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Shojinmeat Project Cellular Agriculture Initiative (Nov.2018)

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International edition of Shojinmeat Project overview
Shojinmeat Project is a citizen science project that develop DIY cell-based meat and engage in public communication for cellular agriculture.

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Shojinmeat Project Cellular Agriculture Initiative (Nov.2018)

  1. 1. Shojinmeat Project Cell-Ag Initiative 2018.11
  2. 2. “Shojinmeat Project” - Who we are “Democratization of cellular agriculture” Nonprofit non-corporate non-university citizen science community of DIY bio/fab enthusiasts, students, researcher, artists, writers etc. for cellular agriculture Open source cellular agriculture” by DIY bio Public communication by art and education
  3. 3. Ongoing projects ・DIY bio & cell culture experiments ・Workshops and micro-conferences ・Advocacy for cellular agriculture ・Media and social communication ・Art, design and creativity projects ・Visual contents production ・Fundraising / crowdfunding
  4. 4. Means of food production Hunting Farming Domestication Fermentation Synthesis Cell culture
  5. 5. “Meat”
  6. 6. From where? Meat is ~x40 more resource intensive Lamb:~x50, Beef:~x40, Pork:~x20, Poultry:~x7 “Meat”←animals←feed, water, land
  7. 7. Deforestation Public health hazard Water shortage “Meat”←animals←feed, water, land Hoekstra, Mekonnen, PNAS 2012 http://www.pnas.org/content/109/9/3232 Poore, Nemecek, Science 2018 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6392/987 Ventola, NCBI 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378521/
  8. 8. Food vs. Feed vs. Fuel Agri- cultural resources Food Feed Fuel Poore, Nemecek, Science 2018 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6392/987
  9. 9. Anticipated alternative proteins *As demand for protein grows, existing meat cannot serve all in sustainable manner. MeatSoy etc. Dairy MeatDairySoy etc. New alternative protein Plants Tofu Algae Insects Biosynthetic Cell culture New protein source “Meat & dairy produced in new ways” Plant-based meat & dairy equivalent Now Future
  10. 10. Cellular Agriculture Agricultural products by cell culture Medicine technology, Agriculture application
  11. 11. Cell-based meat (cultured meat) Muscle cells Bioreactor Culture medium Processing
  12. 12. Energy conversion efficiency < 0.1% Prospectively, Microalgae: 4~11%? “Artificial leaf”: 10%+? ~4% ~35% 50~90% Shepon, Eschel et al, IOP Science 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.10 88/1748-9326/11/10/105002/meta
  13. 13. Ongoing cellular agriculture projects Cell-based meat Milk without cows Egg white without eggs The products are not “imitations” - they are (or try to be) molecularly the same! Clean fish meat Ginkgo Bioworks - Vanilla, scent, various ingredients Modern Meadow - leather without animals
  14. 14. What cellular agriculture potentially achieves Protein source with marginal resource input
  15. 15. Research track record 1 1997 Goldfish meat @NASA Appearance in sci-fi - Concept known since 19th century 2004 New Harvest founded Jason Matheny contacts NASA staff 2005 Netherlands funds €2M 2007 In vitro meat consortium funding discontinued funds 2000 Works by Oron Catts @Harvard Lead by Willem van Eelen (deceased) Patent filed in 1997
  16. 16. Research track record 2 2012 Sergey Brin from Google contacts former member of In vitro meat consortium 2013 Demonstration by Prof. Post 2014 Shojinmeat Project 2015 Memphis Meats 2015 “Cellular agriculture” - term coined 2013 New Harvest invests in cell-ag startups (Clara Foods, Perfect Day) 2016 SuperMeat 2017 Finless Foods €280k burger
  17. 17. The positive impact 學 經 藝 Science & Technology ・Technological hurdles? ・Medical applications? Politics & Economics ・Shift in food market? ・Industry landscape? Arts and Culture ・Religious views? ・Social norms to change? Hanna Tuomisto 2011
  18. 18. The technical problem $325,000 Cell-based burger, 200g
  19. 19. Technological milestones 1. Inexpensive media 2. Scaling & automation CapEx & Staffing Culture medium $200k+/kg Conventional method $2 Conventional meat price & quality parity? 3. Added value and consumer acceptance Technological goals 1. Food grade culture medium 2. Scaled culture plant design 3. Tissue engineering for flavor and texture
  20. 20. Bottlenecks in culture medium Gospodarowicz D and Moran JS, 1976, Annu Rev Biochem Eagle H, 1959, Science Sugar, Amino acids, Vitamins, Minerals $20/L Expensive for what’s actually in Albumin, Buffer, Insulin, Transferin $900/L “Mad cow”? Viruses? Expensive and supply is insecure Growth factors Survival factors $450/mg Expensive… :-( = Basal medium Foetal bovine serum Signal compounds
  21. 21. Cost of culture media for “easy” cells Standard DMEM(FBS10%) 500ml $5000+ for 100g Medium for 1~2g of cells (yen/JPY)
  22. 22. Liver cell culture for therapeutic applications Block et al., 1996 DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 FBS 50ml ¥4900 Non essential amino acid  ¥140 HGF 40ng/ml ¥78000 (20µg)  EGF 20ng/ml ¥700 (10µg) ¥84865($8000) 100g of liver cells cost ~$100,000
  23. 23. Cell-based meat production - Method 1 Glocose, amino acids, AA2-P, NaHCO3, Na2Se These (expensive) growth factors will be made by recombinants (in the same way insulin is made) 20~200kL cell cultivator tank ~3t scale production Insulin, Transferin, FGF2, TGF-b “Essential 8” cell-based meat medium Growth factors & FBS ingredients “All-in-1 batch”
  24. 24. Cost of goods (ingredients) analysis Medium Meat $41/L $100/lb $15/L $36.6/lb $4.7/L $11.5/lb $3.7/L $9.0/lb $0.77/L $2.2/lb Scenario A~E A: All GF’s down to 1/10 in cost B: FGF2 & TGFβ at insulin price C: A&B D: All GF’s at $4/g E: Basal medium at $0.23/L Good Food Institute (2016) (“All in one batch” process is assumed)
  25. 25. Cell-based meat production - Method 2 ⇒$0/L Originally $1500/L Produces growth factors Muscle cells Liver cells growth factorsGF’s & FBS eq’s Basal medium Inexpensive Very expensive Medium ingredients “Coculture” GF’s & FBS eq’s
  26. 26. Demonstration of coculture Significant hepatocyte growth without added growth factors (HGF)Control (0%) 10% conditioned medium 25% conditioned medium 50% conditioned medium Countofcellsofallsizes, relativetothecontrol group mouse placental cells dishes with Day-12 foetal liver cells in FBS 10% medium 7 Days Transfer culture medium
  27. 27. Cell-based chicken liver demonstration cell-based chicken liver paste http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm32032224 Grow cells Fat-load cells Assemble cells
  28. 28. Low-cost Liver cell culture Figure by Integriculture Inc. DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 Non essential amino acid  ¥140 FBS 50ml ¥4900 HGF 40ng/ml ¥78000 (20µg) EGF 20ng/ml ¥700 (10µg) ¥84865($770~) Liver cell aggregate on collagen scaffold in sYE medium under coculture DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 sYE 50ml ¥182 ¥1307 ($12) yeast extract, an FBS alternative
  29. 29. “Food grade DMEM” Culture medium, as inexpensive as bottled beverages? DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 sYE 50ml ¥182 ¥1307 ($12) ”DMEM” 450ml  ¥10 sYE 50ml ¥1 ¥11 (€0.10) Sugar Amino acids Vitamins Minerals Basal medium = from algae?
  30. 30. “Food grade” demo - Sports drink culture media 90% DAKARA 80% 70% 60% 0% (DMEM only) 50% DaysCelldivisions Proliferation of mouse L6 in DMEM/GreenDakara 10% FBS #pH and osmolality of Dakara adjusted by NaHCO3(s) and 2M NaOH Fluid name osmolality pH DMEM(-, hi glu) 345 7.4 Pocari 338 3.4 Aquarius 291 3.37 Amino-Value 4000 289 3.63 AminoVital Gold 186 3.33 Vitamin Water 302 3.3 Green DAKARA 322 3.28 Amiiru Water 249 3.4 Mamoru Chikara 546 3.58
  31. 31. DIY-DMEM (home made medium) http://animescience.net/?p=3647 http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm33104702 Glucose, amino acids, vitamin B’s, salts Mix and filter to prepare Chicken foetus heart cells primary culture Protein supplement Vitamin pills Glucose Salts
  32. 32. Scaling as it is... How cultured burger was made in 2013 ⇒$260,000
  33. 33. Conventional “scaled” cell culture Needs much more scale
  34. 34. The process needs a fundamental re-design Labs, Hospitals Brewery, Petrochemical complex Culturing of cells has been optimised for laboratory scale ⇒€250k per burger Culturing of cells becomes industrial scale ⇒Production at $2/kg
  35. 35. Dr. Marianne Ellis, 2017 “Process scale” method implementation cases⇒ “Cell culture processes suitable for scaling”
  36. 36. Ready for plant engineering? Integration of all elements into one scalable system ~0.1g scale ~10g scale ~100kg scale future pilot plant PCT/JP2016/067599 jp-pat file# 2016-568716
  37. 37. How is temperature controlled? Mixing method? Pipeline diameter & flow rate? Sterilization method & frequency? How are filters cleaned? Plant engineering - what exactly? Speculative fish meat culture plant
  38. 38. “Is it tasty?” - Tissue engineering to add value Sausage/burger Proven ※although expensive Low cost large scale cell culture Sheet meat / “bacon” Cell scaffold Muscle/fat coculture Steak / tissue Tissue morphogenesis Vascularization Meat texture Regenerative medicine Where we are
  39. 39. Tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cellular agriculture Cell culture (human) Cell culture (animals) Distribution Distribution Regenerative medicine Cellular agriculture Med. Ag. Procu- rement Culture medium Cell-ag and Regen. Medicine share the same technology. Main differences are in purity, traceability and regulations
  40. 40. Building “meat” : Method 1 “Opportunities for applying bio- medical production and manufacturing methods to the development of the clean meat industry” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articl e/pii/S1369703X1830024XCulture medium and starter cells Myoblast culture Myogenesis, Cell organization Grow cells Build tissue by cellular scaffoldProcurement
  41. 41. 3D culture by cellular scaffolds Cellular scaffold has large surface area, which improves the efficiency of cell culture. Sponge collagen scaffolds Liver cells on scaffolds
  42. 42. Other functions of cellular scaffolds Edible scaffolds i.e. collagen, chitosan, chitin, arginate, cellu- lose, polysaccharides Simulate fibre and meat texture Moulds shape in mm or bigger scales
  43. 43. Building “meat” : Method 2 ”In Vitro Engineering of Vascularized Tissue Surrogates” https://www.nature.com/articles/srep01316 Culture medium and starter cells Procurement Cell growth, vascularization Tissue growth ※Further down the development timeline
  44. 44. Tissue engineering to and beyond thick steak Cells on scaffold around 2020 Cell aggregate 2013 Cultured tissue 2026? Designer meat? 2030? Burger, sausage Bacon, meat chips Thick steak “It this even meat !?” Algae-myoblast co-culture
  45. 45. The positive impact 學 經 藝 Science & Technology ・Technological hurdles? ・Medical applications? Politics & Economics ・Shift in food market? ・Industry landscape? Arts and Culture ・Religious views? ・Social norms to change? Hanna Tuomisto 2011
  46. 46. “Protein problem” in different stages Is there enough protein? Is it a secure source? Is it sustain- able? Many rely on imports while overfishing continues ( Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, Ireland, 2010 https://www.esri.ie/pubs/WP340.pdf) “Public expenses due to meat is set to reach $1.6T by 2050” Farm Animal Investment Risk and Return Initiative Poor conturies
  47. 47. “Impeding food crisis”? ”Boiling frog" ・Food prices rise incrementally over decades ・Lower living standards, more frequent civil unrest
  48. 48. How cellular agriculture is a solution 1 2 Reduce protein consumption. Change the way we eat. Find sustainable protein source. Preserve culinary culture. Meat supply chain Externalities “Wicked problem” of climate change, poverty and local ecological losses
  49. 49. Comprehensive cost and footprint assessment ・Resource requirement from ‘cradle to the grave’ Life cycle assessment (LCA) https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/File:LCA.PNG
  50. 50. LCA uncertainties Current LCA estimates depend on unestablished production processes and uncertainties still may exceed 50%. 2014 estimate included bioreactor sterilization. Hanna Tuomisto 2011 Hanna Tuomisto 2014
  51. 51. “Matter cycle” of cell-based meat Convert to culture media Large-scale cell cultureWaste fluid treatment Algal production Algae sewage Fertilizer
  52. 52. Global protein market outlook Population growth and emerging economies: $2T market cap. by 2030? Global meat demand 1980-2030 Rabobank (2011)■Lamb ■Poultry ■Pork ■Beef Demand,10milliontons
  53. 53. Cellular agriculture startups and market size By Olivia Fox Cabane, http://newprotein.org *Funders and supporters are also mentioned. IP summary: https://www.kiranmeats.com/resources/ Japan $50B Seafood $250B Global meat $1.5T Global beef $0.7T
  54. 54. Market timeline in Japan by Integriculture Inc. Plans to market high unit price products first and move to general meat as cell culture scales Test Production $300,000/kg Foie Gras $40/kg “Designer Meat” $20/kg i.e. “fish fat beef” “beef/pork cellular mix” “DHA/Omega3 plus meat” Meat. $6/kg Supplements $3000/kg 2019 2023 2027 2030
  55. 55. Non-profits and academic institutions USA Israel USA Japan USA Donor-funded 501(c)(3) -Supports academic research of cellular agriculture https://www.new-harvest.org/ https://media.dglab.com/2017/02/ 09-joi-blog-01/ Founded by New Crop Capital. Promotes plant-based and cell- based meat from industry perspective. https://www.gfi.org/ Funded by crowdfunding, Promotes open-source DIY cellular agriculture http://shojinmeat.com https://camp-fire.jp/projects/view/20537 Founded by university students, aims to connect academia and industry https://www.gfi.org/ Spun off SuperMeat https://www.futuremeat.org/ Grants Supports New Harvest Demonstrated cell- based meat in 2013 NPO’s play facilitative role between the public, regulators and industry. Some are more academic.and others
  56. 56. “Adjacent industries” Entry from nearby fields Beverage companies Food companies Medical supply manufacturer Plant engine- ering firms Effect to nearby fields Functional & pharmaceuti cal foods Food branding Biomanu facturing Regen. medicine Indoor farms Cell-based meat industry mind map Good Food Institute (2016)
  57. 57. Political and regulatory environment FDA public hearing held on 12/07/2018 to resolve the regulatory issue - join hearing with USDA planned for October. https://www.fda.gov/Food/NewsEven ts/WorkshopsMeetingsConferences/ ucm610138.htm Set to spend €400M on alternative protein research from 2018. All new food product must go through 18 months long approval procedure. Some research works are ongoing in government labs and set to invest $300M on Israeli alternative protein startups. Government fund invests in a cellular agriculture startup. Government official moving to submit policy advice.
  58. 58. Regulations and cellular agriculture products A food product must be manufactured from food and (approved) food additives under proper process control. A “food” must have history of consumption (⇔ “Novel food”). There is a list for (FDA, in case of USA) approved food additives. cell-based meat Growth factors Could have a GRAS status Requires safety tests and approval if used. Sugar Amino acids Vitamins Minerals etc. (Food & additives) Basal media Basal media Process control: HACCP & GMP Could use sports drink
  59. 59. Where are the risks? BSE prions? Cells mix-ups? Viral contamination? Is it GMO? Are growth factors safe? What’s in the medium? Bacterial contamination? Cancerous cells? Safety of cell metabolites? Will it be labelled? Unexpected health risk from “too clean meat”? Is meat healthy?
  60. 60. 細胞肉の食品安全衛生:対策例や争点 Use of primary cells or cell line cells? Viral DNA can be monitored real-time in near future? Can be avoided by cell acquisition from prion-free parts? Use of cell sorter may separate by each cell types Existing food regulations can evaluate the food safety of growth factors? Use of methods that does not require external addition of growth factors? Use of known medium? Prompt reporting of any changes made to medium? https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/cell-culture/learning-center/media-formulations/dme.html Would require contamination detection mechanism for quality assurance “Substantial equivalence” - how do the amount of abnormal or cancerous cells compare to existing meat? How should it be labeled? “Beef(cell-based)” ? Long-term safety - how do cell-based meat differ from conventional? Is meat consumption healthy - regardless of traditional or cell-based?
  61. 61. Who will regulate meat? (And what is “meat”?) Good Food Institute, Tofurky and a few alternative protein startups filed a court case against State of Missouri https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/28/us/missouri-meat-law-tofurky.html Petitions not to call plant-based and cell- based meat “meat” State of Missouri passes a food labeling law in favor Who will regulate? FDA or USDA? ⇒ Letter to the President
  62. 62. The positive impact 學 經 藝 Science & Technology ・Technological hurdles? ・Medical applications? Politics & Economics ・Shift in food market? ・Industry landscape? Arts and Culture ・Religious views? ・Social norms to change? Hanna Tuomisto 2011
  63. 63. Socio-cultural implications Would vegetarians eat? Is it Halal? Goes with Buddhist “nonviolence”? Animal welfare? Consumer acceptance? At the end, is it tasty?
  64. 64. Regional differences in agenda A. Animals, religion B. Food security C. Food safety D. Env. footprint EU/US: A~D > C > B E.Asia: B~C > D > A
  65. 65. Western vegetarianism ・Vegetarians ・Pescetarians ・Vegans are the most common 3~10% of the population
  66. 66. Practical ethics: “Utilitarianism” “Decision should be made to maximize utility” Utility = happiness x number of sentient beings “Only 1 death is better than 5”...? May be so in very short term, but... If “killing for public good” becomes the norm, no one is there to stop dictators → Is the utility maximized, in the long run? Utilitarian decision making is strongly dependent on subject and timeline“Runaway trolley problem” As it is, 5 will die. If you switch, only 1 will. Will you do it?
  67. 67. Animal welfare as deductions from utilitarianism ◆Animals are capable of feeling happiness and thus sentient. ◆All sentient beings count. ◆”Species” as defined by biology is irrelevant in ethical decisions. ⇒From a utilitarian point-of-view, “making sentient beings suffer is unethical”
  68. 68. Acknowledges health and environment, but mainly animal welfare and ethical “Animal welfare” based on utilitarianism Reason for being a vegetarian Vegetarian Society
  69. 69. East Asian vegetarianism ”Religion”←Not utilitarianism or other ethics Ethical value of clean meat described by utilitarianism don’t directly translate into East Asian religious (i.e. Buddhist) importance.
  70. 70. “Shojin ryori” Buddhist cuisine Cuisine for for zen practitioners ・Common name for “Buddhist cuisine” ・All aspects must serve the purpose of zen. -NO WASTED FOOD -Use local produce to avoid food waste -No cruelty (avoid fish and meat) -Avoid certain vegetables that stimulate desires -All donated food including meat must be consumed -Preparation (cooking) is also part of zen practice Cell-based meat being “murderless” does not make it Zen - there are multiple more important criteria. ※contested “Shojin” means “devotion to the righteous path” Shojinmeat Project will stay committed to the path that obsoletes unsustainable meat
  71. 71. Would “murderless meat” help Zen? Holy text ↓ Rules ↓ Daily life Religious rules in Abrahamic religions RulesMiddle way Daily life Holy texts ”Would clean meat serve the pupose of Zen?” ・Overcoming personal desires is a major theme in zen ・”Desire” includes meat apetite ・”Fake meat” is a compromise, but compromise is permissible (refer. “middle way”)⇒ ・Cell-based meat fits in the same category as tofu - meat imitations. Use as reference up on making decisions Mentions Religious rules in Eastern religions
  72. 72. Meat in historical Japan Before 7th century: Eating meat was common. People just had to eat whatever was in hand. 675c. Imperial decree of “No Killing (of animals)” To direct labour force to rice production and put a stop to local animal-sacrifice rituals & reinforce imperial authority ※Newly arrived Buddhism was used as justification Meat avoidance continues till 19th c. and commoners only started eating meat around 1900 c.
  73. 73. ・Totals half billion? Region-specific ・More common among upper castes ・Some upper caste members fund cultured meat research ・Hinduism doesn’t explicitly forbid meat but adherents choose to avoid meat. Mr. Modi (Indian PM as of 2017) is a vegetarian. Vegetarianism in India
  74. 74. Potential future shift in ethical landscape Then what if on 2040, meat alternatives rise to 30% market share and ever more people stop consuming conventional meat? ・Uncontrollable ”hate campaign” against traditional farmers? ・Trade ban of conventional meat due to animal cruelty? Why are animal experimentation, Japanese whaling and Chinese cat/ dog consumption is problematised far more than factory farming? ⇒Because they are “remote things” for the protesters.
  75. 75. Ethical issues due to technological immaturity (Transient) issues upon R&D: ・FBS production is not cruelty-free “Unavoidable” issue: ・Extraction of cells Likely to be solved in the future May pose an issue during R&D Can bovine foetus feel pain? It may still inflict some pain. Will animals still be chained? Genetic selection of animals for the sake of “tasty” - is it eugenics?
  76. 76. Ethical issues of “captive carnivore” Wild animals exist outside human control and no ethical questions are raised against humans. However, captive carnivores as pets and zoo animals are under human control → ethical questions ?? Is it ethical to let carnivores to prey on others??
  77. 77. Future court case: “Patent or Life (of animals)” ・Can rich countries with cell-based meat production technology blame (poor) emerging countries for animal abuse? ・Court cases over “economic incentives (patent) vs. animal suffering” Case study: Generic HIV drug lawsuit: An Indian pharmaceutical company allegedly infringed retroviral drug patent to manufacture generic HIV drugs, because the original drugs by Western pharmaceutical companies were too expensive for people in poor African countries. After high-profile court-martials, the Indian company won the case on humanitarian basis.
  78. 78. Consumer acceptance Chris Bryant (2017) 3rd Intl’ Conf. for Cultured Meat Large variations exist between different marketing research attempts and speculations, mainly due to the lack of actual clean meat products on market. ←Factors consumers weigh Consumer acceptance research result→
  79. 79. Nomenclature ”Clean meat” cultured meat (acknowledges “cell-based meat”) Cell-based meat and coalition 純粋培養肉(純肉)、細胞(培養)肉 ・How do general consumers perceive? ・Is it a neutral name? ・Does it comply with food labeling law? Good Food Institute(2017) (Japanese) https://www.gfi.org/how-we-talk-about-meat-grown-without-animals
  80. 80. What is needed for public acceptance? Demo by Memphis Meats cell-based meat by DIY bio http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30099092 Being safe (regulatory) Feeling safe (cultural) Technology is coming but...
  81. 81. What would a corporate monopoly do? Resulted in widespread accusation and allegations of : “Technology being used for corporate profit than social good” “Public mistrust due to technological secrecy”
  82. 82. Cellular agriculture ecosystem Advocacy, Academic research with universities DIY bio, speculative art projects, “avant-garde” advocacy Sponsor Research and project grants Commercialization, Production technology development Individual biohackers in communities such as
  83. 83. Shojinmeat Project as citizen science Non-Profit organization (TBC) Citizen Science Advocacy, Academic research with universities DIY bio, speculative art projects, “avant-garde” advocacy Sponsor Research and project grants (A spin-off startup) Commercialization, Production technology development
  84. 84. Citizen science and business at Shojinmeat Project How to make ⇒ Open How to scale ⇒ Proprietary Numberindemand Degree of personalization Product dev. Citizen Science domain Business domain and other businesses to come Transparency in technology
  85. 85. “Democratized cellular agriculture” Academia hints the way Citizens act and set the direction Businesses scale and deliver
  86. 86. “Growing meat at home” =DIY bio methodology= Konjac cell scaffold Cells from fertilized eggs Egg white as antimycotic Egg yolk as FBS ⇒DIY cell culture in kitchen High school girl on DIY clean meat experiment, TV news DIY clean meat recipe ‘Zine (2017 Comiket92)
  87. 87. Development of DIY bio equipments DIY incubator Temperature can be set to ~40℃ by reducing the AC input voltage to 30V from normal ~100V. The blueprint of DIY incubator is on GitHub. Both are at ~$100. by @okgw_ Household fan centrifuge (~100G at ~1000rpm) Egg white antimycotic and DIY clean bench http://interestor2012.hatenablog.com/ entry/2015/01/05/202524 (@earthlyworld
  88. 88. Development of DIY cell culture protocols Materials and methods are uploaded on blogs, video sharing sites, GitHub etc. for other participants to confirm reproducibility. Creative Cells Kyoto reproduces sports drink culture medium experiment https://cleanmeat-kyoto.hatenablog.com/ http://zacmayu.hatenablog.com/ http://www.nhk.or.jp/gendai/articles/4149/ Ms. Sugisaki - consultant in the day, biohacker at home (aired on TV)
  89. 89. Demonstration video online http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30403849 http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30099092 http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm31104033 VR video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdELM3xjmr0
  90. 90. Development of home and school cell culture kit Pre-survey to high school teachers School cell culture kit should be at <$300 DIY cell culture hardwares and protocols deployed in a class -At what budget? -Cell culture in school classes? (9 respondents) ◆<$300 ◆<$500 ◆<$1000 ◆<$3000 ◆<$5000 ◆Yes ◆No ◆ ◆ ◆ Yes, as an extra- curricular activity Yes, if there is time Depends on budget @thesow41 (towel warmer) (DIY protocols)
  91. 91. DIY cell culture and future Other cell types? Coculture system, better DIY serum? Cell scaffold, DIY tissue engineering ….etc. What’s next? DIY cell culture experiments Materials and methods on blogs and online videos Cell culture kit Results are shared, other participants also reproduce results Cell culture protocols Cell passage protocols, cell library
  92. 92. Why stop at meat? DIY tissue engineering? Tastier than meat DIY kidney! DIY differentiation & morphogenesis to make heart Is this even “meat”!? “Green meat” algae- meat composite food https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art icles/PMC5282507/ ・Bioreactors improve over time, enabling cell, tissue & organ culture ・DIY tissue engineering is ubiquitous, innovative prototypes everywhere
  93. 93. Local farmers design their own meat brands ・Local farmers and town butchers can develop their own cell-based meat recipe. ・Brand ownership opportunity opens up for local farmers. ・Hobbyists come up with unique meat recipe.
  94. 94. Beef branded on individual cows Cell source cow still alive Scan the QR code printed on package See how the cow is doing
  95. 95. Myoblast grown at 200t scale Looks like a beer factory? Future: Meat brewery
  96. 96. Steak brewery Single use culture bags⇒ Steak grows inside⇒ Ready to ship⇒
  97. 97. Culture media produced by microalgae Short food miles Farm high-rise Cell-ag towers
  98. 98. Farmscape, A.D.2203 Vertical farms Vast land reverted to nature Artificial photosynthesis Cellular agriculture manu- facturing industry complex
  99. 99. Martian food production facility
  100. 100. Orbital Zero-G Farm
  101. 101. Comet-to-biomass facility
  102. 102. Creative support for artists “I deal with Ideal Meal” by Yamada Theta https://twitter.com/yamada_theta https://www.pixiv.net/member_illust.php?mode=medium&illust_id=66586574   https://note.mu/yamada_theta/n/n243f40556409 《Schroedinger’s Tiger》 by Michi Okada http://tobira-project.info/blog/2017_okada.html http://michiokada.tumblr.com/
  103. 103. Miyo-san ”Myosin” age.20・164cm Chemical engineering student intern at Mars Huygens Crater cellular agriculture facility. Aco-chan ”Actin” age.13・149cm Helps elder sister Miyo in her extracurricular activity at Mars Colonists Middle School. Miyo & Aco
  104. 104. Miyo-san (Chibi)
  105. 105. Aco-chan (Chibi)
  106. 106. Visual novel source files Source files https://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/folders/0B0ShPzNziL05THlwU2IwTTNueHM (Feel free to produce alternative scenarios, derivative works, add characters, etc. under CC-BY-NC license.) “Miyo-san” and “Aco-chan” whole body and face PNG images and sci-fi themed background images available for manga and VN’s. MiyoAco
  107. 107. Perhaps, someday in the future on Mars….
  108. 108. Zine's (DIY cell culture manuals) 2017.08 Intro book 2017.08 Recipe book 2017.12 Cultured foie gras https://shop.comiczin.jp/product s/detail.php?product_id=33288 https://shop.comiczin.jp/product s/detail.php?product_id=33304 https://shop.comiczin.jp/product s/detail.php?product_id=35535 Distributed at Comic Market, COMITIA, TechBookFest, etc. Also available from ComicZIN 2016.08 First edition 2016.12 “Made & ate” Sold out
  109. 109. Members participate in their respective expertise (experiments, gatherings, art projects etc.) - no defined “membership” #Food Security #Food Miles #Regulations #Cooking #Culture & thoughts #History #Food safety #Life ethics #Animal welfare #Regenerative medicine #Tissue engineering #Bioreactor #Culture medium #Commercialization #LCA #R&D #Soc.&Econ. #Global collab. #Space #Art Shojinmeat Project “Distributed Clusters” All welcome: Please join from Shojinmeat Project English Slack Channel https://medium.com/@jaysonvdw/announcement-english-slack-channel-for-the-shojinmeat-project-a8 00e3886799
  110. 110. Some past questions (part 1) Q: I would like to participate A: There is no formal definition of membership. Please Tweet to us or join slack channel. Q: I’m not a biologist but would like to join A: All disciplines welcome - multiple journalism, art & other non-sci/tech projects are ongoing Q: Where are carbon and nitrogen sourced? A: Culture medium contains sugar and amino acids. Amino acid is sourced from yeast which feed on sugar. In future, artificial photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation may take this role. Q: Is fungal farming cellular agriculture? A: Depends on if cell culture procedure is involved in the process. Cultivation of entire fungal body would be conventional farming. Q: Is cell-based meat GMO? A: Gene editigin is not required for cell culture. In future, “designer meat” such as “allergen-free meat” may require gene editing. Q: Is it tasty? A: It’s pasty (for now). In future, advanced tissue engineering may enable complete reconstruction of meat taste and texture and even go beyond. Q: How quickly would “meat” grow? A: Cells multiply every 1½~2 days. 1E5 cells grow to visible size in 20~30 days. Flow process in factories may enable continuous production. Q: What will happen to farm animals? A: They don’t disappear as starter cells would still be required, but their number may decline.
  111. 111. Some past questions (part 2) Q: Could meat be cocultured with probiotics? A: Unknown. It depends on their growth rates and mutual effect of cell metabolites. Q: Why would people eat cell-based meat?  A: Initially, vegans and environmentally-conscious would consume, but at the end, taste, price and convenience would decide. Q: My kids should try DIY cell culture A: Hardware and methods are open for public. Please contact us for details. Q: Desktop clean bench may help? A: Egg white can suppress mould growth, but a clean bench always help. Q: What will happen to farmers? A: Farmers may gain an opportunity to build a brand around his/her cow cell and meat culture recipe, but it depends on what business model cellular agriculture companies take in the future. Q: Is cell-based meat Halal/Kosher? A: It may potentially become Halal/Kosher under certain conditions, according to a publication: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28456853 Q: Is it vegan? A: Depends on technological maturity. Our DIY procedure uses egg white as antimycotic and therefore not vegan. Even in future, it would depend on the exact procedure of cell acquisition.
  112. 112. Contacts for businesses “Shojinmeat Project” is a citizen science community. For formal consultation, IP license, joint R&D and other business affairs, please contact Integriculture Inc. , a spin-off company from Shojinmeat Project. http://integriculture.jp
  113. 113. Acknowledgements All Shojinmeat Project participants! Patrons at Campfire Crowdfunding