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Lecture 1 (1)[1]


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Lecture 1 (1)[1]

  1. 1. BT 152 ELEMENTS OF BUILDING Lecture 1 Dr. Barbara Simons Jan 2018
  2. 2. COURSE OUTLINE • SUB-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS  Foundations, types and factors influencing choice of foundations.  Soil characteristics and effects on choice/design of foundations and construction characteristics.  Ground floors- solid concrete slabs and hollow timber ground floor decay and termite control measures. 1
  3. 3. COURSE OUTLINE CONT’D • SUPER-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS  Walls:  structural and non-structural.  General functional requirements.  Construction characteristics, i.e. solid, hollow, cavity, parapet, retaining walls, etc.  Bonding in wall construction-monolithic walling.  Stability of walls i.e. piers and buttressing.  Openings in walls and structural precautions. 2
  4. 4. COURSE OUTLINE CONT’D  The structural frame: columns, beams and floors:  Economic spans-one-way and two-way slabs-principles of reinforced concrete construction, i.e. suspended slabs  Stairs and fire resisting precautions 3
  5. 5. COURSE OUTLINE CONT’D  Roofs  Types:-flat and pitched roofs  Factors influencing choices, i.e. carcass work and covering material  Roof terminations, i.e. gable ended and hipped ended roofs  Roof trusses and anchorages 4
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION • The term “element” related to buildings refers to a constituent part of a building which has its own “functional identity” and these are therefore correctly called “functional elements” in a building structure. 5
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • These functional elements include:  Foundations;  Walls;  Floors;  Roofs;  Structural frames [columns, floors (suspended), beams and stairs]. 6
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • The construction or fabrication of these building elements involves considerable use of processed materials, such as blocks, bricks, concrete, timber and timber products. • The nature and properties of these materials determine:  The methods used in processing; and  The forms into which they are processed. 7
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • The products from such processes form the component parts of the elements of a building and are referred to by the general terms described below. 8
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION CONT’D • A SECTION is formed to a definite cross-section but is of unspecified length. Sections are usually produced by a continuous process such as rolling, extruding or drawing. Examples include steel joists and tubes. 9
  11. 11. • A UNIT is formed as a simple article with all three dimensions specified. It is complete in itself but is intended to be part of a larger whole, eg. Brick, block or sheet of glass. 10
  12. 12. • A COMPOUND UNIT is formed as a complex article with all three dimensions specified. It is complete in itself but is intended to be part of a complete building, such as door and frame, window and frame and a roof truss. 11
  13. 13. • AN ASSEMBLY is a combination of any of the above to form part of, or the whole of, any element. 12
  14. 14. Functional requirements of the various building elements • Buildings are designed to perform the functions of a climate modifier such as:  Adequate weather resistance;  Thermal insulation;  Sound insulation;  Light;  Air; and  Fire protection for the occupants. 13
  15. 15. Functional requirements cont’d • A building must be safe and stable to live in. It must be strong so as not to collapse and kill people and should not cause any health risk to the people living in it. • The two most important aspects of a building structure are strength and stability. 14
  16. 16. Functional requirements cont’d • STRENGTH is the ability of a building structure and its parts to resist the forces set up within them by the applied loads. • STABILITY of a structure depends on its ability to resist overall movement such as overturning and being able to resist excessive deformation. 15
  17. 17. • Generally, the elements of a building must satisfy some basic functional requirements in order for the building to perform satisfactorily. The basic elements are:  Foundations;  Walls;  Floors;  Doors;  Windows;  Columns;  Beams;  roofs, etc. 16
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  20. 20. The End 19