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State of matter

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State of matter

  2. 2. STATE OF MATTER AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER 1.STATE OF MATTER MATTER: Matter is any substance that have mass and which occupy some space is called matter. STATE OF MATTER: According to modern days Scientists there are 12 States of Matter: 1. Solid 7. Bose-Einstein condensate 2. Liquid 8. Fermionic condensate 3. Gas 9. String-net liquid 4. Plasma 10. Super-critical fluid 5. Super fluid 11. Colloid 6. Super solid 12. Degenerate matter.
  4. 4. S.NO PROPERTIES SOLID LIQUID GAS 1. Shape Fixed Not fixed Not fixed 2. Volume Fixed Fixed Not fixed 3. Rigidity / fluidity Are rigid, can’t flow Not rigid ,can flow Can flow, Not rigid 4. Intermolecular force Maximum Less than solid Very less 5. Intermolecular space Very less More than solid Maximum and less than gas 6. Compressibility Negligible Compressible Highly compressible 7. Surface area Very less Less than gas Maximum 8. Flow property No Flow property Less than gas Highly flow property 9. Density & mass Maximum Less than solid No density & mass 10. Rate of diffusion Yes but very slowly Yes but slower than gases Yes they diffuse very well
  5. 5. PLASMA Plasma is an ionized gas. Plasma is very good conductor of electricity and affected by magnetic fields. Plasma is like gas have an indefinite shape and indefinite volume .
  6. 6. GASEOUS LAW  BOYELS LAW : According to boyel’s law at a constant tem. pressure is inversely proportional to the volume. P ∝ 1/V PV = constant P1V1=P2V2 CHARLS LAW : At constant pressure volume is directly proportional to tem. V∝T V/T = constant V1/T1=V2/T2
  7. 7. GAYLUSSAC LAW: At the constant volume the pressure of any gas is directly proportional to tem. P∝T P/T=constant P1/T1=P2/T2 AVOGADRO LAW :At constant pressure and tem. if the volume of two different gases is equal then their number of mole will be equal or same. At constant P & T V∝ η V/ η = constant V1/ η1 = V2/ η2
  8. 8. IDEAL GAS EQUATION  PV = ηRT P= pressure {P,V,T are variable & η,R is constant} v= volume η= number of mole R= readable gas constant T= absolute tem. PV/T= constant P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 Any gas which is following above mentioned gas law is known as ideal gas
  9. 9. TYPES OF SOLID  Solid are two types 1. CRYSTELLINE SOLID: Those solid in which crystal are of same size & shape and the arrangement of crystal in a fixed pattern or geometry are known as crystalline solid.
  10. 10. On the basis of shape & geometry crystalline solid are of seven types  1. Cubic  2. tetragonal  3.hexagonal  4. trigonal  5.monoclinic  6.triclinic  7.orthorhombic
  11. 11. 2.Amorphous solid Any noncrystalline solid in which atom and molecule is not organized in a definite pattern are known as amorphous solid.
  12. 12. Difference between crystalline and amorphous solid s.no. crystalline solid Amorphous solid 1 They have definite shape & geometrical form They do not have any definite geometrical shape 2 Anisotropic in nature Isotropic in nature 3 They have a definite heat of fusion They do not have a definite heat of fusion 4 They have definite melting point They do not definite melting point 5 Particle are arranged in an repeating ordered pattern Ex- Rubber, plastics, glass Particle are arranged randomly and have no ordered pattern Ex- sodium chloride, Quartz 6 They are rigid & incompressible They are usually rigid & can’t be compressed to any appreciable extent 7 More ductile Least ductile
  13. 13. POLYMORPHISM Any substance which is exist in more than one form is known as polymorphism. Some substance like phosphorus and sulfur are exist in more than one form. The physical & chemical properties of any substance is different in different form.
  14. 14. LIQUID CRYSTAL Liquid crystal was discover by Fredrich Reinitzen in 1888. He show that cholestnyl benzoate melt at 178°C into liquid but at 145°C it convert into a special state which is known as liquid crystal. Liquid crystal is an intermediate state between solid and liquid, they contain properties of both solid and liquid. semisolid solid 145°C Liquid crystal 178°C liquid
  15. 15. TYPE OF LIQUID CRYSTAL  1. Semetic : in this type of liquid crystal the arrangement of particles are fixed and they are unidirectional.  2. Nemetic : in this type of liquid crystal the arrangement of particles is not fixed & it is bidirectional.  3. Cholesteric :in this type of liquid crystal the arrangements of particles is fixed & it is multidirectional In this type the direction of one layer is completely different from other layer
  16. 16. GLASSY STATE All though glass is consider to be non conducting transparent solid, it is actually a type of solid matter.  it can neither conciderred as a typical solid nor a typical liquid. The atoms and molecules in most solid are arrange in fixed, orderly manner. Where as in glassy material these are highly disordered. Glassy material however have some salt range in the case of polymer And they do not have a specific melting point but the liquefy on heating
  17. 17. PHASE CHANGE OR CHANGE IN STATE OF MATTER The matter is present in solid ,liquid and gas phase One phase of matter can be interchange into another phase of matter by changing tem., This is called phase change.
  18. 18.  1. Melting : the process of conversion of any solid into liquid by rise in tem. is called melting. And the tem. at which any solid convert into liquid is called its melting point.  2.Vaporisation : the process of conversion of liquid into gas by rising tem is called vaporisation. And the tem at which any liquid change into gases foam is called its boiling point.  3.Sublimation: The process of conversion of solid directly into gas without converting into liquid after increase in tem is called sublimation.
  19. 19. Condensation :the process of conversion of gas into liquid after cooling is called condensation. Freezing: The process of conversion of liquid into solid after cooling is called freezing. Deposition: The process of conversion of any gas directly into solid without converting into liquid after decrease in tem is called deposition.
  20. 20. LATENT HEAT  When we supply heat to water then its tem is increases up to 100°C but after 100°C when extra amount of hat is given then there is no increases in tem but the phase is change from liquid to gas / vapour.  At constant tem the amount of heat is given to any substance for changes in phase of matter is called latent heat.  Same like the amount of heat absorb by ice to change into liquid at constant 0°C is called latent heat of melting.  At a constant 100°C the amount of heat require to convert liquid into gas is called latent heat of evaporation.
  21. 21. Ice Water Vapour Constant tem 0°C Constant tem 100°C Latent heat of melting Latent heat of evaporation LATENT HEAT
  22. 22. VAPOUR PRESSURE  In a close container when we heat any liquid then liquid vaporize and the pressure created by vapoures on the inner wall of container is called vapour pressure of liquid. Or  At room tem in a closed container any liquid absorb heat and start evaporation initially the rate of evaporation is slow.  After same time vapoures get condense & fallen down in a form of liquid drops, initially the rate of condensation is slow.  At the point when rate of evaporation is equal to the rate of condensation. At equilibrium the pressure created by vapoures on the inner wall of container is called vapour pressure of liquid.
  23. 23. VAPOUR PRESSURE - - 00 - 00 0 - 00 0 - 00 0 - 00 0 - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - --- -- -- - --- - - - - - - - -- - -- - - -- - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - -- - - - -- 000000000000000000000000 Rate of evaporation Rate of condensation
  24. 24. SUBLIMATION CRITICAL POINT Sublimation is a process in which any solid is directly convert into gas without convert in liquid. We no that the phase of any matter can be change by change in tem & pressure. In triple fusion curve 0 is the point where all phase of matter all in equilibrium this point is called triple fusion point. Line 0A represent that when we increase the pressure by decrease tem then substance exist in liquid form.
  25. 25. SUBLIMATION CRITICAL POINT Line 0B represent that when tem & pressure increases then substance exist in vapour form. Line 0C represent that when tem & pressure both decreases then substance exist in solid form. At reduce pressure when we suddenly increase the tem then any solid convert into gas. The tem at which sublimation process takes place is called sublimation critical point.
  26. 26. Temperature P r e s s u r e Liquid A T- P- Vapour B T- P- Solid C T- P- Tripple fusion point Sublimation critical point
  27. 27. EUTECTIC MIXTURE Certain mixture mixed in a particular proportion tend to liquefy due to reduction in there melting point. Such substance which decreases the melting point of other substance when they mixed in such quantity then they reduce the melting point of each other & they liquefied at room tem is called eutectic mixture Ex – Phenol, Thymol, Camphor, Menthol.
  28. 28. The% composition of both substance at which solid mixture get liquefied is called eutectic mixture.
  29. 29. RELATIVE HUMIDITY Humidity is the total amount of water vapour present in air. Relative Humidity may be defined as the ratio of amount of the water vapour in the air at a specific tem to the maximum amount of that air which hold the water at that tem. OR The ratio of total amount of water vapour in air to the total amount of water vapour in saturated air Relative Humidity = Actual amount of water vapour in air Water vapour present in saturated air
  30. 30. AEROSOL  When any gaseous substance is under high pressure & low tem then convert into liquid form, when the pressure is reduce the molecules expand & the liquid convert back into gaseous state.  In pharmaceutical aerosol a drug is dissolve in a propellent at high pressure.  Propellent is a substance which increase the pressure and convert gaseous drug in to liquid.  The container is design in such a manner that an pressing a valve, some of the drug propellent mixture is release out due to the exist pressure inside the container.  Nitrogen and CO2 gas is generally used as propellent
  31. 31. Physicochemical properties of drug molecules  1.REFRACTIVE INDEX : Refractive index is defined as the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum (air) to the velocity of light in a substance (solid or liquid) at the same wave length. R.I.= Velocity of light in air Velocity of light in water The value of refractive index is depend upon the colour of light travelling through the medium and it also depends upon the density of medium.
  32. 32. SNELL LAW/ REFRACTIVE INDEX The Dutch scientist Willibord Snell identified that exect relationship between the angle of incident & angle of reflection. According to Snell Law a light travels from first medium to a second medium the ratio of the Sin of the angle of incident to the Sin of the angle of reflection each constant and it is called reflective index. R-I = Sin i Sin r
  33. 33. Reflective index r Incident ray Incident angle i in air Refracted angle r in water Axis Refractive ray
  34. 34. Use of refractive index It is used to measure the conc. of a solute in an aqueous medium It can be used to determine the sugar content in syrup. It is used to calculate the focusing power or lenses & the dispersing power of prism.
  35. 35. OPTICALACTIVITY The capacity of any substance in solution from to notate the plain polarized light from its axis is called optical activity. When we pass the PPL substance is optical active & if light is not deviate from its axis then substance is opticaly inactive. Opticaly Active compound are of two types- Dextro rotatory : which rotate the PPL in to clockwise direction (D & +) Levo Rotatory : which rotate the PPL in to anticlockwise direction (L & -)
  37. 37. OPTICAL ACTIVITY Light source Solution + Dextro - Levo PPL Nicole prism Optically inactive
  38. 38. DIPOLE MOMENT The molecules which can be dissociated in to ions are called polar molecules and polar substance which have two different poles cationic & anionic is called dipole. Na+ Cl- K+ Br- + - Cation Anion
  39. 39. DIPOLE MOMENT In a dipole compound the multiplication of charge and distance between both charge is called dipole moment, it is represented by P A+ B- a P = Q×d
  40. 40. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT  Dielectric constant is the ratio of force between charge and same distance apart in air to the same charge kept in other medium.  A B  F air =1, F water=1/Q, F Glass=1/3 q1 q2 F ∝ Q1Q2 r2
  41. 41.  Kd = F air F water 1/1 = K a/w =Q1 Q1  Kd= F air F Glass Kd a/w = 1 1 = 3 3
  42. 42. Application of dielectric constant Dielectric constant may affect the solubility of a drug substance in pharmaceutical. If the value of dielectric constant is high then substance will dissociated in faster rate & the solubility of drug is increase. By the study of dielectric constant of different medium are solvent we can select the proper solvent.
  43. 43. Dissociation constant The braking of any electrolyte into ions is called dissociation. Strong electrolyte dissociate completely (100%) an weak electrolyte dissociate less than 100% HA H+ + A – Weak base
  44. 44. Dissociation constant  Apply Law of action  For any weak electrolyte the ratio of molar concentration of substance in ionized form to the molar con. of unionized form is known as dissociation constant. Ka = [H+] [A-] [HA]
  45. 45. Application of dissociated constant It is used to determine the pKa value of acid. used to facilitate selection od suitable salt forming compound. It is used to predict the solubility & pH properties of a salt.