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REPORT ON SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM

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Solar Tracking System Page 1
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Chandkheda, Ahmadabad
Affiliated
Mahavir Swami College
Of
En...
Solar Tracking System Page 2
APPROVAL SHEET
At Mahavir Swami collage of eng. and tech. for partial fulfilment of
degree in...
Solar Tracking System Page 3
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful com-
pletion of an...
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REPORT ON SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM

  1. 1. Solar Tracking System Page 1 GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Chandkheda, Ahmadabad Affiliated Mahavir Swami College Of Engineering & Technology A Report On- SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM Under subject of DESIGN ENGINEERING – 1A B.E. Ⅱ Semester – Ⅲ (ELECTRICAL) Submitted by: 1. SANANDIYA BHAUTIK C. (141110109031) 2. KAKADIYA MAULIK D. (141110109011) 3. VALAKI TEJASH V. (141110109039) 4. TADKESHVARWALA ALISH H. (151113109031) Guided by: Assist. Prof. MANISHA PATEL Academic year (2015-2016) Internal’s sign. External’s sign. HOD’s sign.
  2. 2. Solar Tracking System Page 2 APPROVAL SHEET At Mahavir Swami collage of eng. and tech. for partial fulfilment of degree in electrical eng. with specialization awarded by GTU. This re- search work has been carried out under my supervision and is a satisfac- tion of department. The student has been published accepted for publica- tion. ____________________________ External Examiner Date: ____________ Place: ___________
  3. 3. Solar Tracking System Page 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful com- pletion of any task would be incomplete without the mentioning of the people whose constant guidance and encourage made it possible. We ex- press gratitude to the Head of Department of Electrical Engineering Mrs. SUMITA CHAKRABORTTY and our guide Mrs. MANISHA PATEL and also to all staff members for the constant guidance and en- couragement throughout. Also, we express our gratitude to all other people who directly or indirectly helped us for the completion of this project.
  4. 4. Solar Tracking System Page 4 INDEX SR NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 1. Design thinking & its importance 5 2. Introduction 6 3. Reverse Engineering  Advantage  Disadvantage 7 4. Scamper Technique 10 5. Introduction of Canvas  Mind map  AEIOU  Empathy Mapping  Ideation Canvas  Product Development Canvas 17 6. User Feedback 23 7. Summary of Prior Art Search 24 8. Summary of Reverse Engineering 26 9. Pre-Design ( Learning Need Matrix( LNM ) ) 27 10. Prototype Model 30
  5. 5. Solar Tracking System Page 5 DESIGN THINKING & ITS IMORTANCE Design Thinking is a method used by designers to solve complex problems, and find desirable solutions for clients. When design principles are applied to strategy and innovation the success rate for innovation dra- matically improves. Design thinking is at the core of effective strategy de- velopment and organizational change. Design can be applied to products, services, processes, physical locations, etc. anything that needs to be opti- mized for human interaction. You can design the way you lead, manage, create and innovate.
  6. 6. Solar Tracking System Page 6 INTRODUCTION In photovoltaic systems, trackers help minimize the angle of inci- dence (the angle that a ray of light makes with a line perpendicular to the surface) between the incoming light and the panel, which increases the amount of energy the installation produces. Concentrated solar photovol- taic and concentrated solar thermal have optics that directly accept sun- light, so trackers must be angled correctly to collect energy. All concen- trated solar systems have trackers because the systems do not produce energy unless directed correctly toward the sun. Single-axis trackers rotate on one axis moving back and forth in a single direction. Different types of single-axis trackers include horizontal, vertical, tilted, and polar aligned, which rotate as the names imply. Dual- axis trackers continually face the sun because they can move in two differ- ent directions. Types include tip-tilt and azimuth-altitude. Dual-axis track- ing is typically used to orient a mirror and redirect sunlight along a fixed axis towards a stationary receiver. Because these trackers follow the sun vertically and horizontally they help obtain maximum solar energy genera- tion. There are also several methods of driving solar trackers. Passive trackers move from a compressed gas fluid driven to one side or the other. Motors and gear trains direct active trackers by means of a controller that responds to the sun’s direction. Finally, a chronological tracker counteracts the Earth’s rotation by turning in the opposite direction. Selecting a solar tracker depends on system size, electric rates, land constraints, government incentives, latitude and weather. Utility-scale and large projects usually use horizontal single-axis trackers, while dual-axis trackers are mostly used in smaller residential applications and locations with high government Feed-In-Tariffs. Vertical-axis trackers are suitable for high latitudes because of their fixed or adjustable angles.
  7. 7. Solar Tracking System Page 7 REVERSE ENGINEERING What is Reverse Engineering? Reverse engineering is also called back engineering is the processes of extracting knowledge or design information from anything man-made and reproducing any new thing based on extracted information .The proc- ess often involves disassembling something like electronic component, computer program, any type of hardware and analyzing its components and works in detail. Reverse engineering is generally used when a person or business organization cannot recollect how something was done so re- versely analysis is done. Why Reverse Engineering? The aim of reverse engineering is to draw out many kinds of infor- mation from existing software and using this information for system reno- vation and program understanding. Based on traditional practice, reverse engineering and requirements engineering are two separate processes in software round trip engineering. In this paper, we argue that it is necessary to recover requirements from the reverse engineered outcome of legacy system and by integrating this outcome in the requirements phase of software life cycle, it is possible to have a better requirements elicitation, and clear understanding of what is redundant, what must be retained and what can be re-used.
  8. 8. Solar Tracking System Page 8 Advantages:-  Trackers generate more electricity than their stationary counterparts due to increased direct exposure to solar rays. This increase can be as much as 10 to 25% depending on the geographic location of the tracking system.  There are many different kinds of solar trackers, such as single- axis and dual-axis trackers, all of which can be the perfect fit for a unique jobsite. Installation size, local weather, degree of latitude and electrical requirements are all important considerations that can influ- ence the type of solar tracker best suited for a specific solar installa- tion.  Solar trackers generate more electricity in roughly the same amount of space needed for fixed tilt systems, making them ideal for optimizing land usage.  In certain states some utilities offer Time of Use (TOU) rate plans for solar power, which means the utility will purchase the power generat- ed during the peak time of the day at a higher rate. In this case, it is beneficial to generate a greater amount of electricity during these peak times of day. Using a tracking system helps maximize the energy gains during these peak time periods.  Advancements in technology and reliability in electronics and me- chanics have drastically reduced long-term maintenance concerns for tracking systems.
  9. 9. Solar Tracking System Page 9 Disadvantages:-  Solar trackers are slightly more expensive than their stationary coun- terparts, due to the more complex technology and moving parts ne- cessary for their operation. This is usually around a $0.08 – $0.10/W increase depending on the size and location of the project.  Even with the advancements in reliability there is generally more maintenance required than a traditional fixed rack, though the quality of the solar tracker can play a role in how much and how often this maintenance is needed.  Trackers are a more complex system than fixed racking. This means that typically more site preparation is needed, including additional trenching for wiring and some additional grading.  Single-axis tracker projects also require an additional focus on com- pany stability and bankability. When it comes to getting projects fi- nanced, these systems are more complex and thus are seen as a high- er risk from a financier’s viewpoint.  Fixed racking systems offer more field adjustability than single-axis tracking systems. Fixed systems can generally accommodate up to 20% slopes in the E/W direction while tracking systems typically of- fer less of a slope accommodation usually around 10% in the N/S di- rection.
  10. 10. Solar Tracking System Page 10 SCAMPER TECHNIQUE The SCAMPER idea generation technique is founded on the belief that everything new is an alteration of something already in existence. The term ‘SCAMPER’ is actually an acronym. The full form of the individual letters is given below:  S – Substitute  C – Combine  A – Adapt  M – Modify
  11. 11. Solar Tracking System Page 11  P – Put to another use  E – Eliminate  R – Reverse Substitute:- Take away a part of the selected thing, concept or situation and re- place it with something else. Anything can be an item for substitution. The possibilities include steps in a process, product parts, the people or the place. Substitution is a technique of trial and error, of replacing one object with another till you are able to determine the correct idea. Some questions:  What resources or materials can you swap or substitute to enhance the product?  What process or product could you utilize?  Can you utilize other materials or ingredients?  Can you change its colour, sound, smell or roughness?  Can you modify its shape?  Which rules can you substitute or change?  Is it possible to replace someone involved?  Can you utilize the idea in another place?  What would happen if you modified your attitude or feelings towards the product?
  12. 12. Solar Tracking System Page 12 Combine:- The next step is to contemplate combining elements of the situation or problem you’re facing so as think up something new. This is in line with the view of many creativity experts that creativity has to do with combining already existing things in a fresh way. So join, force together or affiliate two or more elements pertaining to your subject matter and contemplate routes by which such a combination could possibly take you to a solution. Some questions:  What parts, ideas or materials could be possibly combined?  What could they be combined with to optimize uses?  What could be the result of combining the product in question with another, to develop something new?  What could be the result of combining objectives or purposes?  How to combine resources and talent to develop a new way of think- ing directed at the product?  Can different elements be combined to enhance it? Adapt:- Think if there’s a solution for another problem that you may mold to suit your situation.
  13. 13. Solar Tracking System Page 13 Some questions:  Is there a solution you can take from somewhere else and mold it to suit this one?  Is there a similarity between the current situation and something else?  Is there another context you can position your product in?  What or who could you imitates to adapt this product to fulfill another use or purpose?  What else does the product resemble?  What other ideas or products can you utilize for inspiration?  Are there any ideas outside your field that you can incorporate? Modify:- Pose a question to yourself about which ideas you can produce if you magnify or modify your situation or problem. Magnifying parts of or the whole of your idea may enhance its perceived worth or furnish fresh insight pertaining to which components are most significant. Some questions:  Can you change an aspect of your process or product to enhance it?  Can you think of any ways to modify the shape, feel, appearance, color or form of your product?  What can you add to change this product?  What can you highlight or emphasize to produce more value?
  14. 14. Solar Tracking System Page 14  What aspect of the product can you make stronger to develop some- thing new?  What would happen if you modified the process in some way? Put to another use:- Contemplate how you can put your current idea to different uses or what could be reused from elsewhere so as to fix your own problem. Fre- quently, an idea only turns out to be great when applied in a different manner than first imagined. Modify the goal of the subject. Contemplate why it exists, its purpose of use and what it is assumed to do. Confront all of these suppositions and propose new and strange purposes. Some questions:  Is it possible to utilize this product elsewhere, maybe in another in- dustry?  Who else can utilize this product?  Would this product function differently in a different setting?  Is it possible to recycle the product’s waste to create something new?  What else could it is utilized for?  How could a child or older person utilize it?
  15. 15. Solar Tracking System Page 15 Eliminate:- Contemplate what would happen if you eliminated components or elements of your idea or if you minimized, reduced or simplified aspects of it. By way of repeated elimination or trimming of ideas, processes and objects, it is possible to steadily constrict your challenge to that function or part of the most significance. Some questions:  How can you simplify or streamline this product?  What can you tone down or understate?  What components can be taken out without changing function?  What would be the outcome should you take away a component of the product? What would replace the component/part? Reverse:- Contemplate what you would do if a portion of your proc- ess/product/probortunity was done or worked in another order, or in re- verse. Reverse the orientation or direction. Turn it inside-out, upside- down, or backwards – just make it go against the direction it was meant to be used or to proceed.
  16. 16. Solar Tracking System Page 16 Some questions:  Can you interchange components?  Can you transpose cause and effect?  Can you transpose negatives and positives?  Can you interchange the patterns or layout?  What is the best way to interchange the patterns or layout?  What other sequence, layout or patterns can you use? Can you think of any?  Can you modify the schedule of delivery or pace?  How can you reorganize this product?  Can you modify the order of steps in your process?  What other arrangement may be better?  What would be the outcome of process reversal?  What if you turned it upside down?  How can you reverse roles?  Can you rearrange or reverse the concept you already have?  What if you engaged in the exact opposite of what you originally in- tended?  How could you accomplish the opposite effect?
  17. 17. Solar Tracking System Page 17 INTRODUCTION OF CANVAS This report is all about mind mapping, AEIOU summary, empathy mapping, ideation canvas, and product development canvas. Team mem- bers have chosen the topic is solar tracking system. We had visited the dif- ferent areas and observed the atmosphere and the environment of our topic; we all have Visited different areas of solar power plant and take some pictures from it. Design Engineering is the subject which gives us better knowledge about our efficiency to observe. We have love to study the design engineering subject, it’s all about great joy and pleasure to crea- tive our brain power and used the observation power and created mind map, and some other important sheets by our observation. Mind map:-
  18. 18. Solar Tracking System Page 18 AEIOU Summary:- AEIOU Summary is describing all information like environment, interaction, its user, activities and objects. Environment of solar power plant area was sunny, green, dusty and wilderness. Some activities were done by the people like employs are working their work. Sweepers are cleaning the solar panel etc. Users of solar tracking system are govern- ment, public and industries. Objects of solar tracking system is solar panel , dc motor , microcontroller , wires , stepper motor , dc motor driver etc.
  19. 19. Solar Tracking System Page 19 Empathy Mapping:- We made empathizing canvas on our topic solar tracking system. The selected users are government, public, industries. The stake holders of the topics are domestic users like hostels, hotels, hospital etc... The users in empathy mapping had done many activities in the related of solar track- ing system like: construction of the panel, employs are working, sweepers are cleaning the solar panel, etc...The sad moment is that the invention of solar energy is been to mankind. The solar panel was connected to roof for
  20. 20. Solar Tracking System Page 20 energy utilization. The problem with this system is the utilization of solar energy. The maximum energy is available when the sun is on head so the problem in whole day to receive energy is major problem. The happy mo- ment is that now the scientists decide to place south facing or north facing of sun where at the place the maximum solar energy is incident. But also the energy in that area is available to major extent. Ideation Canvas:- The set of people mentioned in the ideation canvas are the workers, engineer, operators, owner, manager, employs.
  21. 21. Solar Tracking System Page 21 The activities shown in the above ideation canvas is listed as below: The activities like employs are working their work, sweepers are cleaning the solar panel, engineer repair the solar panel etc... Different situation/context/location mentioned in the ideation canvas is listed as sunny, clean, noiseless, rainy etc… The props/tools/objects/equipment are mentioned in the ideation canvas are solar panel , dc motor , microcontrol- ler , dc motor driver , wires , stepper motor , etc. Product Development canvas:-
  22. 22. Solar Tracking System Page 22 Purpose:- The main purpose of solar tracking system is use of renewable energy and change the direction of solar panel to produce high electricity. People:- 1. Public 2. Worker 3. Manager 4. Quality checker 5. Labour Product Experience:- The solar tracking system experience is this product is more efficient, easy operation, safe and energy improvement. Product Function:- The product function is producing more electricity, easily working and less man power. Product Features:- The Product feature is easy construction and high efficiency. Component:- 1. Solar panel 2. Microcontroller 3. Dc motor 4. Battery 5. Stepper motor 6. Wires 7. Dc motor driver 8. LDR etc...
  23. 23. Solar Tracking System Page 23 USER FEEDBACK Review 1. :- The solar tracking device is awesome. After we purchase this prod- uct the more electricity produce and use of this device is increase. The ef- ficiency of this product is high. Review 2. :- This is the best product ever created by scientist. The operation of this product is very easy and smooth. This product is good because this is use renewable energy and produce electricity.
  24. 24. Solar Tracking System Page 24 SUMMARY OF PRIOR ART SEARCH 1. Microcontroller based solar tracking system Author:- Aleksandar stjepanovi Published in:- Telecommunication in Modern Satellite, Cable, and Broadcasting Services, 2009. Publisher:- IEEE Abstract:- Solar energy is very important means of expanding renewable energy resources. In this paper is described the design and construc- tion of a microcontroller based solar panel tracking system. Solar tracking allows more energy to be produce because the solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun. The paper begins with presenting background theory in light sensors and stepper motors as they apply to the project. In the conclusions are given discussions of design re- sults.
  25. 25. Solar Tracking System Page 25 2. Programmable logic controller based design and imple- mentation of multiple axes solar tracking system Author:- Omar Talal Mahmood Published in:- Electrical, Communication, Computer, Power, and Control Engineering (ICECCPCE), 2013 International Conference Publisher:- IEEE Abstract:- The power generation using solar energy has been used widely many years ago due to fuel shortage and its low cost. In this paper, a design and implement of dual axis solar tracking system has been implemented using programmable logic controller (PLC). This pro- posed system, keeps the solar panels aligned with the sun during the sunrise hours, in order to maximize solar power extracted from the sun. In this work an open loop control systems been designed and carried out using PLC, and direct current motors for solar cell sun tracking. The tracking has done in two manners, that is, the usual daily sun tracking vertically, and the seasonal sun tracking horizontally. The second tracking technique, computes the difference in the day hours per year in four seasons, with the aid of PLC program, which is the solar time of the day hours or the sun- rise hours of the day. After the system has completely installed a suitable measurement has been carried out for the fixed and mov- ing solar panel. As compared with usual fixed panels, the power that has been obtained from the solar system is 38% better than the fixed technique.
  26. 26. Solar Tracking System Page 26 SUMMARY OF REVERSE ENGINEERING The term "reverse engineering" includes any activity you do to deter- mine how a product works, or to learn the ideas and technology that were originally used to develop the product. Reverse engineering is a systematic approach for analyzing the design of existing devices or systems. You can use it either to study the design process, or as an initial step in the redesign process, in order to do any of the following:  Observe and assess the mechanisms that make the device work  Dissect and study the inner workings of a mechanical device  Compare the actual device to your observations and suggest im- provements Before you decide to re-engineer a component, be sure to make every effort to obtain existing technical data. For example, you can proceed with reverse engineering if replacement parts are required and the associated technical data is either lost, destroyed, non-existent, proprietary, or incom- plete. Reverse engineering may also be necessary if alternative methods of obtaining technical data are more costly than the actual reverse engineer- ing process. Generally, many products are protected by copyrights and patents. Patents are the stronger protection against copying since they pro- tect the ideas behind the functioning of a new product, whereas a copyright protects only its look and shape. Often a patent is no more than a warning sign to a competitor to discourage competition. If there is merit in an idea, a competitor will do one of the following:  Negotiate a license to use the idea  Claim that the idea is not novel and is an obvious step for anyone experienced in the particular field  Make a subtle change and claim that the changed product is not pro- tected by the patent.
  27. 27. Solar Tracking System Page 27 .Pre-Design (Learnings Need Matrix (LNM)) In this semester we study about LNM (Learnings Need Matrix).in this LNM sheet include four sections. In LNM we study about tools / methods / theories / application process involved of our project in first sec- tion after in second section we study about applicable standards and speci- fication / principles and experiments of project. And in third section we study about component material strength criteria (exploration-varieties / testing requirements) and last in fourth section we study about software / simulation / skill / mathematical requirement of our project topic.
  28. 28. Solar Tracking System Page 28 Section 1:- Tools:- 1. Solar panel 2. Dc motor 3. Microcontroller 4. Photovoltaic cells Methods:- 1. Solar energy convert into electrical energy 2. Electrical energy convert into mechanical energy 3. Sun energy Theories:- Types of solar panel:- 1. Monocrystalline silicon panel 2. Polycrystalline silicon panel 3. Multicrystalline silicon panel Section 2:- Applicable standard:- 1. ISO 2. ANSI 3. IEC 61215 4. IEC 61730 Principle:- 1. Photo voltaic conversion 2. Solar power generation 3. Sunlight into electricity
  29. 29. Solar Tracking System Page 29 Section 3:- Components:- 1. Solar panel 2. Dc motor 3. Microcontroller 4. Fibbers 5. Transformer 6. Wires Testing requirement:- 1. Radiation test 2. Insulation test 3. Installation of solar panel 4. Safety test 5. 𝑉𝑜𝑐 and 𝐼𝑠𝑐 test Section 4:- Software:- 1. 𝐶++ 2. Keil µ vision IDE Skill:- 1. Technical 2. Programming 3. Testing Mathematical Requirement:- 1. 1 Kw = 103 w 2. 1 Mw = 106 w
  30. 30. Solar Tracking System Page 30 PROTOTYPE MODEL

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