1. LECTURE 1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH
L: Good morning, students! My name is Julia Viktorivna. I am a lecturer of Foreign Languages and
Methodology Department of Pedagogical Institute (Room # 212).
Структура курсу, форми контролю.
- Before we start our lecture there are some demands you should know and follow:
• First of all your presence at lectures and practical courses is obligatory. Those who have serious
reason and medical certificate should come individually and pass all the exercises and tasks.
(Графік консультацій викладачів знаходиться на дошці інформації з зовнішнього боку
• The second is an absence of mobile phones (they should be in your bags and n silent mode or vibrate
Хто у школі вивчав німецьку мову? А хто бажав би зараз продовжувати її вивчення? Кафедра
іноземних мов і методик їх навчання пропонує для вивчення ще одну іноземну мову – німецьку. У
разі наявності бажаючих одразу скласти список і попросити після пари підійти до завідувача кафедри
Додаткові платні освітні послуги: A-A1 (350), A2-B1 (400)
L: Let`s start! Our 1st lecture is devoted to the topic Classification of the parts of speech . (1 слайд)
Write down the plan of our lecture (2 слайд)
Aims (3 слайд) – не пишемо (викладач проговорює мету і перекладає).
Пригадайде з української мови які бувають частини мови? (самостійні і службові)
В англійській мові відповідно (слайд 4)
L: Can you name notional and structural parts of speech?...
(слайд 5, 6)
The words of every language fall into classes which are called parts of speech. Each part of speech has
characteristics of its own. Parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, form and function. We
distinguish between notional (самостійні) and structural (службові) parts of speech.
- Can you name all parts of speech?
The notional parts of speech perform certain functions in the sentence: the function of subject, predicate
- The Noun Іменник (Give me an example)
- The Adjective Прикметник (Give me an example)
- The Verb Дієслово (Give me an example)
- The Adverb Прислівник (Give me an example)
2. - The Pronoun Займенник (Give me an example)
- The Numeral Числівник (Give me an example)
Notional parts of speech (Самостійні частини мови)
The structural parts of speech either express relations between words or sentences or emphasize the
meaning of words or sentences. They never perform any independent function in the sentence.
- The preposition Прийменник (Give me an example) for, on, in, under, with, at, after, during
- The conjunction Сполучник (Give me an example) besides, but, moreover, still, if, since, than, that
- The particle Частка (Give me an example) on, off, in, into, out, up, down, away, back, through, over
- The article Артикль (Give me an example) a, an, the
Function words (Службові частини мови)
- Interjection (Вигуки) (Give me an example) Oh, well – окрема частина мови.
Nouns are names of objects, i.e. things, human beings, animals, materials and abstract notions. (Слайд
7) (Give me an example, please).
Tell me, please, what questions do nouns answer? – Who? and What?
Semantically all nouns can be divided into two main groups: proper names (власні назви) and
common nouns (загальні назви). (Give me an example, please). (Слайд 8)
Common nouns, in their turn, are subdivided into countable (рахункові) (denote objects that can be
counted) and uncountable nouns (незліченні) (are names of the objects that cannot be counted – water,
grass, time). (Give me an example, please).
Nouns that can be counted have two numbers: singular and plural. (Give me an example, please).
Nouns in accordance with their meaning may be classed as belonging to the masculine(man, boy, son),
feminine(girl, daughter, hen) and neutral gender(flower, family, rain). (Слайд 9)
Nouns denoting living beings (and some denoting lifeless things) have two case (відмінки) forms:
common case (загальний відмінок) and genitive case (or possessive case – answer the question whose)
(присвійний відмінок). (Слайд 10)
Plural form of the noun (Слайд 11 - 14)
1. + the letter s to most nouns:
snake = snakes
2. words that end in -ch, sh, x[eks],̱ s, z [zed]̱ or s-like sounds + -es:
3. witch = witches
box = boxes
bus = buses
3. nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and + es.
fly = flies
party = parties
daisy = daisies
4. nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel, + s.
monkey = monkeys
5. nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant + es.
hero = heroes
potato = potatoes
6. nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel + s.
radio = radios
7. musical terms ending in o, add s.
solo = solos
piano = pianos
8. For nouns ending in f or fe, usually change the f or fe to ves.
leaf = leaves
shelf = shelves
wolf = wolves
Irregular plural forms (Слайд 15)
child = children
woman [wumən] = women [wimin]
man = men
4. person = people
goose = geese
mouse = mice
deer = deer
sheep = sheep
fish = fish
cactus ['kæktəs] = cacti [kækta ] (̱ ɪ cactuses)
phenomenon = phenomena
one criterion [krai'ti(ə)riən] = criteria [-r ə]ɪ
Only singular (слайд 16)
all names of materials (iron, sand, bread, tea);
nouns denoting abstract notions (anger, fun, sculpture);
few nouns: news
nouns ending in –ics: physics, mathematics, phonetics, politics.
Only plural (слайд 17)
nouns indicating articles or dress consisting of 2 parts: trousers, shorts
tools and instruments consisting of 2 parts: scissors, glasses
names of some games: cards, dominoes
different other nouns: clothes, goods, thanks
Possessive Case (shows ownership) (слайд 18-19) It shows ownership
5. The Adjective
Adjectives are words expressing properties and characteristics of objects and, hence, qualifying nouns.
(Give me an example, please).
Tell me, please, what questions do adjectives answer? What kind? How many? Which one?
Which one: yellow, this, that
What kind: red, large, sick, cloudy, enormous, petite
How many: six, four hundred, many, several
Most adjective have degrees of comparison: the comparative degree (порівняльний) and the
superlative degree (найвищий ступінь).
The comparative degree denotes a higher degree of a quality.
The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of a quality.
Tall- the tallest
Small- the smallest
There are two ways of the degrees of comparison forming:
- By the inflexion (флексія/закінчення) –er, -est (synthetic forms) - monosyllabic adjectives
- By placing more and most before the adjective (analytical forms) – polysyllabic adjectives
The following adjectives have synthetic forms of the degrees of comparison:
a) All one-syllable adjectives;
b) Adjectives of two syllables ending in –y, -er, -le, -ow and those having the stress on the second
There are also some irregular forms you should remember:
Good-better- the best
* Основна форма (the positive degree)
According to the content, verbs can be described as words denoting actions, the term “actions”
embracing the meaning of activity (e.g. to speak, to play), process (e.g. to sleep, to wait), state (e.g. to
be, to like, to know), relation (e.g. to consist, to lack) and the like.
6. Tell me, please, what questions do verbs answer? Verbs answer the question of what was done.
The verb has the following grammatical categories:
• Person (Особа)
• Number (Число)
• Tense (Час)
• Aspect (Вид)
• Voice (Стан)
• Mood (Спосіб)
The basic forms of the verb in Modern English are: the Infinitive, the Past Indefinite and Participle II: to
speak-spoke-spoken. According to the way in which the Past Indefinite and Participle II are formed, verbs
are divided into groups: regular and irregular. Regular verbs form the Past Indefinite and Participle II by
adding –ed to the stem of the verb. Irregular verbs do not take the -ed ending for the Past Simple and Past
Participle forms. Some irregular verbs do not change; put put put, while others change completely; buy
bought bought, etc.
In Modern English there are but few forms indicating person and number in the synthetic forms of the
The category of tense denotes the relation of the action either to the moment of speaking or to some
definite moment in the past of future. The category of aspect shows the way in which the action develops,
whether it is in progress or completed, etc. The category of aspect is subordinated to the category of tense.
Some of English tenses denote time relations, other denote both time and aspect relations. There are 4
groups of tenses: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous. The Indefinite form has no aspect
characteristics, while the Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous forms denote both time and aspect
relations. Each of these forms includes 4 tenses: Present, Past, Future and Future in the Past. So there are 16
tenses in English.
Voice is the form of the verb which serves to show whether the subject of the sentence is the agent or the
object of the action expressed by the predicate verb. There are two voices in English – the Active Voice and
the Passive Voice.
The Active Voice shows that the person or thing (the doer) of the action expressed by the predicate verb,
that it acts.
My brother wrote this letter.
The Passive Voice shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is not the agent
(the doer) of the action expressed by the predicate verb but the object of this action.
She was woken from her sleep by his singing.
Mood shows the relation between the action expressed by the predicate verb and reality. There are the
indicative mood (дійсний спосіб), imperative mood (наказовий спосіб) and the subjunctive mood
7. The Adverb
The adverb is a part of speech which expresses some circumstances that attend an action or state, or points
out some characteristic features of an action or a quality.
Tell me, please, what questions do adverbs answer? Adverbs answer the questions how, how often, when,
where, how much, or to what extent.
Classification (В.Л. Каушанская)
1. Adverbs of time (to-day, now, yesterday, soon)
2. Adverbs of repetition or frequency (often, seldom, never, twice)
3. Adverbs of place and direction (inside, here, there, abroad)
4. Adverbs of cause and consequence (therefore, accordingly)
5. Adverbs of manner (kindly, quickly)
6. Adverbs of degree, measure and quantity (very, half, almost, much, firstly)
There are also interrogative adverbs (stand aside): where, when (conjunctive and relative – to introduce
The pronoun is a part of speech which points out (вказує на об’єкт) objects and their qualities without
Pronouns fall under the following groups:
(1) personal pronouns (особові): I, he, she, it, we, you, they.
(2) possessive pronouns (присвійні): my, his, her, its, our, your, their; mine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.
(3) reflexive pronouns (зворотні): myself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourself (yourselves),
(4) reciprocal pronouns (взаємні): each other, one another.
(5) demonstrative pronouns (вказівні): this (these), that (those), such, (the) same.
(6) interrogative pronouns (питальні): who, whose, what, which.
(7) relative pronouns (відносні): who, whose, which, that, as.
(8) conjunctive pronouns (сполучні): who, whose, which, what.
(9) defining pronouns (означальні): each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, all, either, both, other,
(10) indefinite pronouns (неозначені): some, any, somebody, anybody, something, anything, someone,
(11) negative pronouns (заперечні): no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing.
The numeral is a part of speech which indicates number of or order of persons and things in series.
Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinals (cardinal numerals) (кількісні числівники) (one,
8. eighteen) and ordinals (ordinal numerals) (порядкові числівники) (first, second, fourth). (Give me an
2. The parts of the sentence
According to the purpose of the utterance sentences are divided into:
- Declarative (Розповідні)
- Interrogative (Питальні)
- Imperative (Наказові)
- Exclamatory (Окличні)
According to their structure the sentences are divided into simple (unextended or extended) and composite
(compound - складносурядні and complex - складнопідрядні).
As a rule, every English sentence contains words or groups of words functioning as the subject and the
predicate. They are the principal parts (members) of the sentence.
The subject is a word or a group of words which names the person, object or phenomenon the sentence
informs about. It may be expressed by a noun, a pronoun, a substantivized adjective, a numeral, an infinitive
and an –ing form.
Someone was singing an Italian tune.
Watching TV has become his favourite pastime.
Depending on the character of the subject sentences are divided into personal (особові), indefinite-
personal (неозначено особові) and impersonal (безособові).
The predicate is a word or a group of words that informs us of what is happening to the person, object or
phenomenon indicated as the subject in the sentence. Verbs are function as predicate.
His words frightened me.
There are the following kinds of predicate in English: the simple verbal predicate (простий дієслівний
присудок), the compound verbal predicate (складений дієслівний присудок) and the compound nominal
predicate (імений складений присудок).
The secondary parts of the sentence are: the object (додаток), the attribute (означення), the adverbial
modifier (обставини). According to their meaning the adverbial modifiers are divided into those of place,
time, cause, purpose, manner (способу дії), attending circumstances (супровідних дій), result (наслідку),
degree and measure (ступеня і міри), condition and concession (умови та допустовості).
We can talk about it some other time. – object
Read the first sentence. – attribute
I`ll walk to the station. - adverbial modifier
Exercise: Name all parts of speech in the given sentence:
A kitten likes to play.
A girl showed me the way to the station.
She is younger than Helen.
The rich man had an only daughter.