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  1. LIVELIHOODS RESILIENCE TOOLKIT : UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT AND APPLYING IT IN THE FIELD Easily accessible practical guide for communities, local authorities and other stakeholders to strengthen livelihoods and secure them against external threats. Contact: Julien JACOB IFPRI - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security 2014 Based on DIPECHO- funded ACF work in South Caucasus Capacity building in Disaster Risk Reduction through a participatory, context- specific livelihood resilience approach Results achieved in the project:  Built 11 small scale mitigation measures/structures  Implemented 35 livelihoods resilience projects with new techniques  Helped establish DRR groups in communities, build their capacity and facilitate action plans “Analyzing your own capacity, or that of your community, allows you to address your vulnerabilities and reduce risks through building resilience, all according to your own priorities and those of your community through direct involvement”.
  2. Association of International Research and Development Centers for Agriculture Our contribution to resilient agriculture: Healthy, climate smart landscapes for improved livelihoods and food security • A newly-formed alliance with 9 founding members • over 60 member countries, > 70% of world population • On-going Research and Development activities in all major geographic regions & ecosystem types Members: Contact:
  3. PREPAREDNESS MITIGATIONRESILIENCE Contact: Aurelie Carmeille Building resilience to drought of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists communities in Borana through integrated approach - Ethiopia PROMOTION OF CULTURE OF SAFETY - Risk, Vulnerability and Capacities Analysis - Community Planning - Risk Awareness campaign - Surveillance and Early Warning System - Capacity Building & Partnership INTEGRATED APPROACH - Food security and Livelihoods Rangeland management, Asset building, Drought resistant crop farming, Milk marketing - Access to Water for human & livestock - Nutrition and Health: Link for malnutrition treatment, cooking demonstration, and care practices IMPACTS - Increased awareness on risk management - Increased Food security and Nutritional status - Increased households assets - Reduced diseases occurrence IFPRI - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security 2014
  4. Building resilience for food and nutrition security through water and soil conservation practices Activity: Prevention and adaptation to climate change Location: Gnagna Province (Burkina-Faso) Donor: EuropeAid  Soil restoration using conservation agriculture practices  Irrigated agriculture to promote crop diversification  Farmers access to inputs (seeds, organic fertilizers, etc.)  Design of farm sites for vegetable and rice production  Tree planting or assisted natural regeneration  Building of granary adapted to local conditions  Supporting livestock development for 500 vulnerable households  Development of risk management plans at community level IFPRI - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security 2014Contact: Bader Mahaman
  5. Risk-based approach to improve food safety in informal markets What we have learned so far • Informal markets are highly preferred • Food safety matters to poor consumers • Hazards don’t always matter, but risks do • Perception is a poor guide for risk managers • Draconian food safety policy makes things worse • Values and cultures are more important drivers of food safety than pathogens • Food-borne risk is a fixable problem Why informal markets matter • Most of the meat, milk, eggs and fish produced in developing countries is sold in traditional markets • Food-borne illness and animal disease in informal markets are of growing concern to consumers and policymakers alike ILRI projects on food safety in informal markets use a risk-based approach to generate evidence of the risk to human health posed by informally marketed foods and the best way to manage risks while retaining benefits Contact Dr. Delia Grace, ILRI at or visit website:
  6. Market systems Resilience is the capacity of the market system to mitigate, adapt to and recover from stressors and shocks without compromising long-term competitiveness. It requires three capacities… Absorptive capacity to cope, Adaptive capacity to learn and adjust, Transformative capacity to fundamentally alter the system. Why market systems resilience matters… Linking people and households to markets builds resilience by increasing incomes and assets, increasing food availability and reducing risk through diversification. The resilience of the market system itself is also important to ensuring the economic well-being of households and communities. The USAID-funded Leveraging Economic Opportunities program is working to define and identify best practices in market systems resilience. The program is implemented by ACDI/VOCA. For more information, please contact Bronwyn Irwin at MARKET SYSTEMS RESILIENCE
  7. Building Community Resilience to Food and Nutrition Crises in Drought Prone Regions Above: Villagers from the rural settlement of Koukatala on the border between Niger and Mali, who are being funded in a cash- for-work programme by Concern to build rain harvesting systems. Concern is taking a 5-Pathways Approach: Resilience Programming Experience in Ethiopia, Niger and Kenya
  8. Check out CRS’ step-by- step approach to building RESILIENCE
  9. Operationalizing sustainability: joining resilience/vulnerability & adaptability in agricultural systems analysis • Resilience, vulnerability and adaptability are dominant concepts for the study of disturbance and change (Fig 1) • Thus targeting problem-solving implementation, their conceptual and operational integration could lead to more accurate portrayal of agricultural systems • This should base on the dynamic interaction between resilience and vulnerability and the resulting adaptability along a time line (Fig 2) Daniel Callo-Concha* and Frank Ewert Fig 2. Agricultural system (S) overall adaptability (A) as function of the interaction of resilience (R) and vulnerability (V) across time (t); feedback loops (dashed lines). Fig.1. Use of resilience, vulnerability and adaptability in scientific literature related to agricultural systems Contact: Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn. Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113, Bonn, Germany • Despite conceptual and semantic differences, meta-analysis of scientific publications show fuzzy conceptual differentiation and great methodological overlapping
  10. Bringing food system resilience into policy design → Research → Food systems New research project at ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute for Technology)
  11. A biomass-based value web as analytic approach to optimize the agricultural sector’s efficiency and resilience Interactions, trade-offs & synergies in a biomass-based value web (schematic) • Rising demand for food and non-food biomass transforms agriculture from a food to a biomass-supplying sector. • The conventional (isolated) value-chain approach is no longer sufficient. • The biomass-based value web as an analytic approach is instrumental: • to analyze the complex system from biomass production to final consumption; • to explore synergies and identify inefficiencies in the entire biomass sector; • to increase the sector’s efficiency and to pinpoint potential of resilience. Detlef Virchow, Manfred Denich, Arnim Kuhn, Tina Beuchelt; University of Bonn;
  12. Improving Child Nutrition through Grandmothers Older Women Leaders like grandmothers can positively influence household decisions on infant and young child feeding practices and dietary diversity. Burkina Faso: Impact of enhanced homestead food production on iron intake among children 3-12 months at baseline. (Deanna Olney et al, 2013, IFPRI impact evaluation) ** p<0.05
  13. Page FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY DSM’s Nutrition Improvement Program aspires to be your partner of choice in the global fight against hidden hunger. We offer nutritious, safe and affordable solutions tailored to the needs of local communities in the developing world, with a special focus on women and children. Unlocking human potential 1
  14. FRUIT & VEGETABLES daily fruit & veg consumption = 400 g 200 g of each, daily =  more nutritious diets  healthier children and adults  more resilient individuals and households standard weight of football = 396 g RAW COOKED HOW MUCH IS 400 GRAMS? Nutrients in vegetables • Improve children’s ability to grow and learn • Improve adults’ capacity to work and earn AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center promotes vegetable consumption through • Home and school gardens • Recipes • Food processing training
  15. @SIANIAgri
  16. Sustainable agricultural intensification Resilience to conflicts Databases and tools to monitor food security Arab Spatial Iraq Spatial Poverty and conflictResilience in Africa’s Drylands Livestock models for managing shocks Adaptation strategies PIM’s work on resilience Access to land for women in Northern UgandaSafety netsInsurance for the poor Cash transfers Enhancing women’s assets to manage risk under climate change Policy for a food secure future Women’s empowerment in rural India Empowering indigenous people through agrobiodiversity Food Security Portal Strategies for adapting to climate change Weather insurance
  17. A Randomized Evaluation was designed at the cluster level and divided recipients into 3 groups based on what they receive: 1. Full package 2. Insurance + Loan 3. Nothing (Control Group) 31 Small scale farmers are provided with: 1. Micro-insurance 2. Micro-loan 3. Technical and Financial Training 4. Food 2 Randomization allows us to disentangle the effect of each component of the programme from external factors highlighting the effective impact of the project Indicators: Food Consumption Score (FCS) Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) Food Consumption Coping Strategy Index (FCCSI) Livelihoods Coping Strategy Index (LCSI) Production (quantity) Share of Consumed vs. Sold Production Area of Cultivation Loan Repayment Rate (LRR) 4 Outputs and Outcomes: Compare components’ effectiveness; Refine activities to meet recipients needs; Implement an evidence-based project, with rigorous analysis Reach more and needier recipients with the most effective tools Connecting Farmers To Market (F2M): Measuring Resilience with a Randomized Evaluation 5
  18. 800 million poor farmers cultivate and eke out an existence in marginal areas Farmers on these lands struggle to grow conventional crops in sufficient quantities to meet both household food security needs, as well as for the market Opportunities diverse crop-livestock- tree systems They provide risk mitigation strategies for farmers while enabling the production of a variety of conventional and niche crops at different spatial and temporal scales and a range of environmental services Building resilience in marginal environments White paper: Marginal Land Status - challenges and potential contribution to the world food and income security Marginal lands: poor soils slope of < 15o
  19. Neglected and Under-utilized species (NUS) for marginal environments NUS can help increase agricultural production in hot, dry, salty (marginal), and nutrient-poor agricultural environments for food, feed and fuel Quinoa - a highly nutritive multi-purpose crop showed excellent potential as an alternative crop for salt-affected areas in the Middle East Wild halophytic grasses Sporobolous virginicus and Distichlis spicata offer excellent alternatives to rehabilitate degraded farms and produce 66% more yield per m3 of water under high salinity levels 52.35 47.59 47.27 25.61 33.61 28.43 27.85 14.14 11.58 12.86 11.92 6.31 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 P. vaginatum D. spicata S. virginicus S. arabicus Biomass (t/ha) Species Oven dry weight Air dry weght Fresh weight
  20. 1 Understanding climate change impacts on crop production in MENA marginal areas Water resource and crop modeling using climate change scenarios help understand future changes in water and food security Climate change downscaling for MENA region is critical to identifying areas at risk Recommended allowance Information science informing climate change adaptation policy is vital in supporting resilience in marginal communities
  21. Challenges and potential of non-conventional water for marginal environments By 2025, 1800 million people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions Saline, brackish, drainage, treated waste water and sea water have great potential for improving agricultural production Integrated systems (IS) is a key to improve farm productivities under marginal environment
  22. Socio-economic impacts of GM crops: the current landscape Contact: Dr. Jaqueline Garcia-Yi, Technical University of Munich e-mail: The GRACE project is funded by the European Union‘s Seventh Framework program (2012-2016) Scientific information about the impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops is fragmented and of variable quality. On-going systematic reviews of socio- economic impacts worldwide: farmer and consumer levels, supply chain, co- existence and environmental economic aspects, and food security. Consultation with stakeholders for inputs on: design, content, and output of the reviews.
  23. Soil counts – preserve it! @ELD_Initiative ELD Online Course #eldmooc
  24. Discover why land and soil are essential for our future. Visit our multimedia information platform!
  25. Community consumption level is under recommended nutrition score Lack of attention on optimizing homeyard or neglected area Food and nutrition security in household level can be enhanced through a “green house” or “family farming” (Presidential Directive to the Community January, 2011) Availability and accessibility of food for household Empower men and women in providing a diverse, nutritious, and safe food for family Support the effort in achieving MDGs and food and nutrition security goals Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) Ministry of Agriculture, the Republic of Indonesia ISSSUES
  26. RURAL RESILIENCE ENHANCEMENT PROJECT: PASTORALIST COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  No wage payment to the community members whereby not employing them, and  We (donors/gvt officers) are the ones who participate in their own development activities.  To accelerate their own activities, provided tools and technical assistances, and  Their communal works have increased almost double than ever before. PRINCIPLE: STRENGTHENING SOCIAL TIES through enhancing their own initiated development activities Our Essential Means of Life Water Pasture Pond Construction Soil & Water Conservation + Pasture Production Pasture Development
  27. Providing A Safety Net against Drought Facilitating More Productive Farming RURAL RESILIENCE ENHANCEMENT PROJECT: WEATHER INDEX INSURANCE  Satellite data based design, and affordable insurance for smallholder farmers,  1,286 farmers singed up with total premium 146,350birr in the first 2013 pilot season.  70% of insured farmers have shown positive changes such as using more fertilizer and improved seed, getting confident and hard-work motivated in their farming. Resilience Enhancement What is the weather index insurance ? Now I am insured !!
  28. Creating Resilience through Index Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) INSIGHTS FROM ETHIOPIA Index Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) o Designed to protect pastoralist against drought-related livestock losses o Contract holders receive payouts when forage condition deteriorates blow a certain historical level o Payouts are calculated automatically and there are no claims to file - hence solving issues of moral hazard and adverse selection. How the Index Works o Index is calculated using a measure of pasture availability recorded by satellites, called the Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI). o Pastoralists purchase an annual contract with possibility of payout in either March or October o Payouts are made when the forage situation is below the worst 15 percentile Motivation o Drought is a covariate shock that erodes livestock assets making households fall into a poverty trap o Poor pastoralists have few available strategies to manage and cope with livestock mortality risk o Over 300,000 livestock deaths recorded due to drought in the Borana region, which is estimated at US$ 85 million as of July 2011 o Lack of credit and insurance markets in infrastructure-deficit environments has rendered traditional risk sharing arrangements weakened and insufficient Motivation o Failure of governments and international aid agencies in delivering timely and adequate relief to prevent adverse impact of drought o Hence the effort to developing risk management instruments that are both feasible, commercially viable and potentially effective in reducing poor pastoralists’ uninsured risk exposure Further information: Key Activities in Ethiopia o Contract designing and index development by ILRI and Cornel University o Manuals and education material created for all stakeholders involved in the implementation process o Dissemination of product information through workshops and training programmes o Cross-border trips of elders of four ethnic groups to Marsabit for product- awareness creation o Oromia Insurance Company sc. (OIC) has been the underwriting partner o Launch of sales in collaboration with OIC, regional government Borana zone, ILRI and Cornell University o 405 policies have been sold through local MFIs and co-operatives acting as distribution channels in the January/February 2014 sales window o Further identification of innovative distribution channels and extension methods are underway to scale up the process of IBLI uptake Green Good forage availability that represents above 65 percentile over a long period. This is above normal and stable forage condition. Yellow Forage condition falls between 45 to 65 percentiles. The forage situation is positive but consistently worsening. Orange Forage condition is between 30 and 45 percentile. The division in question is under considerable stress but not yet serious. Red Forage condition is between 15 – 30 percentiles. Drought situation is serious but not yet classified as severe. Indemnity payout will not be triggered. Black Severe drought condition. Forage condition represents worst 15 percentile. Indemnity payout will be triggered if conditions persist throughout the season up to the potential payout period. March 2009Oct 2009 Key Collaborators March 2014
  29.  The Resilience Alliance is a research organization that explores the dynamics of social-ecological systems.  Our Workbook for Practitioners provides guidance on understanding complex systems and developing strategies to cope with change.  A short guide on resilient food systems is being developed in collaboration with research partners and we are looking to engage others with an interest in building resilience and increasing production in agricultural systems.  For more information please contact Jennifer Hodbod Assessing Resilience: A Workbook for Practitioners
  30. An overview of adopted coping strategies Natural Disasters and Rural Households’ Coping Strategies: Evidence from the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Impact on assets, income and consumption Damage on housing accounts for 83% of total loss; Income dropped by 36% in 2011; Consumption augmented 27% in 2009. Jin, L.1 and Chen, K.Z.2 1Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences 2International Food Policy Research Institute Income diversification: • Within on-farm production: increasing crop diversity; • Within income portfolio: enhanced likelihood of participating in nonagricultural self-employment . Mean Median SD Aid from government 23,774 25,654 27,920 Relief 4,018 3,542 7,515 Cash 3,419 3,025 6,935 In-kinds 599 303 2,286 Housing subsidies 19,756 20,925 26,156 Loans 19,190 21,810 23,745 From banks 12,812 10,905 14,561 From relatives and friends 6,378 0 16,709 Private transfer 282 0 2,082 Selling assets 147 0 1,533 Letting children drop out of school 10 0 276 Total 43,055 43,360 41,198 Observations 781 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 2007 2009 2011 Houses Non-hit area Hit area 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 2007 2009 2011 Consumer Durable Non-hit area Hit area 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 2007 2009 2011 Productive Capital Assets Non-hit area Hit area Differentiated trajectories of assets recovery Value of houses in hit areas surpassed that in non-hit areas; Expenditure on consumer durable was held back in hit areas; Productive capital assets increased at similar pace in both areas. Government aid and subsidized bank loans contributed to 85% of total revenues generated by utilizing the documented coping strategies. Ex post labor supply: • Women are less likely to participate in the labor market; • Male wage laborers prolonged their monthly days worked.
  31. The Government of Ethiopia (GoE) has projected a goal scenario of 10 percent stunting and 5 percent malnutrition levels by 2025. In order to reach this goal, the GoE will need to increase their current decline from 1.5 percent to 2.3 percent annually. Stunting Malnutrition: Opportunities for the Productive Safety Net Programme Johanna Wilkes Wilfrid Laurier University, Balsillie School of International Affairs Questions? Contact Johanna via email at: jwilkes@balsillieschool.caThank you to Dr. Terrence Levesque for his guidance and support. 1.) Increase flexibility of targeting to incorporate early adopters in the agriculture sector •PSNP adheres to national standards focusing on chronically hungry households, ignoring the possible early adopters of agricultural technology Recommendations for Increased Impact of PSNP*: 2.) Continue targeting away from harvest and planting season to prevent workforce diversion •Notice the upward trend leading into both the ‘meher’ and ‘belg’ harvest seasons 3.) Make distribution decisions a local matter •Based on the barrier to food security, communities may use cash or food for more effective nutritional interventions * PSNP: the Productive Safety Net Programme
  32. The challenges: • Kenya’s semi-arid lands experience low, erratic rainfall • Rising population is leading to: - smaller farm sizes; water, tree cover and land degradation; and lower crop yields • Reduced productivity from: -price distortions, ineffective land distribution and unfavourable land tenure • Poor innovation adoption among smallholder farmers • Exclusion of smallholder farmers from policy-making forums KARI-McGill Food Security Research Project Innovating for resilient farming systems Goal: To develop innovative strategies for accelerating large- scale adoption and scaling-up of resilient farming systems The project aims to: • Understand traditional food and indigenous knowledge systems • Identify gendered drivers of food insecurity • Catalyze adoption of agricultural innovations and assess their impacts • Assess mechanisms of up-scaling resilient farming practices • Increase access to and consumption of nutritional, locally- produced foods • Enhance access to local markets and diversify household livelihoods • Contribute to resilience-focused policies and knowledge dissemination for improved food security, livelihoods and environmental sustainability across the semi-arid regions How we work: • 54 primary farmer groups and 133 active secondary farmer groups organized to conduct evaluative farm trials through experiential and peer-to-peer learning • Farmers prioritized innovations to guide research and training • Over 5500 farmers trained in activities about agricultural and livestock practices, nutrition, seed production and access to produce markets • Changes in farmers’ participation, knowledge and practices are monitored by the research teams • Findings are integrated among multiple stakeholders to examine how to better inform policy development processes Principal Investigators: Dr. Lutta Mohammad, KARI Dr. Gordon Hickey, McGill University Photos: IDRC/PANOS, Sven Torfinn
  33. 1 Learning from measuring resilience Household & community scale Policy & institutional scale • Mediated self-assessment of policymaker capacity • Contribution analysis to examine necessary &sufficient conditions for change • Rapid reflection reviews for implementers (Malawi and Ethiopia) • Involve local government in community processes Engage community in using the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development approach Sub-national The challenge: Building resilience in an uncertain and complex environment requires an adaptive management approach The response: Ensuring M&E of resilience is linked to learning and drives decision-making at multiple scales For more information, contact See: Brooks, N. Anderson, S. Burton I. Fisher, S. Rai, N. Tellam, I (2013), An Operational Framework for Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London. Policy Community
  34. A Panarchist’s View of Climate Change and Food Security: Stage 1 - Collapse Mike Jones, IUCN Resilience Task Force •Climate is a planetary “slow variable” that has been relatively stable for 10,000 years and provided the environmental stability necessary for the development of sedentary agriculture and civilization. •Changing climate: • will precipitate a cascade of “collapse” creating opportunities for reorganization, renewal and transformation at every level of social and biological organization. •carries the risk of widespread loss of species and ecosystem functions that support human livelihood. •will result in chaotic episodes between the collapse and reorganization phases in individual systems. •will result in migration and conflict as people and species seek hospitable environments. Climate Stability Lost CascadingCollapse
  35. A Panarchist’s View of Climate Change and Food Security: Stage 2 – Transformation and Restoration Mike Jones, IUCN Resilience Task Force •A general approach to reducing risk, enabling transformational change and restoration might include the following: •an assessment of status and trend of the attributes of resilience at landscape scale. •assessment of change drivers that are eroding the stabilizing influence of “slow variables”, like soils, forests and rangelands. •adoption of policies that support the development of social and technical innovation for survival in a variable and unpredictable environment. •a shift from monoculture agriculture and efficient production of commodities to agro- ecological practices that restore land health while producing food for local markets. Transformation &Restoration
  36. Pastoralist Livelihoods, Rights and Resources Creating Resilience to Drought for Cross Border Populations in Kenya and Uganda’s Karamoja Cluster Pastoralists and agropastoralists, women and girls, disarmed youth will :  Strengthen and diversify livelihoods  Enhance rights and roles in natural resource management  Benefit from improved preparedness and policies Key approaches : Contact: Muriel Calo RESEARCH AND ADVOCACY DROUGHT RESILIENT LIVELIHOODS ENHANCED GOVERNANCE, REDUCED CONFLICT NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMEN T Nutrition sensitive Gender aware Conflict sensitive
  37. Pastoralist Livelihoods, Rights and Resources Creating Resilience to Drought for Cross Border Populations in Kenya and Uganda’s Karamoja Cluster Pastoralists and agropastoralists, women and girls, disarmed youth will :  Strengthen and diversify livelihoods  Enhance rights and roles in natural resource management  Benefit from improved preparedness and policies Key approaches : Contact: Muriel Calo RESEARCH AND ADVOCACY DROUGHT RESILIENT LIVELIHOODS ENHANCED GOVERNANCE, REDUCED CONFLICT NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMEN T Nutrition sensitive Gender aware Conflict sensitive
  38. CHAMPION WOMEN FARMERS TO PROMOTE FOOD SECURITY Dr. Narayan Hegde BAIF Development Research Foundation, Pune, India Low Productivity: Cause of Food Insecurity • Resource crunch; • Poor access to technology and inputs; • Exploitation due to poor value chains; • Neglect of women farmers. Empowerment for Prosperity • Promotion of Producer Groups; • Encouragement for mixed farming; • Facilitation for backward and forward linkages; • Champion Women Farmers as Mentors
  39. Crop diversity in cropping systems: Resiliency Stability Risk mitigation Neil Palmer/CIAT IRRI
  40. Arab Spatial 2.0 Policy information & planning tool, and open data repository for the Arab World to promote resilience to food insecurity using over 200 indicators 1. Visualize data at the sub-national level, and…… plot it using charting tools 2. Compare multiple indicators 3. Use it as a targeting tool & to zoom-in to points of interest
  41. Programming for resilience in conflict-affected situations During conflict … After the fighting stopped ... I couldn’t escape the legacy of the conflict … Drought My home was destroyed There were floods My husband was killed Fighting was not the only threat I faced … I lost my land and livelihood I was excluded from my community My children couldn’t go to school I was a victim of crime SLRC’s survey in 6 countries shows how conflict and other shocks combine to have a devastating impact on resilience But post-conflict policies and programmes rarely reflect just how long it takes people to recover from conflict But conflict programmes rarely focus enough on other (non-conflict) shocks that households face
  42. SEED & GARDENS Strengthen vulnerable communities in disaster areas • Appropriate crops for disaster-prone regions • Garden training, including seed saving and extension materials for women • Distribution of vegetable seed kits • Demonstration plots in the community Empower WOMEN to grow VEGETABLES for their families Help local FOOD SUPPLIES recover quickly after disasters Increase RESILIENCE by saving quality SEEDS for the next season AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center improves livelihoods of people in disaster-affected communities
  43. theory. evidence. Address systemic gender inequality to build resilience in households and communities. 1. Across the Sahel, we found that women, boys and girls cope and adapt to shocks and stresses in different ways. 2. In Somalia, involvement of women in family decision making led to greater household dietary diversity and less distressful coping. MERCYCORPS.ORG/RESILIENCE
  44. Climate Resilience & Food and Nutrition Security Impacts Climate change effects impact under-nutrition through multiple pathways, including food security, water and sanitation, and care practices. → Decline of agricultural production → Increase price volatility & instability of food supply → Water scarcity & increase of water-related diseases → Resource's competition → Changes in the range of infectious diseases factors → Risks of conflicts and migration Contact: Sandrine Roussy IFPRI - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security 2014 How does ACF respond to climate change? Understanding of climate- related challenges Strengthening surveillance and early warning systems Linking early warnings to early response mechanisms Enhancing Preparedness in face of climate-related shocks and seasonal hardships Managing climate- related risks and enhancing people and community resilience Conducting advocacy focused on nutrition security in changing climate
  45. It is necessary to training in field small-scale agricultural producers in: - production techniques - plant protection from pests (insects, rodents, etc.) - etc. The small-scale agricultural producers are potential actors to the food security in Western Africa Contact : Séverin Tchibozo, Centre de Recherche pour la Gestion de la Biodiversité (CRGB) 04 B.p. 0385 Cotonou, BENIN.,
  46. Mapping and Visualization – Critical means to communicating our work
  47. TRADITIONAL AFRICAN VEGETABLES resilience for nutrition, livelihoods and income providing required daily intake of vitamins A, C and E, calcium, iron and zinc opportunities for women and youth to sell surplus in peri-urban markets quick access for vulnerable households to year-round healthy and nutritious diets nutrition livelihoods income At its regional office for Eastern and Southern Africa, AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center holds the continent’s largest collection of traditional African vegetables NUTRIENTS YEAR-ROUND: Distribution of > 2,000 home garden seed kits with traditional African vegetables and training encompassing the value chain
  48. Learn,Adapt,Apply: Improving Food Security and Nutrition Programs Community of Practice: Technical SkillsTraining Small Grants
  49. 2 3 1 Enhancing Resilience of Maize in Africa Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa DTMA is working with 13 countries across Africa and aims to minimize impacts of drought. • It has released 149 stress tolerant varieties (2007-13). • Over 2,000,000 households benefited from improved seed production and delivery in 2013. Africa’s Yield Gap is huge, and drought is a major factor. …leading to happy farmers. African governments need to invest heavily in stress tolerant varieties and mineral fertilizer to realize full benefits.
  50. 1. INTEGRATED CONTEXT ANALYSIS (ICA): NATIONAL LEVEL Identifies priority geographical areas 2. SEASONAL LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMMING (SLP): SUB-NATIONAL LEVEL Identifies programmes and partners 3. COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY PLANNING (CBPP): LOCAL LEVEL Inter-sectorial implementation plan and community ownership Three-pronged approach (3PA) A WFP operational approach for building resilience and food and nutrition security 1 2 Strengthens design, planning and implementation of longer-term resilience building programmes, developed in partnership and aligned to national and local priorities 3 BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH ASSET CREATION AND COMPLEMENTARY PROGRAMMES
  51. Social Learning and Resilience: An intervention that supports the experimentation, reflection and learning needed to address complex, dynamic and non-linear challenges like food security in the context of climate change.  Facilitates knowledge sharing, joint learning, and co- creation  Takes learning and behaviour change beyond individuals to networks and systems  Iterative and adaptive process of working  Context-specific  Purposeful Find out more at or email to join our Yammer group Key features of Social Learning Social learning in research Participatory communications Participatory plant breeding Impact pathway approaches Multi- stakeholder platforms Learning alliances Farmer field schools Adaptive collaborative managementSocial learning in practice Source: CCAFS Working Paper #38 Adapted from the CCSL brochure “Unlocking the potential of social learning for climate change and food security”
  52. Chronic and transient poor face different nutritional constraints: Household Poverty Dynamics and Nutrition Intake In a Lagging Region Of China: Key Findings Nutrient Intake of Transient and Chronic Poor (% of recommended intake) Most households move in and out of poverty: Transient Poor: 57% Always non poor: 29% Chronic poor: 14% Child Malnutrition (%) Household Poverty Dynamic Movement 5.9 35.3 2 7.8 26.7 4.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Poor in 2009 Non poor in 2009 Total Results based on 4-wave panel survey from Guizhou Province. Zhang, Y.1, Filipski, M.2 , Chen, K.Z.2 and Diao, X.2 1Agricultural Information Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science 2International Food Policy Research Institute  The chronic poor’s nutrient intake is inadequate.  The transient poor meet their energy & protein needs, but lack some of essential nutrients.  The non-poor also lacks vitamins. Long-term malnutrition remains challenging:  Underweight and wasting rates (indicating short-term nutrition issues) fall below 8%.  The stunting rate of children under five (indicating long-term malnutrition) was over 25%. 92 110 126 111 68 60 62 62 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Chronic Transient Non poor All Energy Protein Ca VA VB2
  53. Community Vulnerability Assessments (PRAs; Vegetation and Land cover Mapping) Develop Local Adaptation Plan of Action Implement Adaptation Strategies (e.g. On Farm Trials, evaluation of resilient crop varieties, etc.) Evaluation of Performance of Adaptation Strategies (Impact Assessments) Enhancing Climate Change Resilience of Food Production Systems in Pacific Islands The Pacific Islands Communities is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change. The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), through funding support from USAID, is collaborating with other partner agencies to evaluate and implement innovative techniques and management approaches to increase climate change resilience of land-based food production systems for communities in the Pacific Islands. The activities involved in the process is as shown below:
  54. Empowers communities with knowledge and skills on DRR and Climate Change Adaptation approaches in the implementation of the plans. E-LEAP: Strengthening Intergenerational Linkages to Increase Resilience and Reduce Vulnerability in Borena Zone, Ethiopia Supports the development and promotion of intergenerational practice as a catalyst for effective DRM at community level.
  55. FOOD SECURITY PORTAL Improving Resilience to Food Price Shocks Regional warning systems are being built to cover food price volatility in India, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Africa South of the Sahara. The Food Security Portal’s Excessive Variability Early Warning System helps global policymakers react in a timely, appropriate manner to volatile food prices, increasing countries’ resilience against food price spikes and reactionary food trade policies like export bans.
  56. Securing life after disaster Improving health Generating employment & market access Creating wealth Enriching agro-biodiversity Empowering women Building resilience through horticulture GlobalHort – The Global Horticulture Initiative Detlef Virchow, Executive Secretary GlobalHort;