I believe it is best to start with a definition of Open educational resources Open educational resources ( or OER) are educational materials (usually in digital form) that are shared freely and openly for anyone to use and under some type of license to re-purpose/ improve and redistributeThe term OER was coined at a UNESCO forum in 2002. Other terms often used include open content, open educational content, open courseware, and open teaching.
Political/Social – students began organizing in 2003
Why? Because of the cost associated with textbooks – costs on top of tuition.
In fact, prices for books are rising at double the rate of inflation!
Students felt they had no say in the matter.The professor dictated the choice of text.The publisher dictated the costs and format.
The government got involved and passed legislation this year, requiring price disclosure lasw.
The change in philosophy is a huge influence:The Open Source Software movement had led the way in showcasing the value of collaboration, openness and the power in an ‘architecture of participation’ (O’Reilly 2003) It implies a free market of ideas, in which anyone can put forward a proposed solution to a problem; have it adopted, if at all, by acclamation and the organic spread of its usefulness. OS software offers important lessons to the OER movement. It shows that anyone can contribute to a particular project and do so constructively, however small the contribution may be. (Guedon, 2009) Some software projects will fail, but a failed project is never wasted because the result remains accessible and can be reused freely by another project. OER is based on the philosophical view of ‘knowledge as a collective social product which should become social property ‘(Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes 2007:1)
The Open Yale project above now includes 25 courses from a broad range of introductory subjects.This of course does NOT mean that you can get a qualification from Yale by viewing their OER– these are merely the teaching resources, not the complete educational experience + qualification that Yale offers.However, some of the sites offer instructors at other institutions to use them to teach classes for credit on their own campuses!
Across the globe a distance university, the Open University in the UK took a similar view and started making many of their courses available free of charge. What makes this so remarkable is that the business of the OU is in their materials. Moreover, they took a further step and actively encouraged independent learners from all over the world to edit the materials in the LabSpace and collaborate with others in publishing new versions of the learning materials to share with the world.
Now, in order to find the growing number of OER more easily a number of OER specific search sites have emerged including the OER Commons which aggregates course material from all of the institutions. This allows you to search across subjects and media types to find the best or most suitable material Sometimes, an instructor can use a course from another institution at his or her own school.OER commons also makes it easy to compare and combine resources from leading institutions
We also see specialized search engines emerging which showcase certain types of content. Academic Earth aggregates academic videos from various institutions around the globe and allows viewers to pick their favourite lectures and speakers.
Professors and instructors also organized.
And created this “Open Textbook” pledge.
Now there are over 2500 Signers
All these issues are concerns. It can’t be just another bandwagon to jump on.But again, the momentum is increasing.I don’t know where OER or Open Textbooks are going, but I’m fairly certain that they *AREN’T* going away.There is an explosion happening. You have the opportunity to get involved early. To start discovering, researching and possibly planning for a future that may be inevitable.
Traditional publishers, if they are paying attention and remain flexible, stand to gain.And, new publishers have emerged (we will see in a minute) whose foundations are built on open models.
Western gave a workshop at their “Future of Text” conference last Spring that presented the research of the Kindle Project, conducted on the campuses of Reed and University of Washington.
So, how is this “revolution” going to come about? Where are all these new textbooks going to come from?Part of the Social/Political forces involve legislation and funding from grants.
Some authors are launching on their own.
Where will the textbooks come from?
Washington SBCTC received funding from the Gates Foundation to develop OER for an Open Course Library. The first grants were announced in the spring for a select group of high-enrollment classes.
The previous slide was an example of what will become a repository for our system.
David Lippman, Instructor at Pierce Community College in Washington State, has his own website for his Math 107 text, Math in Society.
David’s book on the searchable MERLOT website.
David’s page on LuLu for printing a bound copy of his book.
Catch the Wave of the Future:OER - Open Educational Resources and Open TextbooksAn Introduction to Faculty Vicky Moyle, Instructor, General Studies, Mathematics Bellingham Technical College September 16, 2010
What’s it all about, and why should I care? What are OER & Open Textbooks? What brought us here? “Why now?” “Where do I fit in (and do I want to?)” Discover some resources “What can I / should I do?”
What is OER? Educational materials shared openly Courses, articles, videos, modules, textbooks, files – usually digital Licensed but free to end user Available to use, reuse, repurpose, remix, redistribute - IMPROVE
Prices rising 2x the rate of Inflation (some estimates are now 4x !)
Publishers had too much power – Instructors had limited influence Students had virtually none Publisher STUDENT INSTRUCTOR
Price Disclosure Laws Minnesota Arizona Colorado Missouri Connecticut Washington Oregon Oklahoma Federal Law in 2010 Washington Governor signs HB 2300 with WashPIRG students.
Change in Philosophy Open Source Software movement Openness and “architecture of participation” (O’Reilly 2003) “Knowledge as a collective social product” (Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes 2007:1) OPENING UP EDUCATION
UCLA Math department negotiated a 25% price cut with Thomson
Open Textbooks Statement As faculty members, we affirm that it is our prerogative and responsibility to select course materials that are pedagogically most appropriate for our classes. We also affirm that it is consistent with this principle to seek affordable course materials for our classes whenever possible. This includes open textbooks, which are textbooks offered online to students at no cost. Open textbooks and other open educational resources present an affordable, comparable and flexible alternative to commercial course materials. Therefore, we the undersigned declare our intent to:
Seek and consider open textbooks and other open educational resources when choosing course materials.
Give preference to a low or no cost educational resource such as an open textbook over an expensive textbook if it best fits the needs of a class.
Encourage institutions to develop support for the use of open textbooks and other open educational resources.
Maybe You are… INSPIRED: Interested in using Open Educational Resources in your classes? Already using or developing OER? SKEPTICAL: Concerned about the quality of existing resources, or applicability to your classroom? Doubtful that you now have the time and skills needed to develop or adapt open content materials? Concerned about giving away intellectual property? Doubtful about an efficient transition to OER?
Sustainable Model Revenue streams must extend beyond start-up Infrastructure must have continual upgrade Content must have continual upgrade Plan for Staff development Measurable & proven effectiveness Market and measure the benefits to students Market and measure the benefits to developers and authors Evaluation must be built-in
Seven Myths aboutOpen Textbooks Open Textbooks and eBooks are the same. Creators never receive monetary compensation for open textbooks. All open textbooks are crowd-sourced, i.e., created by anonymous amateurs. Campus bookstores suffer from the use of open textbooks. (A fact; not a myth but we are working to change this.) Derivatives damage the author’s reputation. Open textbooks are low quality or out-of-date with expired copyrights. Publishers are enemies of open textbooks. 9/18/2010 36
Publisher Textbooks are bought and sold several times, but the publisher only profits on the first sale Bookstore used books Students Problem: Evolved Model that hurt publishers
Open Textbooks: A Solution Publisher Student Professor P Make the market more student-centric, without undermining faculty—give instructors more say too Open Textbooks
Open Textbooks: A Solution Publisher The normal supply chain is restored & publishers gain the opportunity to sell directly to students Bookstore Students P Open Textbooks Rework publishing models to be more efficient and sustainable
No textbook fit exactly All or nothing Student complaints about high prices More complaints if only a few chapters were used Louder complaints if they had to find their own supplemental materials Uncertainty aboutwhat’s fair and legal to use 9/18/2010 40 Instructor’s Dilemmaswith Traditional Textbooks and Supplemental materials
Instructors need QUALITYMost important issue Accurate content Inviting presentation Meet needs and expectations Peer reviewed / vetted Current Adhere to professional standards Accessible, localized Requires constant evaluation
Formats go beyond traditional textbooks: Accessible free online by the public Downloadable, typically as a PDF Available in print
Modifiable by the instructor Digital, Modular Adaptable Low cost to the students Usually free for those with computers and internet access Printable for free or a small fee (costs for ink and paper) Sometimes available in bound copies for $10-$40 Labeled for reuse by MrKCoolsPhotostream 9/18/2010 44 An open textbook is…
What makes a textbook open? SOME rights reserved vs. ALL rights reserved
Open licenses legally grant the right to: Make copies and change formats Distribute copies Create customized versions Remix (AS LONG AS ATTRIBUTION IS MADE)
Content is like traditional textbooks: Table of contents, chapters, index Written by expert author Edited and reviewed
Open Textbooks – new editions on your own terms 76%of faculty say new editions are justified half the time or less.
Open Textbooks Benefits For instructors: All students have access to the text New editions are optional Ability to customize Corrections are immediate
Open Textbooks – type of format on your own terms 75% Print 25% Digital Students show a strong preference for print as their primary format.
Open Textbooks Benefits For students: Students choose their preferred format (print, PDF, online, etc.) Online access is free, other formats are optional and fairly priced
Open Textbooks Benefits For colleges: Greater access to education for more students Save money Textbooks customized to a specific population
Government funding: A new bill introduced by Sen. Durbin (D-IL) would create a federal grant program to create open textbooks through the NSF The WA community college system received state and private (Gates Foundation) funding to create open curriculum & texts for the 80 highest enrollment courses.
Open Textbook Models A First Course in Linear Algebra By Robert A. Beezer http://linear.ups.edu Individual authors: Personally motivated Sabbatical time/grant funding Count open textbooks toward tenure? Motivated by fame, if not fortune? PDF: FREE Online: FREE Print: $27.95
Institutional projects: A consortium of nearly 100 community colleges is pooling resources to write and review texts Rice University founded CNX.org, a platform that hosts numerous open textbooks Hewlett & Maxfield Foundations funded the creation of a new open textbook projects Collaborative Statistics By B. Illowsky & S. Dean cnx.org/content/col10522
Two Community College Organizations Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) : Over 97 colleges join to give 2-year schools a big voice in open textbooks and more Community College Open Textbooks Collaborative (CCOTC) : A group of 12 organizations (FHDA, FDLC, CNX and more) funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to increase the demand and supply of open textbooks Take a look at the websites…. 9/18/2010 58
Goals of CCCOER The primary goal of the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources is to identify, create and/or repurpose existing OER as Open Textbooks and make them available for use by community college students and faculty. We seek the support of faculty to identify, review, evaluate, and make available high quality, accessible and culturally relevant model Open Textbooks. The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement encourages the creation of free, high-quality content for community college courses to replace commonly used textbooks. By promoting OER, community colleges can create sustainable academic resources for students and provide professional development opportunities for faculty. A wealth of public domain and fair use learning materials are currently available via the internet that faculty can repurpose for use in their classes to replace some of the books required for purchase by students.
CCOTC Goal To adopt at least 10 open textbooks suitable for use in courses that meet community college General Education requirements by faculty in at least 40 community colleges, representing at least 5 states, within 2 years, (by June 2011). 9/18/2010 62
Open Textbook Models Organizational Behavior By T. Bauer & B. Erdogan flatworldknowledge.com Publishers – for profit: The first publisher of open textbooks was Flat World Knowledge. They launched their first titles in spring 2009, and now are adopted at more than 400 schools, including: Calstate-LA, Penn State, University of Illinois, University of Massachusetts, and University of Texas at Arlington Online: FREE PDF: $24.99 Print: $29.99
The FWK business model: Develop textbooks traditionally (peer review, editors, author royalties etc.) Give instructors the option to customize Offer textbooks free online to all students Make money by selling print copies, study guides, etc. that are attractive to students
Peer Reviewed Top Authors The Flatworld Model Get Adoptions Make Money Grow Value Open Textbooks Social Learning Affordable Choices Professionally Developed Fully Supported
Open Open License Open Platform The Flatworld Model Get Adoptions Make Money Grow Value Open Textbooks Social Learning Affordable Choices Top Authors Authors
Open Free No Access Codes Inside LMS The Flatworld Model Get Adoptions Make Money Grow Value Open Textbooks Social Learning Affordable Choices Top Authors Authors
Free Open Alternate Formats Softcover Print The Flatworld Model Get Adoptions Make Money Grow Value Open Textbooks Social Learning Affordable Choices Top Authors Audio Self-Print Authors Kindle/Sony (coming)
Efficient Study Aids Free Open Audio Study Guides Online Practice Quizzes Digital Flashcards The Flatworld Model Get Adoptions Make Money Grow Value Open Textbooks Social Learning Affordable Choices Top Authors Alternate Formats Authors
Collaboration Free Open The Flatworld Model Get Adoptions Make Money Grow Value Open Textbooks Social Learning Affordable Choices Top Authors Alternate Formats Efficient Study Aids Authors
Why use OER and Open Textbooks? Reduce the costs of education to learners Make education globally accessible Collaborate, share and partner to use and provide open content Recognize creators and authors Increase quality while localizing content Improve our competitive edge Avoid duplication of effort Change a culture
Open Textbooks Benefits Customize to suit YOUR needs and your students Modular – use only the chapters YOU want Adapt to learning styles, cultures, geographies, and more Save paper, toner, and weight Collaborative - feedback from teachers and students to the creators (authors, illustrators, publishers, editors, technologists, etc.) Dynamic - Global textbook improvement Saves money Free for those with computers or readers and Internet access Low cost for printed and bound Even classes without open textbooks benefit because students can afford to take more classes Photo by Fragmented CC licensed 2008 9/18/2010 77 77
Introduction to Economic Analysis R. Preston McAfee, Caltech ISBN: 160049000X Used at: Harvard, NYU, Cal Poly, UC-Santa Barbara, Caltech, Oregon State, Claremont McKenna…. www.introecon.com Online: Free PDF/Word: Free Hard copy: $11.10
How to Select Open Textbooks Read the peer reviews; talk to other adopters Compare your selections on quality, fit, interoperability, accessibility, printability, cost for printing, cost for bound copies Select the best fit & remember: you can make it fit better! For reuse by sp3ccylad's photostream 9/18/2010 79 79
Discover, but not this way Results 1 - 10 of about 130,000,000 for chemistry 9/18/2010 80 80
Discover open textbooks this way… 9/18/2010 81
What Our Institution Can Do Colleges can offer support to faculty interested in adopting or writing open textbooks.
Instructors can seek & consider open textbooks, and use other cost reducing practices.
What else can Instructors do? Start small by identifying usable content already available in the library or in an OER project Develop collaborative relationships within and external to the institution Communicate with students, administration, colleagues Advocate for faculty development opportunities Sign the statement of intent Write a textbook review (some $ available) Spread the word Learn, explore
9/18/2010 94 Steps to Adopt an Open Textbook Discover Select Adopt Use San Miguel stairs creative commons licensed by larry&flo 2007 94
How you can Use the Open Textbook Use for reading and homework only Use in classroom via laptops Linkin Learning Management System Remediation Lifelong learning 9/18/2010 95 95
Adopt and Use Plan the class Choose the parts of the textbook that fit Add other open resources Announce to the stakeholders – See next slide Labeled for reuse by wockerjabby's photostream 9/18/2010 96 96
The Downside… Can require organized, coordinated effort Books need reviewers There are not yet enough open texts Possible hidden infrastructure costs
Stakeholders Curriculum Committee, Department, Dean or other group that approves textbook adoptions Restrictions on computer/internet access requirements Colleagues College Bookstore College Library Media center Print Shop Teaching assistants Students well in advance Counselors & DSS 9/18/2010 98 98
Thinking About Authoring Your Own Open Textbook OR Creating Own Version of Existing Open Text?
Open Textbooks: Top Reasons Low-costbooks and supplements Use new editions on your terms Make book fit your course Doesn’t have to change your life very much Do change student’s – choice for the first time Level the playing field instantly – *IF* everyone has internetaccess No more access codes Integrate into your LMS Support a market-based solution.
Learn more BTC Resources wiki: http://btcresources.wikispaces.com/ Center for Open Sustainable Learning: http://cosl.usu.edu/ Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/ UNESCO: http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/focus/opensrc/opensrc_1.htm Open CourseWare Consortium: http://www.ocwconsortium.org/index.html Connexions: http://cnx.org Sakai: http://www.sakaiproject.org/ Merlot: http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm
Learn more Some Specific ExamplesA High School Biology Textbook Textbooks for the California Learning Resource Network – These textbooks have already undergone peer-review. Open Textbook CollectionsCommunity College Open Textbook Collaborative - This should be our first stop. I liked the amount of finished work represented by this project and the fact that they have English textbooks. OER Commons - There are a lot of textbooks here that will be of interest to us. Under recommended resources click on "textbooks.“ Open Textbook Catalog: studentpirgs.org/open-textbooks Project Sites for OER and Open TextbooksSophia Open Content Initiative - This is from De Anza and a good example of a grant-driven project in California. Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources - This project site has a lot of useful links. Open Education Resources Center for California - This is a good site for more information and resources in California. Making Textbooks More Affordable: a report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance.
Open textbooks…the wave of the futureCatch it. 9/18/2010 107
This work was created and remixed by Vicky Frankfourth Moyle with original material and from: Geoff Cain, College of the Redwoods, California http://www.slideshare.net/geoffcain/open-textbookspresentation Nicole Allen for Student PIRGs www.studentpirgs.org/open-textbooks “Building a Global Teaching Profile” by Michael Paskevicius, Michelle Willmers and Cheryl Hodgkinson Williams of the University of Cape Town http://www.slideshare.net/mpaskevi/building-a-global-teaching-profile-showcasing-open-educational-resources-at-the-university-of-cape-town “How to Adopt an Open Textbook” by a grant from Open Textbook Advocates This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 USA License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/za/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.