3. INDO PAKWAR
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation
between India and Pakistan that occurred during the Bangladesh Liberation
War in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 until the Pakistani
capitulation in Dhaka on 16 December 1971. The war began with
Pakistan's Operation Chengiz Khan, consisting of preemptive aerial strikes
on 11 Indian air stations. The strikes led to India declaring war on Pakistan,
marking their entry into the war for East Pakistan's independence, on the
side of Bengali nationalist forces. India's entry expanded the existing
conflict with Indian and Pakistani forces engaging on both the eastern and
western fronts. Thirteen days after the war started, India achieved a clear
upper hand, and the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military signed
the instrument of surrender on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka, marking
the formation of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh.
Approximately 93,000 Pakistani servicemen were taken prisoner by
the Indian Army, which included 79,676 to 81,000 uniformed personnel of
the Pakistan Armed Forces, including some Bengali soldiers who had
remained loyal to Pakistan
4. NAVAL OPERATIONS IN ARABIAN SEA
The situation in the Arabian sea was altogether different.The submarine
surface and air threats were higher and assessment of threats were little
MISSILE BOAT ATTACK
5. *The frist missile boat attack on karachi, launched fom saurashtra along
the cost, was a success.
*It sank a pakistani destroy and a coastal minesweeper .
*The Indian Fleet planned its next attack for night 8 or 9 December.
*To divert attention from missile attack on karachi they had
alsoplanned a diversionary attack on Jiwani.
* On the afternoon of 4 December, when the Strike Group was on its way to
Karachi, FOCINCWEST sent a signal directing the Petyas and the missile boats to
remain in company throughout.
* TheTask Group’s approach to Karachi was by and large uneventful. Despite
some confusion, contacts detected en route were eventually analysed as
undeserving of missile attack.
*Thes missile attck on karachi achieved western fleet
dominaance of sea approchws to karachi.
6. SINKING OF INS
* Indian Naval Ship Khukri was a frigate of the Indian Navy.
* A submarine was reliably detected off bombay.
* On8 December two frigates Khukri and Kirpan, were sailed from
bombay to flush this submarine away from the Saurashtra coast
where ships were assembling for the next missile attack on karachi.
* A sustained anti-submarine operation over the next four days was
unable to prevent the hangors return to karachi.
7. NAVAL OPERATIONS IN BAY OF BENGAL
* In the bay of bengal there was no surface therat. At the very
beginning of the war.
*The submarine threat vanished after pakistani submarine ghazi
exploded at the entance to vishkhapatanam harbour whilst laying
*There was no air threat after indian air froce attacks ground
aircraft in East Pakistani.
* Carrier borene Air Craft avoided attacking neutral Merchant
shipping at sea.
*The war ended on 17th December when pakistani accepted
Indians offer of cease-fire.
8. The 1971 war came to an end on 16 December with the surrender of
around 93,000 Pakistani soldiers and government officials, led by Lt
General AAK Niazi, commander of East Pakistan.This was the
largest surrender by an army sinceWorldWar II, and it led to the
creation of Bangladesh. AFP File photo.
9. OPERATION CACTUS
* On the night of 2 or 3 nov 88, between 300 and 500 armed Tamil or
sinhala speaking mercenaries landed at the male harbour by
boats from a mother ship and captured key location in male.
* During this attempted coup, maldivian president gayoom when into
hiding and in the early hours of 3 nov, sought indians help and
* In response to this urgent request from the maldivian
government , india launched operatipn cactus.
10. * Its objective was to ensure the safety of President Gayoom and
* The Army ,Air force concept of operations was to effect an landing
or para drop at Hulue airport , establish a bridgehead and thereafter
secure control of the island od male whre is Malldivian Government
* The Navy s takk was to establish a cordon sanitair for which
naval maritime Reconnaissance aircraft and ships where
deployment around the maldive islands.
11. NAVAL DEPLOYMENT
* At sea, the nearest ships to the maldives were the cadets
trainning ship tir and the frigates Godavari.
* They were diverted towards male at maximum speed .
Between was sailed from cochin.
* On 3rd morning Rajput, Ranjit, Gomati, Trishul,
Nilgiri, Kumbhar, Cheetah and the fleet tankers Deepaj
weere directed to prepare to sail for the maladives and
MR aircraft were launched for air patrols .
* Ships sailed from base ports at best speed by 1415 hrs ,
MR aircraft had established surveillance over the Maldives.
12. THE FLT OFTHE MERCENARIESIGH
* Indian Air Force aircraft landed troops on the airport at
Hulule island on the night of 3 or 4 november.
* As soon as the mercenaries head aircraft landing, they seized
hosstages and fled from male in merchant ship MV progress light.
* Naval headquarters received intelligence of the progress
light light having left male harbour at midnight on3 or 4
13. INTERCEPTION OF MV PROGRESS LGHT
* Throughout the night , MV aircraft kept track on radar of
all ships in the patrol area.
* At 0925 hrs on the morning of 4th november the MR
aircraft confrimed the detection of progress light and
homed betwa towards it.
* In the meantime a negotiating team had been flown
male to colombo.