Design thinking for
designing and delivering services
Zaana Howard | @zaana
Huddle | @wearehuddle
Libraries are facing challenges
What are the greatest challenges you are facing?
What might the customer value proposition of libraries be
in the future?
What might your library become?
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What is design thinking?
Discover: Understanding libraries now
Define: Thinking about tomorrow
Develop: Prototyping the library of tomorrow
Deliver: Pitch & showcase
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design is evolving
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design thinking is a
collaborative & creative
approach to solving
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design thinking integrates...
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is a balance of thinking...
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Adapted from We are Snook
design thinking starts with...
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a note on language...
user centred design
human centred design
design thinking + ...
often interchanged, all related but each has
its own distinct definition, history and
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Share what you know
Share stories &
Interview each other,
have a conversation,
share stories about
your customers and
10 minutes to share
Capture any themes
Questions to consider
What are the greatest
challenges you are
facing? Why are these
What is causing these
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10 minutes on opportunities for
From your conversation:
What are the needs of your
What opportunities did you spot?
Turn that frown upside down
Problems can be solved, or even
better new futures created.
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Build a persona
20 minutes on building personas
Who are you designing for?
What motivates them?
What are their needs?
What is their background?
How do you design for their
Personas help idea generation
and help you become more
empathic with your intended
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Profession: full time student
Home life: single, lives with parents
Hobbies: hanging out with friends
Personality: arrogant and ambitious
Amelie the Undergrad
“Do I need to know this to
• Inexperienced library user
• Only interested in what’s required
• Research is not a key part of the
Primary uses: IM, email, web, Creative Suite
Favourite sites: Facebook, YouTube, Vimeo,
Hours online per week: 40
Works out of: library or home
Devices: laptop & any device she can get
her hands on
How often (online): weekly
How often (offline): few times a week
For: study, meet friends
Advanced features: rarely
Reliance on library: high (few
Amelie uses design books in the library
to get ideas for projects. She does not
rely on the library’s journal collections,
her emphasis is on books. She uses the
online catalogue to get started but
spends most of her time pulling books
from the stacks and looking for images.
As a design student her work is very
project focused with little research
required. Some of her projects are highly
independent, others involve working in
groups and building on ideas from her
colleagues. Her studio work involves
developing prototype designs by using
Creative Suite software, constructing
physical models, and sketching on
She relies on Getty Images and Flickr
as good sources for digital images.
She has found it difficult to search for
images through the library.
She has tried to use the “ask a
librarian” feature but sometimes she
gets the feeling that there are not
enough resources to handle all the
requests so you have to wait for a reply.
Amelie uses the library systems so
infrequently that she doesn’t get used
to them or build up tactics or strategies
for success. Amelie needs help to use
If you don’t bring the book back on
time you get an “outrageous fine,
something like $30.”
Zaana Howard 2012. Adapted from persona examples from Step Two Designs & Cornell University. Persona images courtesy of Flickr Creative Commons.
Draw your persona:
Where do they live:
Build a persona
What do they do during the
What do they value?
How do they use the library?
What are their key experiences?
What are their needs?
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Create a focusing question
10 minutes to create a question
How might Chris, a culinary
apprentice, find relevant and
credible information on knife skills
so that time researching and
learning is minimised as she works
full time and has a baby at home?
Make it juicy & actionable
How might who what so that
Based on the challenge, need,
persona and insight.
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Creating new futures
50 ideas in 10 minutes
Document, visualise &
build upon ideas, ‘Yes and...’,
Ideas and opportunities
What are the opportunities and
possible solutions to the
problem you identified?
Is this a new role for libraries?
A new service for customers?
Is it even a physical space?
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10mins to choose a solution.
This might be one idea you’ve
had, a mash up of several or
How will you solve the
All problems have several
Consider how you might best
resolve the problem you’ve
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Storyboard the new experience
15 minutes to storyboard your
Top tip: Start in the middle of your
story with your ‘magic’ service
moment, what are you trying to
Don’t forget context: who? what?
why? where? when?
What is the story of your new
product | service | library?
Like a story, it should have a
beginning, middle & an end
before aftermagic moment
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Prototyping a library service for
30 minutes on prototyping and
improvising your future library
Sketch, draw, build. Don’t be precious!
Could be: wireframe, diorama, role
play, scenario. Don’t be limited!
Make your idea come to life
Highlight what parts of your idea
have ‘form’ and make them tangible.
What parts of your idea can people
What will people see when they first
encounter your service?
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Prepare your pitch
10 mins to prepare
3 minute pitch
Stick to it.
Tell us your vision.
Who is your audience?
Who is your new library
What is your tweetable
What is it called?
How does it work?
How are you going to
present your pitch?
Make it engaging but
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visualising and making
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key is collaboration
most problems are too complex for one
involving customers, multiple
perspectives, disciplines, knowledge,
skills and experiences is key.
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thank you CAVAL!
All images courtesy of The Noun Project
Children designed by Gilad Fried
Tiger designed by Allison Dominguez
Heartbeat designed by Jardson A.
Fast designed by irene hoffman
Group designed by Lucian Dinu
Magnifying Glass designed by Edward Boatman
Crosshair designed by Phil Goodwin
Tools designed by Shane Miller
Play designed by John Chapman
Cut Spending designed by Matt Brooks
Scale designed by Anthony Rees
Compass designed by Naomi Atkinson
Call designed by Shelby Blair
Puzzle designed by Julien Deveaux
Theater designed by Björn Andersson
Graph designed by Pham Thi Dieu Linh
Trophy designed by Luboš Volkov
Stopwatch designed by John Caserta
Presentation designed by Alexander Bickov
Film designed by Björn Wisnewski
People designed by Reza Mostmand
Microphone designed by serhat ozirik
Document designed by Thomas Le Bas
Second Thought designed by Benjamin H. Byron
Rubik's Cube designed by Murali Krishna
Question designed by Brennan Novak
Molecule designed by Gislene Carvalho
Brain designed by Eric Bird
Create Database designed by Ilsur Aptukov