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Chapter IV
1. Presentation
2. Analysis
3. Interpretation
Is the process of organizing
data into logical, sequential
and meaningful categories and
classifications to make them
ame...
1. Textual - (statements with
numerals or numbers that serve
as supplements to tabular
presentation)
2. Tabular - (a systematic arrangement
of related idea in which classes of
numerical facts or data are given each
row and ...
1. The table should be so constructed
that it enables the reader to
comprehend the data presented
without referring to the...
3. Graphical – (a chart representing
the quantitative variations or
changes of variables in pictorial
or diagrammatic form)
1. Bar graphs
2. Linear graphs
3. Pie graphs
4. Pictograms
5. Statistical maps
6. Ratio charts
A separation of a whole into its
constituent parts (Merriam-Webster,
2012)
The process of breaking up the whole
study in...
1. Qualitative Analysis – is not
based on precise measurement
and quantitative claims.
(PSSC: 2001: 51)
1.Social analysis;
2.From the biggest to the smallest
class;
3.Most important to the least
important;
4.Ranking of student...
2. Quantitative Analysis – is
employed on data that have
been assigned some numerical
value. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
It can range from the examination
of simple frequencies to the
description of events or
phenomenon using descriptive
stat...
This section answers the
question, “So what?” in relation to
the results of the study. What do
the results of the study m...
It is often the most difficult to write
because it is the least structured.
This section demands
perceptiveness and crea...
How do we interpret
the result(s) of our
study?
1. Tie up the results of the study in
both theory and application by
pulling together the:
a. conceptual/theoretical
frame...
2. Examine, summarize, interpret
and justify the results; then,
draw inferences. Consider the
following:
a. Conclude or summarize
 This technique enables the
reader to get the total picture of
the findings in summarized
form, ...
b. Interpret
 Questions on the meaning of the
findings, the methodology, the
unexpected results and the
limitations and s...
c. Integrate
 This is an attempt to put the
pieces together.
 Often, the results of a study are
disparate and do not see...
d. Theorize
 When the study includes a
number of related findings, it
occasionally becomes possible
to theorize.
1. Integrate your findings into a
principle;
2. Integrate a theory into your
findings; and
3. Use these findings to
formul...
e. Recommend or apply
alternatives
1. Table _____ presents the…
2. Table _____ indicates the…
3. As reflected in the table, there
was…
4. As observed, there ...
6. The illustrative graph
above/below shows that…
7. In explaining this result, it can be
stated that…
8. Is significantly...
11. Is revealed to influence…
12. Has significant relationship
with…
13. Is discovered to be a factor of…
14. In relation ...
15. And in viewing in this sense, it
can be stated that…
16. The result establishes the fact
that…
17. This finding sugges...
19. This finding also validates the
findings of…
20. This improvement in
_________ could be
understood in the context of…
...
22. The interpretation marked as
__________ reveals that…
23. Nevertheless, this finding could
be attributed to the fact t...
1. The chapter is organized and
divided into several main
components or topics, each of
which is titled according to the
s...
2. Present only relevant data.
3. In reporting data, choose the
medium that will present them
effectively.
4. Presenting t...
5. The textual presentation should
supplement or expand the
contents of tables and charts,
rather than duplicate them.
6. ...
7. The analysis of the data should
be objective and logical.
8. In analyzing and interpreting
data, point out those that a...
9. In reporting statistical tests of
significance, include information
concerning the value of the test,
the degree of fre...
10. The findings are compared and
contrasted with that of other
previous studies and
interpretations are made thereof.
Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
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Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

  1. 1. Chapter IV
  2. 2. 1. Presentation 2. Analysis 3. Interpretation
  3. 3. Is the process of organizing data into logical, sequential and meaningful categories and classifications to make them amenable to study and interpretation.
  4. 4. 1. Textual - (statements with numerals or numbers that serve as supplements to tabular presentation)
  5. 5. 2. Tabular - (a systematic arrangement of related idea in which classes of numerical facts or data are given each row and their subclasses are given each a column in order to present the relationships of the sets or numerical facts or data in a definite, compact and understandable form)
  6. 6. 1. The table should be so constructed that it enables the reader to comprehend the data presented without referring to the text; 2. The text should be so written that it allows the reader to understand the argument presented without referring to the table. (Campbell, Ballou and Slade, 1990)
  7. 7. 3. Graphical – (a chart representing the quantitative variations or changes of variables in pictorial or diagrammatic form)
  8. 8. 1. Bar graphs 2. Linear graphs 3. Pie graphs 4. Pictograms 5. Statistical maps 6. Ratio charts
  9. 9. A separation of a whole into its constituent parts (Merriam-Webster, 2012) The process of breaking up the whole study into its constituent parts of categories according to the specific questions under the statement of the problem. (Calderon, 1993)
  10. 10. 1. Qualitative Analysis – is not based on precise measurement and quantitative claims. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
  11. 11. 1.Social analysis; 2.From the biggest to the smallest class; 3.Most important to the least important; 4.Ranking of students according to brightness;
  12. 12. 2. Quantitative Analysis – is employed on data that have been assigned some numerical value. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
  13. 13. It can range from the examination of simple frequencies to the description of events or phenomenon using descriptive statistics, and to the investigation of correlation and causal hypothesis using various statistical tests. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
  14. 14. This section answers the question, “So what?” in relation to the results of the study. What do the results of the study mean? This part is, perhaps, the most critical aspect of the research report.
  15. 15. It is often the most difficult to write because it is the least structured. This section demands perceptiveness and creativity from the researcher.
  16. 16. How do we interpret the result(s) of our study?
  17. 17. 1. Tie up the results of the study in both theory and application by pulling together the: a. conceptual/theoretical framework; b. the review of literature; and c. the study’s potential significance for application.
  18. 18. 2. Examine, summarize, interpret and justify the results; then, draw inferences. Consider the following:
  19. 19. a. Conclude or summarize  This technique enables the reader to get the total picture of the findings in summarized form, and helps orient the reader to the discussion that follows.
  20. 20. b. Interpret  Questions on the meaning of the findings, the methodology, the unexpected results and the limitations and shortcomings of the study should be answered and interpreted
  21. 21. c. Integrate  This is an attempt to put the pieces together.  Often, the results of a study are disparate and do not seem to “hang together.” In the discussion, attempt to bring the findings together to extract meaning and principles.
  22. 22. d. Theorize  When the study includes a number of related findings, it occasionally becomes possible to theorize.
  23. 23. 1. Integrate your findings into a principle; 2. Integrate a theory into your findings; and 3. Use these findings to formulate an original theory
  24. 24. e. Recommend or apply alternatives
  25. 25. 1. Table _____ presents the… 2. Table _____ indicates the… 3. As reflected in the table, there was… 4. As observed, there was indeed… 5. Delving deeper into the figures…
  26. 26. 6. The illustrative graph above/below shows that… 7. In explaining this result, it can be stated that… 8. Is significantly related to… 9. Is found to be determinant of… 10. Registered positive correlation with…
  27. 27. 11. Is revealed to influence… 12. Has significant relationship with… 13. Is discovered to be a factor of… 14. In relation with the result of __________, it may be constructed that…
  28. 28. 15. And in viewing in this sense, it can be stated that… 16. The result establishes the fact that… 17. This finding suggests that… 18. With this result, the researcher developed an impression that…
  29. 29. 19. This finding also validates the findings of… 20. This improvement in _________ could be understood in the context of… 21. These findings also accept the framework of the study…
  30. 30. 22. The interpretation marked as __________ reveals that… 23. Nevertheless, this finding could be attributed to the fact that… 24. Probably, this was also influenced… 25. In the rational sense, the juxtaposition of…
  31. 31. 1. The chapter is organized and divided into several main components or topics, each of which is titled according to the sub-problem or hypothesis statement.
  32. 32. 2. Present only relevant data. 3. In reporting data, choose the medium that will present them effectively. 4. Presenting tables that can be presented as well in a few sentences in the text must be avoided.
  33. 33. 5. The textual presentation should supplement or expand the contents of tables and charts, rather than duplicate them. 6. Only objective data embodied in tables are made the bases of discussion.
  34. 34. 7. The analysis of the data should be objective and logical. 8. In analyzing and interpreting data, point out those that are consistent or inconsistent with the theory presented in the study’s theoretical framework.
  35. 35. 9. In reporting statistical tests of significance, include information concerning the value of the test, the degree of freedom, the probability level and the direction of the effect.
  36. 36. 10. The findings are compared and contrasted with that of other previous studies and interpretations are made thereof.
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