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Data collection is a term used to describe a
process of Systematic gathering of data for
a particular purpose from various...
To obtain information
To keep on record
To make decisions about important issues,
To pass information on to others
Fo...
Nature , scope & Objective of the enquiry
Sources of information
Availability of fund
Techniques of data collection
A...
Qualitative
Deals with descriptions.
Data can be observed
Data can not measured
e.g. –Colour of body coat,
feather colour ...
Sources of Data
External sources Internal sources
Primary data Secondary data
Example:
Documents
Creative works
Interviews...
Internal sources of Data
o Many institutions and
departments have information
about their regular functions ,
for their ow...
Data that has been collected from first-hand-
experience is known as primary data
Primary data has not been changed or alt...
Demerits
Evaluated cost
Time consuming
More number of resources
are required
Inaccurate feedback
Required lot of skill wit...
Factor effect method of
Data collection
2.Type of research subject
3)Purpose of research study
4)Size of study sample
5)Di...
Observation-: is a methodical way of
recognising & noting a fact of occurrence
TYPE OF OBSERVATION
 STRUCTURED
 UNSTRUCT...
Merits
Subject bias eliminated
Information related to
current state of affairs
Independent to
respondent
Demerits
Time con...
Presenting stimuli to the respondents in the form of question
& note down their oral –verbal response
TYPE OF INTERVIEW
 ...
Merits
More accurate responses
Get response from all persons
Overcome resistance of
respondents
Response to difficult ques...
Questionnaire method
 Questionnaire- A questionnaire is a research
instrument consisting of a series of question and othe...
Merits
Suitable for large
population
Suitable for large geographical
area
Less time & cost
Appropriate for sensitive &
per...
 SURVEY- A detailed study of geographical area to
gather data attitudes, impressions, opinions, satisfaction
level etc., ...
Merits
Covered large population
Less expensive
Information is accurate
Demerits
On small scale survey
avoided
Time consumi...
 It is the method of comprehensive study of social unit
which may be a person , a family , an institution , an
organisati...
Secondary data are those that have already been
collected by others.
These are usually in journals, periodicals, researc...
EXAMPLE
Books
Journals/periodicals
Magazines/Newspapers
 Published Electronic Sources
e-journals
General websites
W...
Merits
Quick and cheap source of
data
Wider geographical area
Longer orientation period
Leading to find primary
data
Demer...
Primary data
Real time data
Sure about sources of data
Help to give results/ finding
Costly and time consuming
Process
Avo...
Processing involves editing , coding , classification &
tabulation of the data
EDITING-: it is careful scrutiny of data to...
TABULATION-:
it is concise , logical & orderly arrangement of data in a
columns & rows
But now a days use of the computer ...
ONE WAY TABLE
One way frequency table represents the distribution of
cases on only a single dimension or variable
TWO WAY ...
DEFINITION-: analysis mean the categorising ,
ordering , manipulating , & summerising of data to
obtain answers to researc...
NON-PARAMETRIC TEST
Also known as distribution –free test
CHARECTERISTICS
Use when normal distribution is doubtful
Samp...
A) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
The manner in which the total number of observations are
distributed over different classes is c...
Its is two dimensional frequency density
diagram
It represent continuous frequency
distribution
Class interval on X-axi...
 It is simplest type of graphical
representation of data
 It is suitable for discrete frequency
distribution
 Simple ba...
PIE GRAPH
Definition: A graph that shows data in the
form of a circle
Advantages:
• Shows percentages
• Shows how a total ...
FREQUENCY POLYGON
 It is use for ungrouped frequency
distribution
 Variable value on X-axis & frequency
on Y-axis
 Freq...
CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY CURVE
 Cumulative frequency curve is also
called ogive
 It use when class interval are very small
...
B) MEASURE OF CENTRAL
VALUE/TENDENCY/LOCATION
Five basic measures of central tendency
Arithmetic mean
Median
Mode
Geom...
Mean
The sum of the value of individual in the data
divided by the number of individual in the
data.
FORMULA
Here,
∑, repr...
Median:
Is the value which is located in the middle of a series
when the observation are arranged in order of
magnitude
If...
Mode
Mode:
The number that occurs most frequently in a
set of numbers
C) MEASURE OF DISPERSON
 It indicate the extend of scattering or
variability of item about a central value
RANGE
MEAN D...
Range is difference between the smallest & largest of
observation
Range = largest value – smallest value
 it is defined a...
Mean of absolute deviation of all value of data from average (
mean , mode , median )
μ is the mean
x is each value
N is t...
Quartile Deviation:
 It is based on the lower quartile Q1 and the upper quartile Q3.
 The difference Q3−Q1 is called the...
The coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio
of the standard deviation to the mean
Cv = Standard Deviation / ...
t-Test
t-Test is used for comparing the means of two
independent group
Paired t-test
If there is any kind of correspondenc...
 Report writing is an essential skill for professionals in almost
every field
A report aims to inform, authority within ...
 it should be accurate & written in simple language
 It is Complete and Self-explanatory
 It is Comprehensive but Compa...
Types of report
Inductive report
• Initial stage
• Executive summary
• Introduction
• Methodology
• Conclusions
• Discussion
• references
...
Initial stage contain following items
Title page –: contain information related to title , author ,
year , month of submi...
It contains all essential information in nutshell
Introduce the topic to readers in a comprehensive way
a) A clear & def...
 Selection of study area , sample and sample procedure
method of data collection & their measurement
statistical tools
 ...
Findings or results
 describes what you discovered, observed, etc, in your
observations and experiments
 Use the past te...
 Reports in written form are useful for future reference
 Reports provide adequate and correct information as well
as st...
 Research method in social science & extension
education – G.L. RAY & SAGAR MANDAL
 Foundation of Behavioural research
K...
ppt on data collection , processing , analysis of data & report writing
ppt on data collection , processing , analysis of data & report writing
ppt on data collection , processing , analysis of data & report writing
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ppt on data collection , processing , analysis of data & report writing

  1. 1. Data collection is a term used to describe a process of Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, that has been systematically observed, recorded, organized INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. To obtain information To keep on record To make decisions about important issues, To pass information on to others For research study PURPOSE OF DATA COLLECTION
  3. 3. Nature , scope & Objective of the enquiry Sources of information Availability of fund Techniques of data collection Availability of trained persons Factors to be Considered Before Collection of Data
  4. 4. Qualitative Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed Data can not measured e.g. –Colour of body coat, feather colour in poultry etc Quantitative Deals with numbers. Data which can be measured. e.g. –height ,weight , length of the animals TYPE OF DATA
  5. 5. Sources of Data External sources Internal sources Primary data Secondary data Example: Documents Creative works Interviews Man-made materials Surveys Example: Unpublished thesis and dissertations Manuscript Books Journals
  6. 6. Internal sources of Data o Many institutions and departments have information about their regular functions , for their own internal purposes o When those information are used in any survey is called internal sources of data. o Eg…social welfare socities. External sources of data o When information is collected from outside agencies is called external sources of data. o Such types of data are either primary or secondary. o This type of information can be collected by census or sampling method by conducting survey. Internal & External Sources of Data
  7. 7. Data that has been collected from first-hand- experience is known as primary data Primary data has not been changed or altered by human beings, therefore its validity is greater than secondary data Primary data has not been published yet and is more reliable, authentic and objective PRIMARY DATA
  8. 8. Demerits Evaluated cost Time consuming More number of resources are required Inaccurate feedback Required lot of skill with labour Targeted issued are addressed Data interpretation is better Merits High accuracy of data Greater control Address as specific research issues
  9. 9. Factor effect method of Data collection 2.Type of research subject 3)Purpose of research study 4)Size of study sample 5)Distribution of target population 6)Time frame of the study 7)Literacy level of subjects
  10. 10. Observation-: is a methodical way of recognising & noting a fact of occurrence TYPE OF OBSERVATION  STRUCTURED  UNSTRUCTURED  PARTICIPATIVE  NON –PARTICIPATIVE  CONTROLLED  UNCONTROLLED
  11. 11. Merits Subject bias eliminated Information related to current state of affairs Independent to respondent Demerits Time consuming Expensive Limited amount of information available Extraneous factors may interfere
  12. 12. Presenting stimuli to the respondents in the form of question & note down their oral –verbal response TYPE OF INTERVIEW  Standardized interviews a. Structured b. Unstructured  Non-standardized interviews a. One to one 1.Face to face, 2.telephonic, 3.internet mediated interviews b. One to many(focus group)
  13. 13. Merits More accurate responses Get response from all persons Overcome resistance of respondents Response to difficult question may obtained Demerits Not suitable for More respondents Wider geographical area More time & cost Selection , training & supervision of field staff
  14. 14. Questionnaire method  Questionnaire- A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of question and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondent.  Self administered questionnaire  Interviewer -administered questionnaire  Telephone questionnaire  Delivery and questionnaire  Postal or mail questionnaire
  15. 15. Merits Suitable for large population Suitable for large geographical area Less time & cost Appropriate for sensitive & personal type enquiry Demerits Difficulty in replying to the question Some question may remain unanswered Low rate of return of questionnaire Replies may be given by any one other
  16. 16.  SURVEY- A detailed study of geographical area to gather data attitudes, impressions, opinions, satisfaction level etc., by polling a section of the population  TYPE 1.CENSUS SURVEY 2.CONTINOUS OR REGULAR SURVEY 3.AD-HOC SURVEY
  17. 17. Merits Covered large population Less expensive Information is accurate Demerits On small scale survey avoided Time consuming Information does not penetrate deeply Researcher must have good knowledge
  18. 18.  It is the method of comprehensive study of social unit which may be a person , a family , an institution , an organisation or a community . Merits Direct behavioral study Real & personal experience record Make possible the study of social change Increase analysis ability & skills Demerits One case almost different from another case Personal bias Use only in limit sphere More time & money consuming
  19. 19. Secondary data are those that have already been collected by others. These are usually in journals, periodicals, research publication ,official record etc. Secondary data may be available in the published or unpublished form. When it is not possible to collect the data by primary method , the investigator go for secondary method.
  20. 20. EXAMPLE Books Journals/periodicals Magazines/Newspapers  Published Electronic Sources e-journals General websites Weblogs
  21. 21. Merits Quick and cheap source of data Wider geographical area Longer orientation period Leading to find primary data Demerits No fulfill our specific research needs Poor accuracy Data are not up to date Poor accessibility in some cases
  22. 22. Primary data Real time data Sure about sources of data Help to give results/ finding Costly and time consuming Process Avoid biasness of response data More flexible Secondary data  Past data  Not sure about of sources of data  Refining the problem  Cheap and no time consuming process  Can not know in data biasness or not  Less flexible
  23. 23. Processing involves editing , coding , classification & tabulation of the data EDITING-: it is careful scrutiny of data to insure that the data are is accurate CODING-: it refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so response can be put into a limited number of category.
  24. 24. TABULATION-: it is concise , logical & orderly arrangement of data in a columns & rows But now a days use of the computer in processing of data CLASSIFICATION-: Data are classified on the basis of common characteristics which may be qualitative or descriptive & quantitative or numericals
  25. 25. ONE WAY TABLE One way frequency table represents the distribution of cases on only a single dimension or variable TWO WAY TABLE distribution in terms of two or more variables and the relationship between two variable are shown in two way table.
  26. 26. DEFINITION-: analysis mean the categorising , ordering , manipulating , & summerising of data to obtain answers to research question METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF DATA 1) Parametric Or standard test-: # The sample is large # Population have normal distribution # The observation are independent # Variables are expressed in interval or ratio scale e.g. t-test , z-test, f-test , analysis of variance etc
  27. 27. NON-PARAMETRIC TEST Also known as distribution –free test CHARECTERISTICS Use when normal distribution is doubtful Sample size is small Data expressed in terms of ranks E.g. chi square test ,The Mann –whitney U-test etc.
  28. 28. A) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION The manner in which the total number of observations are distributed over different classes is called a frequency distribution or systematic arrangement of numeric values Frequency distribution represent in graphical form 1) Histogram 2) Bar Graph 3) Circle Graph /pie diagram 4) Frequency polygon 5) Cumulative frequency curve / ogive curve
  29. 29. Its is two dimensional frequency density diagram It represent continuous frequency distribution Class interval on X-axis & frequency on Y-axis Class interval must be exclusive
  30. 30.  It is simplest type of graphical representation of data  It is suitable for discrete frequency distribution  Simple bar graph  Double bar graph  Divided bar graph
  31. 31. PIE GRAPH Definition: A graph that shows data in the form of a circle Advantages: • Shows percentages • Shows how a total is divided into parts Disadvantages • Not best for showing trends
  32. 32. FREQUENCY POLYGON  It is use for ungrouped frequency distribution  Variable value on X-axis & frequency on Y-axis  Frequency plotted against the corresponding mid-value
  33. 33. CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY CURVE  Cumulative frequency curve is also called ogive  It use when class interval are very small  Y-value are obtained by adding successive frequency (cumulative frequency )
  34. 34. B) MEASURE OF CENTRAL VALUE/TENDENCY/LOCATION Five basic measures of central tendency Arithmetic mean Median Mode Geometrical mean Harmonic mean
  35. 35. Mean The sum of the value of individual in the data divided by the number of individual in the data. FORMULA Here, ∑, represents the summation X, represents scores N, represents number of scores
  36. 36. Median: Is the value which is located in the middle of a series when the observation are arranged in order of magnitude If the total number of numbers(n) is an odd number, then the formula is If the total number of the numbers(n) is an even number, then the formula is
  37. 37. Mode Mode: The number that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers
  38. 38. C) MEASURE OF DISPERSON  It indicate the extend of scattering or variability of item about a central value RANGE MEAN DEVIATION STANDARD DEVIATION QUARTILE DEVIATION COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
  39. 39. Range is difference between the smallest & largest of observation Range = largest value – smallest value  it is defined as the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of deviations of the observation from the arithmetic mean  Most commonly used measure of dispersion
  40. 40. Mean of absolute deviation of all value of data from average ( mean , mode , median ) μ is the mean x is each value N is the number of values Mean Deviation = Σ|x - μ| N
  41. 41. Quartile Deviation:  It is based on the lower quartile Q1 and the upper quartile Q3.  The difference Q3−Q1 is called the inter quartile range. The difference Q3−Q1 divided by 2 is called semi-inter-quartile range or the quartile deviation. Thus Q.D=Q3−Q1 2 Q1=Value of (n/4 )
  42. 42. The coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean Cv = Standard Deviation / Mean Cv = σ /μ
  43. 43. t-Test t-Test is used for comparing the means of two independent group Paired t-test If there is any kind of correspondence between the individual values in the two samples The should be paired & differences taken and analysed directly as
  44. 44.  Report writing is an essential skill for professionals in almost every field A report aims to inform, authority within the stipulated period Report help to know what has been done , why it was done how it was done , what result was obtained & what conclusion
  45. 45.  it should be accurate & written in simple language  It is Complete and Self-explanatory  It is Comprehensive but Compact  It has a Proper Date and Signature  A good report should be able to sustain reader’s interest Features
  46. 46. Types of report
  47. 47. Inductive report • Initial stage • Executive summary • Introduction • Methodology • Conclusions • Discussion • references Deductive report • Initial stage • Executive summary • Introduction • Methodology • Discussion • Conclusions • references
  48. 48. Initial stage contain following items Title page –: contain information related to title , author , year , month of submission & affiliation Acknowledgement -: it indicate the name of person , institutions & organisations who have sanctioned & help in various in conduct of research & preparation of report in various ways Content -: in this page the chapters and their page number including bibliography & appendices
  49. 49. It contains all essential information in nutshell Introduce the topic to readers in a comprehensive way a) A clear & definite statement of problem b) A brief review of literature c) The concept of important term are explained
  50. 50.  Selection of study area , sample and sample procedure method of data collection & their measurement statistical tools  Summary what you did and why  Use the past tense
  51. 51. Findings or results  describes what you discovered, observed, etc, in your observations and experiments  Use the past tense. Discussion  Discusses and explains your findings and relates them to previous research  Use the present tense to make generalisations
  52. 52.  Reports in written form are useful for future reference  Reports provide adequate and correct information as well as statistical data to management and helps in decision making  A report provides information of unknown facts i.e. new ideas new vision new solution to problem new research about a particular matter.
  53. 53.  Research method in social science & extension education – G.L. RAY & SAGAR MANDAL  Foundation of Behavioural research KERLINGER , F.N.  Class note of biostatistics  Practical manual on biostatistics  INTERNET

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