harmony remote controls, NETGEAR’s video surveillance products, Lutron lighting products, Sonos music streaming systems, Kwikset’s remote locks, etc. Finally, there are service providers such as AT&T, Comcast, ADT, and others that use cloud-based control software from vendors such as iControl and alarm.com to offer home automation of security, lighting, and thermostats for a monthly fee.
Additionally, each appliance connects to a control system or the Internet in its own unique way. For extreme low power needs, Zigbee modules are generally used, while for higher bandwidth applications Wi-Fi tends to be used, and HDMI and various audio Input/Output (I/O) networking standards are used for connecting TVs and audio systems. This means that there are a number of chip types and vendors that sell into the home automation market.
One could argue that the connected car has been around since the 1980s when many original analog cell phones were sold as embedded devices within automobiles. This advanced in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the advent of various telematics applications such as OnStar’s suite of services including automatic crash notification, stolen vehicle assistance, diagnostics, and turn-by-turn directions. The automobile industry appears to be making a quantum leap forward as increasingly new models will be sold with embedded LTE connectivity and much higher end infotainment systems that will basically serve as a computing hub for the car. New applications include remote downloading of mapping/traffic information and streaming digital music and video. Over a five- to ten-year time frame, LTE connectivity enables driverless car concepts either fully or partially, although with fully automated driving scenarios requiring 50GB of data every hour, based on data from Infonetics, we doubt whether this will be a mass market application near term.
The automobile industry’s term for the onboard computer that provides the interface for users to interact with applications is the “infotainment console.” Historically, these infotainment consoles replaced knobs and buttons with a touch screen featuring navigation and audio apps as well as Bluetooth connectivity to speak on your cell phone through the speakers in the car. Leading Infotainment vendor Harman estimates that the in-car infotainment market, or essentially the market for computers inside the car, is about $10 billion annually today, and growing ~8% annually as price points come down and attach rates increase. Current attach rates in the western world for infotainment are about 20%, with ASPs ranging from $1,000 to $2,000 wholesale ($2,000+ as an add-on at retail), but the industry expects the applications driven by always-connected infotainment systems to propel much higher adoption in the future. Since infotainment vendors are largely sourcing all the hardware components and much of the embedded software, gross margins and operating margins in the business tend to be relatively low (~20% gross, ~5-10% operating).
It will be likely that connecting the car will happen even without infotainment systems in some cases as well. The European Commission is expected to have an eCall service, its nomenclature for automatic crash notification, throughout the EU by 2015, with the potential to require cellular connectivity in cars to enable such initiative.
In terms of the value chain automobile companies themselves. They typically outsource infotainment solutions to third-parand players involved in the connected car market, one has to start with the ty suppliers such as Harman, Denso, Continental, Microsoft, and others, most of whom sell a broad range of auto parts. In most cases the infotainment suppliers source the underlying components (hard drives, processors, voice recognition, etc.) and write their own applications such as turn-by-turn directions, music apps, etc. Apps Vendors Apple, Nokia, Garmin, Nuance, Microsoft, Google
Infotainment Systems Vendors
Harman, Continental, Denso, TomTom, Garmin
Automobile OEMs Toyota, Ford, BMW, Audi, Honda
Texas Instruments, NXP, Sierra Wireless, Gemalto, QUALCOMM, Broadcom
Philips has a number of telehealth initiatives that it sells to health care providers globally. The company’s TeleStation transmits vital sign data from the patient at home to the health care provider. It also offers a number of wireless monitoring devices, enabling the transmission of a number of vital data, such as weight, blood pressure, pulse, ECG data, blood glucose, etc., to health care providers. Another way that Phillips is adding value to solutions through connectivity is its eICU suite of solutions, which allows a centralized staffed center of doctors and nurses to monitor in real time remote intensive care units to help solve a chronic shortage of health care givers in ICU environment
Trimble sells what is in effect a high tech rain gauge, with more accurate measurements of rainfall. The RainWave solution sends the data to the Internet and illustrates the data in easy-to-read and informative charts available to the farmer.
Through its subsidiary, IQ irrigation, Trimble effectively wireless connects irrigation systems, and allows farmers to control these systems remotely over the Internet or, through an algorithm, recommends the correct irrigation amounts based on crop, terrain, etc.
Trimble allows farmers to visualize real-time yields and field activity (fertilizing, seeding, etc.) to an online dashboard.
The Connected Construction Site
Construction is another industry that is being radically altered by the Internet of Things, and also happens to be another vertical market where Trimble has pushed the boundaries of connectivity and productivity technology solutions. Starting with a dominant position in optical and laser-based surveying instruments, Trimble and others have moved into connecting everything within a construction site.
In its simplest form, Trimble connects bulldozers, compactors, piling systems, paving machines, and other machines to a wireless network, allowing for more efficient and accurate use of the asset. Trimble estimates that connected machines save as much as 43% of fuel costs.
Sensors inside machines can monitor payload and diagnose maintenance issues, and wirelessly send this data to the construction office, allowing more efficient asset utilization.
Communications Technology U.S. Research
Fleet Tracking for Construction
Construction sites have their own fleet tracking issues, and much like in the long-haul or short-haul trucking market, niche fleets such as cement mixers can generate a high ROI by connecting and monitoring their fleets.
Connecting just about any tool on a worksite, combined with geofencing, can warn managers when tools leave the construction site and allow a better understanding of hours of operation and requisite maintenance needs.
remotely managing switches, collection of fares through handheld devices and kiosks, and monitoring engine performance. One interesting solution is for monitoring trains carrying Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) chemicals. Through the use of a security camera and sensors, the solution can track the exact location of the toxic asset, and in the case of a leak, derailment, or any kind of impact, can stream visual evidence in real time to the rail car operator.
OmniSite makes an M2M solution for waste water management at landfills. The solution allows managers to receive alarms wirelessly whenever an anomaly occurs at a facility, and allows for controlling waste water pumps and the ability to turn them off and on in real time. It also provides the ability to analyze a number of inputs from sensors throughout the landfill, giving the manager a real time holistic view of the landfill. At right is an illustration from Digi International, which offers a solution for managing water levels for numerous end markets
All Traffic Solutions provides traffic safety signs around the world that are preconfigured with wireless connectivity. Municipalities use the data captured from these signs in real time to understand traffic patterns across their geographic area and to improve road safety.
ATMs have been wirelessly enabled for many years now, and especially in the case of portability this brings big benefits to ATM providers and their bank customers. Wirelessly-enabled ATMs can now easily be brought in during conventions or festivals when a population is likely to swell materially, and information on remaining cash can make the restocking of ATMs more efficient.
Locus Traxx provides a wireless system that monitors and tracks temperature and status of refrigerated trucks, providing instant alerts based on pre-set conditions, and allowing for temperature anomalies to be changed in real time, limiting the spoilage of perishable goods.
Parking lots can be monitored actively with occupancy sensors to measure how many available parking spots exist, and where, and ventilation system sensors to measure air quality.
Digi International sells an M2M solution to monitor industrial tanks that can be filled with any liquid, solid, or gas. This solution allows for the monitoring of material levels, temperature, and other data from remote storage tanks in the oil/gas, agriculture, and environmental services industries, and for this data to be sent wirelessly to a centralized application for real time monitoring. The illustration below shows the example of a brewery utilizing remote monitoring.
The warehouse is a key ingredient to most companies’ supply chain, and it is becoming more and more automated and efficient. Increasingly, pallets and packages are wireless tracked from the time they enter the warehouse, are put into inventory, and then “picked” for the appropriate order to be shipped out. Historically, this was a very labor intensive process, which utilized bar codes and scanners with only modest automation. Increasingly, RFID tags and readers combined with Wi-Fi with location awareness are being adopted to limit the labor intensity of the warehouse and improve the efficiency of the picking process.
These chips effectively detect changes in the environment, creating the information that is ultimately transmitted via a wireless chip and interpreted through application software to create an IoT solution. Sensors or sensor networks (Smart Dust, Mesh Networks, etc.) can provide feedback about numerous physical phenomena including inertia, gravity, light, pressure, temperature, humidity, chemical composition, time, heart rate, glucose, distance traveled, etc.
One of the more interesting sensor categories is MEMS-based sensors, which are creating new applications and taking share from more legacy sensor technologies. MEMS sensors have come down in price from $10 to $1 for many devices and in size down to 2mm x 2mm squared or smaller, which has dramatically improved MEMS adoption over the last several years. MEMS devices can be manufactured in CMOS processes, allowing them to become increasingly cost efficient and smaller going forward as well. Another critical factor driving MEMS adoption is that MEMS devices can easily be incorporated into electronic systems. All sensors ultimately need to be attached to analog-to-digital converters (and other analog devices) so that the information they have collected can be turned into a signal that can be digitally processed. MEMS sensors, given their small size and manufacturing, can be easily packaged with or integrated with an analog-to-digital converter, leading to lower overall module cost.