I believe it is best to start with a definition of Open educational resources Open educational resources ( or OER) are educational materials (usually in digital form) that are shared freely and openly for anyone to use and under some type of license to re-purpose/ improve and redistributeThe term OER was coined at a UNESCO forum in 2002. Other terms often used include open content, open educational content, open courseware, and open teaching.
Political/Social – students began organizing in 2003
Why? Because of the cost associated with textbooks – costs on top of tuition.
In fact, prices for books are rising at double the rate of inflation!
Students felt they had no say in the matter.The professor dictated the choice of text.The publisher dictated the costs and format.
The government got involved and passed legislation this year, requiring price disclosure lasw.
The change in philosophy is a huge influence:The Open Source Software movement had led the way in showcasing the value of collaboration, openness and the power in an ‘architecture of participation’ (O’Reilly 2003) It implies a free market of ideas, in which anyone can put forward a proposed solution to a problem; have it adopted, if at all, by acclamation and the organic spread of its usefulness. OS software offers important lessons to the OER movement. It shows that anyone can contribute to a particular project and do so constructively, however small the contribution may be. (Guedon, 2009) Some software projects will fail, but a failed project is never wasted because the result remains accessible and can be reused freely by another project. OER is based on the philosophical view of ‘knowledge as a collective social product which should become social property ‘(Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes 2007:1)
The Open Yale project above now includes 25 courses from a broad range of introductory subjects.This of course does NOT mean that you can get a qualification from Yale by viewing their OER– these are merely the teaching resources, not the complete educational experience + qualification that Yale offers.However, some of the sites offer instructors at other institutions to use them to teach classes for credit on their own campuses!
Across the globe a distance university, the Open University in the UK took a similar view and started making many of their courses available free of charge. What makes this so remarkable is that the business of the OU is in their materials. Moreover, they took a further step and actively encouraged independent learners from all over the world to edit the materials in the LabSpace and collaborate with others in publishing new versions of the learning materials to share with the world.
Now, in order to find the growing number of OER more easily a number of OER specific search sites have emerged including the OER Commons which aggregates course material from all of the institutions. This allows you to search across subjects and media types to find the best or most suitable material Sometimes, an instructor can use a course from another institution at his or her own school.OER commons also makes it easy to compare and combine resources from leading institutions
We also see specialized search engines emerging which showcase certain types of content. Academic Earth aggregates academic videos from various institutions around the globe and allows viewers to pick their favourite lectures and speakers.
Professors and instructors also organized.
And created this “Open Textbook” pledge.
Now there are over 2500 Signers
All these issues are concerns. It can’t be just another bandwagon to jump on.But again, the momentum is increasing.I don’t know where OER or Open Textbooks are going, but I’m fairly certain that they *AREN’T* going away.There is an explosion happening. You have the opportunity to get involved early. To start discovering, researching and possibly planning for a future that may be inevitable.
Traditional publishers, if they are paying attention and remain flexible, stand to gain.And, new publishers have emerged (we will see in a minute) whose foundations are built on open models.
Western gave a workshop at their “Future of Text” conference last Spring that presented the research of the Kindle Project, conducted on the campuses of Reed and University of Washington.
So, how is this “revolution” going to come about? Where are all these new textbooks going to come from?Part of the Social/Political forces involve legislation and funding from grants.
Some authors are launching on their own.
Where will the textbooks come from?
Washington SBCTC received funding from the Gates Foundation to develop OER for an Open Course Library. The first grants were announced in the spring for a select group of high-enrollment classes.
The previous slide was an example of what will become a repository for our system.
David Lippman, Instructor at Pierce Community College in Washington State, has his own website for his Math 107 text, Math in Society.
David’s book on the searchable MERLOT website.
David’s page on LuLu for printing a bound copy of his book.
1. Catch the Wave of the Future:OER - Open Educational Resources and Open TextbooksAn Introduction to Faculty<br />Vicky Moyle, Instructor, General Studies, Mathematics<br />Bellingham Technical College<br />September 16, 2010<br />
2. What’s it all about, and why should I care?<br /> What are OER & Open Textbooks?<br /> What brought us here?<br /> “Why now?”<br /> “Where do I fit in (and do I want to?)”<br /> Discover some resources<br /> “What can I / should I do?”<br />
3. What is OER?<br />Educational materials shared openly<br />Courses, articles, videos, modules, textbooks, files – usually digital<br />Licensed but free to end user<br /> Available to use, reuse, repurpose, remix, redistribute - IMPROVE<br />
4. What has enabled OER?<br />
5. Student PIRGsDriving Action in Textbook Affordability<br />
6. Students average<br />$900<br />per year on <br />textbooks<br />
7. Prices rising<br />2x<br />the rate of<br />Inflation<br />(some estimates are now <br />4x !)<br />
8. Publishers had too much power – <br />Instructors had <br />limited influence<br />Students had virtually none<br />Publisher<br />STUDENT<br />INSTRUCTOR<br />
9. Price Disclosure Laws<br />Minnesota<br />Arizona<br />Colorado<br />Missouri<br />Connecticut<br />Washington<br />Oregon<br />Oklahoma<br />Federal Law in 2010<br />Washington Governor signs HB 2300 with WashPIRG students.<br />
10. Change in Philosophy<br />Open Source Software movement <br />Openness and “architecture of participation” (O’Reilly 2003)<br />“Knowledge as a collective social product”<br /> (Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes 2007:1)<br />OPENING UP EDUCATION<br />
31. UCLA Math department negotiated a 25% price cut with Thomson</li></li></ul><li>Open Textbooks Statement<br />As faculty members, we affirm that it is our prerogative and responsibility to select course materials that are pedagogically most appropriate for our classes. We also affirm that it is consistent with this principle to seek affordable course materials for our classes whenever possible. This includes open textbooks, which are textbooks offered online to students at no cost.<br />Open textbooks and other open educational resources present an affordable, comparable and flexible alternative to commercial course materials. Therefore, we the undersigned declare our intent to:<br /><ul><li>Seek and consider open textbooks and other open educational resources when choosing course materials.
32. Give preference to a low or no cost educational resource such as an open textbook over an expensive textbook if it best fits the needs of a class.
33. Encourage institutions to develop support for the use of open textbooks and other open educational resources.</li></li></ul><li>2,500+<br />Instructors & Professors<br />www.maketextbooksaffordable.org/statement<br />
34. Why would anyone provide free content?<br />Knowledge should be free<br />Education is a basic human right<br />Education should have barriers removed<br />Education should be customized & localized<br />
36. Maybe You are…<br />INSPIRED:<br />Interested in using Open Educational Resources in your classes?<br />Already using or developing OER?<br />SKEPTICAL:<br />Concerned about the quality of existing resources, or applicability to your classroom?<br />Doubtful that you now have the time and skills needed to develop or adapt open content materials?<br />Concerned about giving away intellectual property?<br />Doubtful about an efficient transition to OER?<br />
37. Sustainable Model<br />Revenue streams must extend beyond start-up<br />Infrastructure must have continual upgrade<br />Content must have continual upgrade<br />Plan for Staff development<br />Measurable & proven effectiveness<br />Market and measure the benefits to students<br />Market and measure the benefits to developers and authors<br />Evaluation must be built-in<br />
38. Seven Myths aboutOpen Textbooks<br />Open Textbooks and eBooks are the same.<br />Creators never receive monetary compensation for open textbooks.<br />All open textbooks are crowd-sourced, i.e., created by anonymous amateurs.<br />Campus bookstores suffer from the use of open textbooks.<br /> (A fact; not a myth but we are working to change this.)<br />Derivatives damage the author’s reputation.<br />Open textbooks are low quality or out-of-date with expired copyrights.<br />Publishers are enemies of open textbooks.<br />9/18/2010<br />36<br />
39. Publisher<br />Textbooks are bought<br /> and sold several times, but the publisher only profits on the first sale<br />Bookstore<br />used books<br />Students<br />Problem:<br />Evolved Model that hurt publishers<br />
40. Open Textbooks: A Solution<br />Publisher<br />Student<br />Professor<br />P<br />Make the market more student-centric, without undermining faculty—give instructors more say too<br />Open Textbooks<br />
41. Open Textbooks: A Solution<br />Publisher<br />The normal supply chain is restored & publishers gain the opportunity to sell directly to students<br />Bookstore<br />Students<br />P<br />Open Textbooks<br />Rework publishing models to be more efficient and sustainable<br />
42. No textbook fit exactly<br />All or nothing<br />Student complaints about high prices<br />More complaints if only a few chapters were used <br />Louder complaints if they had to <br />find their own supplemental materials<br />Uncertainty aboutwhat’s fair and legal to use <br />9/18/2010<br />40<br />Instructor’s Dilemmaswith Traditional Textbooks and Supplemental materials<br />
43. Instructors need QUALITYMost important issue<br />Accurate content<br />Inviting presentation<br />Meet needs and expectations<br />Peer reviewed / vetted<br />Current<br />Adhere to professional standards<br />Accessible, localized<br />Requires constant evaluation<br />
44. Redefine the model and the “text.”<br />
45. Formats go beyond traditional textbooks:<br />Accessible free online by the public<br />Downloadable, typically as a PDF<br />Available in print<br />
46. Modifiable by the instructor<br />Digital, Modular<br />Adaptable<br />Low cost to the students<br />Usually free for those with computers and internet access<br />Printable for free or a small fee (costs for ink and paper)<br />Sometimes available in bound copies for $10-$40<br />Labeled for reuse by MrKCoolsPhotostream<br />9/18/2010<br />44<br />An open textbook is…<br />
47. What makes a textbook open?<br />SOME rights reserved vs. ALL rights reserved<br />
48. Open licenses legally grant the right to:<br />Make copies and change formats<br />Distribute copies<br />Create customized versions<br />Remix<br />(AS LONG AS <br />ATTRIBUTION<br />IS MADE)<br />
49. Content is like traditional textbooks:<br />Table of contents, chapters, index<br />Written by expert author<br />Edited and reviewed<br />
50. Open Textbooks – new editions on your own terms<br />76%of faculty<br />say new editions are justified half the time or less.<br />
51. Open Textbooks Benefits<br />For instructors:<br />All students have access to the text<br />New editions are optional<br />Ability to customize<br />Corrections are immediate<br />
52. Open Textbooks – type of format on your own terms<br />75%<br />Print<br />25%<br />Digital<br />Students show a strong preference for print as their primary format.<br />
53. Open Textbooks Benefits<br />For students:<br />Students choose their preferred format (print, PDF, online, etc.)<br />Online access is free, <br />other formats are optional and fairly priced<br />
54. Open Textbooks Benefits<br />For colleges:<br />Greater access to education for more students<br />Save money<br />Textbooks customized to a specific population<br />
55. Open Textbooks Benefits<br />For publishers:<br /><ul><li>Digital and print-on-demand distribution is more efficient
56. Circumvents two major challenges:
57. Used book death spiral no longer a threat
58. Piracy isn’t an issue – books are affordable or free!</li></li></ul><li>Federal Legislation<br /><ul><li>Competitive grant program
59. Through the NSF
60. Highest enrollment first
61. Must have plan for marketing
62. $15,000,000 per year!!!</li></li></ul><li>Government funding:<br />A new bill introduced by Sen. Durbin (D-IL) would create a federal grant program to create open textbooks through the NSF <br />The WA community college system received state and private (Gates Foundation) funding to create open curriculum & texts for the 80 highest enrollment courses.<br />
63. Open Textbook Models<br />A First Course <br />in Linear Algebra<br />By Robert A. Beezer<br />http://linear.ups.edu<br />Individual authors:<br />Personally motivated<br />Sabbatical time/grant funding<br />Count open textbooks toward tenure?<br />Motivated by fame, if not fortune?<br />PDF: FREE<br />Online: FREE<br />Print: $27.95<br />
64. Institutional projects:<br />A consortium of nearly 100 community colleges is pooling resources to write and review texts<br />Rice University founded CNX.org, a platform that hosts numerous open textbooks<br />Hewlett & Maxfield Foundations funded the creation of a new open textbook projects<br />Collaborative Statistics<br />By B. Illowsky & S. Dean<br />cnx.org/content/col10522<br />
65. Two Community College Organizations<br />Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) :<br />Over 97 colleges join to give 2-year schools a big voice in open textbooks and more<br />Community College Open Textbooks Collaborative (CCOTC) : <br />A group of 12 organizations (FHDA, FDLC, CNX and more) funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to increase the demand and supply of open textbooks<br />Take a look at the websites….<br />9/18/2010<br />58<br />
67. Goals of CCCOER<br /> The primary goal of the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources is to identify, create and/or repurpose existing OER as Open Textbooks and make them available for use by community college students and faculty. We seek the support of faculty to identify, review, evaluate, and make available high quality, accessible and culturally relevant model Open Textbooks.<br />The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement encourages the creation of free, high-quality content for community college courses to replace commonly used textbooks. By promoting OER, community colleges can create sustainable academic resources for students and provide professional development opportunities for faculty. A wealth of public domain and fair use learning materials are currently available via the internet that faculty can repurpose for use in their classes to replace some of the books required for purchase by students.<br />
69. CCOTC Goal<br />To adopt at least 10 open textbooks suitable for use in courses that meet community college General Education requirements by faculty in at least 40 community colleges, representing at least 5 states, within 2 years, (by June 2011).<br />9/18/2010<br />62<br />
71. Open Textbook “Repositories”<br /><ul><li>Only the top quality books
72. Like a publisher site, only better
73. Reviews written by experts
74. Watch for new books
75. Information on using + adopting</li></li></ul><li>Open Textbook Models<br />Organizational Behavior<br />By T. Bauer & B. Erdogan<br />flatworldknowledge.com<br />Publishers – for profit:<br />The first publisher of open textbooks was Flat World Knowledge. They launched their first titles in spring 2009, and now are adopted at more than 400 schools, including: Calstate-LA, Penn State, University of Illinois, University of Massachusetts, and University of Texas at Arlington<br />Online: FREE<br />PDF: $24.99<br />Print: $29.99<br />
76. <ul><li> First Open Textbook publisher
77. 11 books in spring 2009
78. Used at over 400 schools.</li></li></ul><li>The FWK business model:<br />Develop textbooks traditionally (peer review, editors, author royalties etc.)<br />Give instructors the option to customize<br />Offer textbooks free online to all students<br />Make money by selling print copies, study guides, etc. that are attractive to students<br />
87. Why use OER and Open Textbooks?<br />Reduce the costs of education to learners<br />Make education globally accessible <br />Collaborate, share and partner to use and provide open content<br />Recognize creators and authors<br />Increase quality while localizing content<br />Improve our competitive edge<br />Avoid duplication of effort<br />Change a culture<br />
88. Open Textbooks Benefits<br />Customize to suit YOUR needs <br /> and your students<br />Modular – use only the chapters <br /> YOU want<br />Adapt to learning styles, cultures, geographies, and more<br />Save paper, toner, and weight<br />Collaborative - feedback from teachers and students to the creators (authors, illustrators, publishers, editors, technologists, etc.)<br />Dynamic - Global textbook <br /> improvement<br />Saves money <br />Free for those with computers or readers and Internet access<br />Low cost for printed and bound<br />Even classes without open textbooks benefit because students can afford to take more classes<br />Photo by Fragmented CC licensed 2008<br />9/18/2010<br />77<br />77<br />
90. How to Select Open Textbooks<br />Read the peer reviews; talk to other adopters <br />Compare your selections on quality, fit, interoperability, accessibility, printability, cost for printing, cost for bound copies<br />Select the best fit & remember: you can make it fit better!<br />For reuse by sp3ccylad's photostream <br />9/18/2010<br />79<br />79<br />
91. Discover, but not this way<br /> Results 1 - 10 of about 130,000,000 for chemistry<br />9/18/2010<br />80<br />80<br />
92. Discover open textbooks this way…<br />9/18/2010<br />81<br />
94. Collaborative Statistics<br />By Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean<br />cnx.org/content/col10522<br />
95. Download PDF or print<br />Read online version<br />Purchase printed copy<br />
96. Purchasing a hard copy through print on demand publisher QOOP<br />Inside an Open Textbook<br />
97. Key term links to definition<br />Click here to print out<br />Navigate table of contents<br />
98. Start here with the peer reviews..<br />Full review available with comments and ratings for each chapter<br />9/18/2010<br />87<br />
102. What Our Institution Can Do<br />Colleges can offer support to faculty interested in adopting or writing open textbooks.<br />
103. Instructors can seek & consider open textbooks, and use other cost reducing practices.<br />
104. What else can Instructors do?<br />Start small by identifying usable content already available in the library or in an OER project<br />Develop collaborative relationships within and external to the institution<br />Communicate with students, administration, colleagues<br />Advocate for faculty development opportunities<br />Sign the statement of intent<br />Write a textbook review (some $ available)<br />Spread the word<br />Learn, explore<br />
105. 9/18/2010<br />94<br />Steps to Adopt an Open Textbook<br />Discover <br />Select<br />Adopt <br />Use<br />San Miguel stairs creative commons licensed by larry&flo 2007<br />94<br />
106. How you can Use the Open Textbook<br />Use for reading and homework only<br />Use in classroom<br />via laptops<br />Linkin Learning Management System<br />Remediation<br />Lifelong learning<br />9/18/2010<br />95<br />95<br />
107. Adopt and Use<br />Plan the class<br />Choose the parts of the textbook that fit<br />Add other open resources<br />Announce to the stakeholders – See next slide<br />Labeled for reuse by wockerjabby's photostream<br />9/18/2010<br />96<br />96<br />
108. The Downside…<br />Can require organized, coordinated effort<br />Books need reviewers<br />There are not yet enough open texts<br />Possible hidden infrastructure costs<br />
109. Stakeholders<br />Curriculum Committee, Department, Dean or other group that approves textbook adoptions<br />Restrictions on computer/internet access requirements<br />Colleagues<br />College Bookstore <br />College Library<br />Media center<br />Print Shop<br />Teaching assistants<br />Students well in advance<br />Counselors & DSS <br />9/18/2010<br />98<br />98<br />
110. Thinking About Authoring Your Own Open Textbook <br />OR <br />Creating Own Version of Existing Open Text?<br />
114. Robust</li></ul>JAWS – screen reader software – authors need to make their texts compatible<br />
116. New Commercial Platforms<br />DynamicBooks: <br />the new generation of <br />interactive textbooks<br />http://www.dynamicbooks.com/<br />
118. Open Textbooks: Top Reasons<br />Low-costbooks and supplements<br />Use new editions on your terms<br />Make book fit your course<br />Doesn’t have to change your life very much<br />Do change student’s – choice for the first time<br />Level the playing field instantly – *IF* everyone has internetaccess<br />No more access codes<br />Integrate into your LMS <br />Support a market-based solution. <br />
120. Learn more<br /> Some Specific ExamplesA High School Biology Textbook<br /> Textbooks for the California Learning Resource Network – These textbooks have already undergone peer-review.<br /> Open Textbook CollectionsCommunity College Open Textbook Collaborative - This should be our first stop. I liked the amount of finished work represented by this project and the fact that they have English textbooks.<br />OER Commons - There are a lot of textbooks here that will be of interest to us. Under recommended resources click on "textbooks.“<br />Open Textbook Catalog: studentpirgs.org/open-textbooks<br /> Project Sites for OER and Open TextbooksSophia Open Content Initiative - This is from De Anza and a good example of a grant-driven project in California.<br />Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources - This project site has a lot of useful links.<br />Open Education Resources Center for California - This is a good site for more information and resources in California.<br />Making Textbooks More Affordable: a report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance.<br />
121. Open textbooks…the wave of the futureCatch it.<br />9/18/2010<br />107<br />
122. Thank You<br />
123. This work was created and remixed by Vicky Frankfourth Moyle with original material and from:<br />Geoff Cain, College of the Redwoods, California<br />http://www.slideshare.net/geoffcain/open-textbookspresentation<br />Nicole Allen for Student PIRGs <br />www.studentpirgs.org/open-textbooks<br />“Building a Global Teaching Profile” by Michael Paskevicius, Michelle Willmers and Cheryl Hodgkinson Williams of the University of Cape Town <br />http://www.slideshare.net/mpaskevi/building-a-global-teaching-profile-showcasing-open-educational-resources-at-the-university-of-cape-town<br />“How to Adopt an Open Textbook” by a grant from Open Textbook Advocates<br />This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 USA License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/za/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.<br />