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Introduction to Open Educational Resources for Faculty

Introduction to Open Educational Resources for Faculty

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  • I believe it is best to start with a definition of Open educational resources Open educational resources ( or OER) are educational materials (usually in digital form) that are shared freely and openly for anyone to use and under some type of license to re-purpose/ improve and redistributeThe term OER was coined at a UNESCO forum in 2002. Other terms often used include open content, open educational content, open courseware, and open teaching.
  • Political/Social – students began organizing in 2003
  • Why? Because of the cost associated with textbooks – costs on top of tuition.
  • In fact, prices for books are rising at double the rate of inflation!
  • Students felt they had no say in the matter.The professor dictated the choice of text.The publisher dictated the costs and format.
  • The government got involved and passed legislation this year, requiring price disclosure lasw.
  • The change in philosophy is a huge influence:The Open Source Software movement had led the way in showcasing the value of collaboration, openness and the power in an ‘architecture of participation’ (O’Reilly 2003) It implies a free market of ideas, in which anyone can put forward a proposed solution to a problem; have it adopted, if at all, by acclamation and the organic spread of its usefulness. OS software offers important lessons to the OER movement. It shows that anyone can contribute to a particular project and do so constructively, however small the contribution may be. (Guedon, 2009) Some software projects will fail, but a failed project is never wasted because the result remains accessible and can be reused freely by another project. OER is based on the philosophical view of ‘knowledge as a collective social product which should become social property ‘(Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes 2007:1)
  • The Open Yale project above now includes 25 courses from a broad range of introductory subjects.This of course does NOT mean that you can get a qualification from Yale by viewing their OER– these are merely the teaching resources, not the complete educational experience + qualification that Yale offers.However, some of the sites offer instructors at other institutions to use them to teach classes for credit on their own campuses!
  • Across the globe a distance university, the Open University in the UK took a similar view and started making many of their courses available free of charge. What makes this so remarkable is that the business of the OU is in their materials. Moreover, they took a further step and actively encouraged independent learners from all over the world to edit the materials in the LabSpace and collaborate with others in publishing new versions of the learning materials to share with the world.
  • Now, in order to find the growing number of OER more easily a number of OER specific search sites have emerged including the OER Commons which aggregates course material from all of the institutions. This allows you to search across subjects and media types to find the best or most suitable material Sometimes, an instructor can use a course from another institution at his or her own school.OER commons also makes it easy to compare and combine resources from leading institutions
  • We also see specialized search engines emerging which showcase certain types of content. Academic Earth aggregates academic videos from various institutions around the globe and allows viewers to pick their favourite lectures and speakers.
  • Professors and instructors also organized.
  • And created this “Open Textbook” pledge.
  • Now there are over 2500 Signers
  • All these issues are concerns. It can’t be just another bandwagon to jump on.But again, the momentum is increasing.I don’t know where OER or Open Textbooks are going, but I’m fairly certain that they *AREN’T* going away.There is an explosion happening. You have the opportunity to get involved early. To start discovering, researching and possibly planning for a future that may be inevitable.
  • Traditional publishers, if they are paying attention and remain flexible, stand to gain.And, new publishers have emerged (we will see in a minute) whose foundations are built on open models.
  • Western gave a workshop at their “Future of Text” conference last Spring that presented the research of the Kindle Project, conducted on the campuses of Reed and University of Washington.
  • So, how is this “revolution” going to come about? Where are all these new textbooks going to come from?Part of the Social/Political forces involve legislation and funding from grants.
  • Some authors are launching on their own.
  • Where will the textbooks come from?
  • Washington SBCTC received funding from the Gates Foundation to develop OER for an Open Course Library. The first grants were announced in the spring for a select group of high-enrollment classes.
  • The previous slide was an example of what will become a repository for our system.
  • David Lippman, Instructor at Pierce Community College in Washington State, has his own website for his Math 107 text, Math in Society.
  • David’s book on the searchable MERLOT website.
  • David’s page on LuLu for printing a bound copy of his book.

Oer september16presentation final Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Catch the Wave of the Future:OER - Open Educational Resources and Open TextbooksAn Introduction to Faculty
    Vicky Moyle, Instructor, General Studies, Mathematics
    Bellingham Technical College
    September 16, 2010
  • 2. What’s it all about, and why should I care?
    What are OER & Open Textbooks?
    What brought us here?
    “Why now?”
    “Where do I fit in (and do I want to?)”
    Discover some resources
    “What can I / should I do?”
  • 3. What is OER?
    Educational materials shared openly
    Courses, articles, videos, modules, textbooks, files – usually digital
    Licensed but free to end user
    Available to use, reuse, repurpose, remix, redistribute - IMPROVE
  • 4. What has enabled OER?
  • 5. Student PIRGsDriving Action in Textbook Affordability
  • 6. Students average
    $900
    per year on
    textbooks
  • 7. Prices rising
    2x
    the rate of
    Inflation
    (some estimates are now
    4x !)
  • 8. Publishers had too much power –
    Instructors had
    limited influence
    Students had virtually none
    Publisher
    STUDENT
    INSTRUCTOR
  • 9. Price Disclosure Laws
    Minnesota
    Arizona
    Colorado
    Missouri
    Connecticut
    Washington
    Oregon
    Oklahoma
    Federal Law in 2010
    Washington Governor signs HB 2300 with WashPIRG students.
  • 10. Change in Philosophy
    Open Source Software movement
    Openness and “architecture of participation” (O’Reilly 2003)
    “Knowledge as a collective social product”
    (Prasad & Ambedkar cited in Downes 2007:1)
    OPENING UP EDUCATION
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. http://www.usnews.com/articles/education/online-education/2008/01/10/a-new-physics-superstar.html
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. Emergence of Alternative Licenses
  • 23. Creative Commons: Facilitating Sharing
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3rksT1q4eg
  • 24. http://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/2922421696/
  • 25. http://veja.abril.com.br/imagem/professorantenado.jpg
  • 26. http://www.flickr.com/photos/stylianosm/3706684606/
  • 27. http://www.flickr.com/photos/langwitches/3460307056/
  • 28.
  • 29. Faculty Organized
    • 700 Math & Physics Professors: “Stop unnecessary new editons”
    • 30. 23-Campus Calstate Senate passed voluntary adoption guidelines
    • 31. UCLA Math department negotiated a 25% price cut with Thomson
  • Open Textbooks Statement
    As faculty members, we affirm that it is our prerogative and responsibility to select course materials that are pedagogically most appropriate for our classes. We also affirm that it is consistent with this principle to seek affordable course materials for our classes whenever possible. This includes open textbooks, which are textbooks offered online to students at no cost.
    Open textbooks and other open educational resources present an affordable, comparable and flexible alternative to commercial course materials. Therefore, we the undersigned declare our intent to:
    • Seek and consider open textbooks and other open educational resources when choosing course materials.
    • 32. Give preference to a low or no cost educational resource such as an open textbook over an expensive textbook if it best fits the needs of a class.
    • 33. Encourage institutions to develop support for the use of open textbooks and other open educational resources.
  • 2,500+
    Instructors & Professors
    www.maketextbooksaffordable.org/statement
  • 34. Why would anyone provide free content?
    Knowledge should be free
    Education is a basic human right
    Education should have barriers removed
    Education should be customized & localized
  • 35.
  • 36. Maybe You are…
    INSPIRED:
    Interested in using Open Educational Resources in your classes?
    Already using or developing OER?
    SKEPTICAL:
    Concerned about the quality of existing resources, or applicability to your classroom?
    Doubtful that you now have the time and skills needed to develop or adapt open content materials?
    Concerned about giving away intellectual property?
    Doubtful about an efficient transition to OER?
  • 37. Sustainable Model
    Revenue streams must extend beyond start-up
    Infrastructure must have continual upgrade
    Content must have continual upgrade
    Plan for Staff development
    Measurable & proven effectiveness
    Market and measure the benefits to students
    Market and measure the benefits to developers and authors
    Evaluation must be built-in
  • 38. Seven Myths aboutOpen Textbooks
    Open Textbooks and eBooks are the same.
    Creators never receive monetary compensation for open textbooks.
    All open textbooks are crowd-sourced, i.e., created by anonymous amateurs.
    Campus bookstores suffer from the use of open textbooks.
    (A fact; not a myth but we are working to change this.)
    Derivatives damage the author’s reputation.
    Open textbooks are low quality or out-of-date with expired copyrights.
    Publishers are enemies of open textbooks.
    9/18/2010
    36
  • 39. Publisher
    Textbooks are bought
    and sold several times, but the publisher only profits on the first sale
    Bookstore
    used books
    Students
    Problem:
    Evolved Model that hurt publishers
  • 40. Open Textbooks: A Solution
    Publisher
    Student
    Professor
    P
    Make the market more student-centric, without undermining faculty—give instructors more say too
    Open Textbooks
  • 41. Open Textbooks: A Solution
    Publisher
    The normal supply chain is restored & publishers gain the opportunity to sell directly to students
    Bookstore
    Students
    P
    Open Textbooks
    Rework publishing models to be more efficient and sustainable
  • 42. No textbook fit exactly
    All or nothing
    Student complaints about high prices
    More complaints if only a few chapters were used
    Louder complaints if they had to
    find their own supplemental materials
    Uncertainty aboutwhat’s fair and legal to use
    9/18/2010
    40
    Instructor’s Dilemmaswith Traditional Textbooks and Supplemental materials
  • 43. Instructors need QUALITYMost important issue
    Accurate content
    Inviting presentation
    Meet needs and expectations
    Peer reviewed / vetted
    Current
    Adhere to professional standards
    Accessible, localized
    Requires constant evaluation
  • 44. Redefine the model and the “text.”
  • 45. Formats go beyond traditional textbooks:
    Accessible free online by the public
    Downloadable, typically as a PDF
    Available in print
  • 46. Modifiable by the instructor
    Digital, Modular
    Adaptable
    Low cost to the students
    Usually free for those with computers and internet access
    Printable for free or a small fee (costs for ink and paper)
    Sometimes available in bound copies for $10-$40
    Labeled for reuse by MrKCoolsPhotostream
    9/18/2010
    44
    An open textbook is…
  • 47. What makes a textbook open?
    SOME rights reserved vs. ALL rights reserved
  • 48. Open licenses legally grant the right to:
    Make copies and change formats
    Distribute copies
    Create customized versions
    Remix
    (AS LONG AS
    ATTRIBUTION
    IS MADE)
  • 49. Content is like traditional textbooks:
    Table of contents, chapters, index
    Written by expert author
    Edited and reviewed
  • 50. Open Textbooks – new editions on your own terms
    76%of faculty
    say new editions are justified half the time or less.
  • 51. Open Textbooks Benefits
    For instructors:
    All students have access to the text
    New editions are optional
    Ability to customize
    Corrections are immediate
  • 52. Open Textbooks – type of format on your own terms
    75%
    Print
    25%
    Digital
    Students show a strong preference for print as their primary format.
  • 53. Open Textbooks Benefits
    For students:
    Students choose their preferred format (print, PDF, online, etc.)
    Online access is free,
    other formats are optional and fairly priced
  • 54. Open Textbooks Benefits
    For colleges:
    Greater access to education for more students
    Save money
    Textbooks customized to a specific population
  • 55. Open Textbooks Benefits
    For publishers:
    • Digital and print-on-demand distribution is more efficient
    • 56. Circumvents two major challenges:
    • 57. Used book death spiral no longer a threat
    • 58. Piracy isn’t an issue – books are affordable or free!
  • Federal Legislation
    • Competitive grant program
    • 59. Through the NSF
    • 60. Highest enrollment first
    • 61. Must have plan for marketing
    • 62. $15,000,000 per year!!!
  • Government funding:
    A new bill introduced by Sen. Durbin (D-IL) would create a federal grant program to create open textbooks through the NSF
    The WA community college system received state and private (Gates Foundation) funding to create open curriculum & texts for the 80 highest enrollment courses.
  • 63. Open Textbook Models
    A First Course
    in Linear Algebra
    By Robert A. Beezer
    http://linear.ups.edu
    Individual authors:
    Personally motivated
    Sabbatical time/grant funding
    Count open textbooks toward tenure?
    Motivated by fame, if not fortune?
    PDF: FREE
    Online: FREE
    Print: $27.95
  • 64. Institutional projects:
    A consortium of nearly 100 community colleges is pooling resources to write and review texts
    Rice University founded CNX.org, a platform that hosts numerous open textbooks
    Hewlett & Maxfield Foundations funded the creation of a new open textbook projects
    Collaborative Statistics
    By B. Illowsky & S. Dean
    cnx.org/content/col10522
  • 65. Two Community College Organizations
    Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) :
    Over 97 colleges join to give 2-year schools a big voice in open textbooks and more
    Community College Open Textbooks Collaborative (CCOTC) :
    A group of 12 organizations (FHDA, FDLC, CNX and more) funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to increase the demand and supply of open textbooks
    Take a look at the websites….
    9/18/2010
    58
  • 66. CCCOERoerconsortium.org
    9/18/2010
    59
  • 67. Goals of CCCOER
    The primary goal of the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources is to identify, create and/or repurpose existing OER as Open Textbooks and make them available for use by community college students and faculty.  We seek the support of faculty to identify, review, evaluate, and make available high quality, accessible and culturally relevant model Open Textbooks.
    The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement encourages the creation of free, high-quality content for community college courses to replace commonly used textbooks.  By promoting OER, community colleges can create sustainable academic resources for students and provide professional development opportunities for faculty.  A wealth of public domain and fair use learning materials are currently available via the internet that faculty can repurpose for use in their classes to replace some of the books required for purchase by students.
  • 68. CollegeOpenTextbooks.org
    9/18/2010
    61
  • 69. CCOTC Goal
    To adopt at least 10 open textbooks suitable for use in courses that meet community college General Education requirements by faculty in at least 40 community colleges, representing at least 5 states, within 2 years, (by June 2011).
    9/18/2010
    62
  • 70.
  • 71. Open Textbook “Repositories”
    • Only the top quality books
    • 72. Like a publisher site, only better
    • 73. Reviews written by experts
    • 74. Watch for new books
    • 75. Information on using + adopting
  • Open Textbook Models
    Organizational Behavior
    By T. Bauer & B. Erdogan
    flatworldknowledge.com
    Publishers – for profit:
    The first publisher of open textbooks was Flat World Knowledge. They launched their first titles in spring 2009, and now are adopted at more than 400 schools, including: Calstate-LA, Penn State, University of Illinois, University of Massachusetts, and University of Texas at Arlington
    Online: FREE
    PDF: $24.99
    Print: $29.99
  • 76.
    • First Open Textbook publisher
    • 77. 11 books in spring 2009
    • 78. Used at over 400 schools.
  • The FWK business model:
    Develop textbooks traditionally (peer review, editors, author royalties etc.)
    Give instructors the option to customize
    Offer textbooks free online to all students
    Make money by selling print copies, study guides, etc. that are attractive to students
  • 79. Peer Reviewed
    Top Authors
    The Flatworld Model
    Get Adoptions
    Make Money
    Grow Value
    Open Textbooks
    Social Learning
    Affordable Choices
    Professionally Developed
    Fully Supported
  • 80. Open
    Open License
    Open Platform
    The Flatworld Model
    Get Adoptions
    Make Money
    Grow Value
    Open Textbooks
    Social Learning
    Affordable Choices
    Top Authors
    Authors
  • 81. Open
    Free
    No Access Codes
    Inside LMS
    The Flatworld Model
    Get Adoptions
    Make Money
    Grow Value
    Open Textbooks
    Social Learning
    Affordable Choices
    Top Authors
    Authors
  • 82. Free
    Open
    Alternate Formats
    Softcover Print
    The Flatworld Model
    Get Adoptions
    Make Money
    Grow Value
    Open Textbooks
    Social Learning
    Affordable Choices
    Top Authors
    Audio
    Self-Print
    Authors
    Kindle/Sony (coming)
  • 83. Efficient Study Aids
    Free
    Open
    Audio Study Guides
    Online Practice Quizzes
    Digital Flashcards
    The Flatworld Model
    Get Adoptions
    Make Money
    Grow Value
    Open Textbooks
    Social Learning
    Affordable Choices
    Top Authors
    Alternate Formats
    Authors
  • 84. Collaboration
    Free
    Open
    The Flatworld Model
    Get Adoptions
    Make Money
    Grow Value
    Open Textbooks
    Social Learning
    Affordable Choices
    Top Authors
    Alternate Formats
    Efficient Study Aids
    Authors
  • 85.
  • 86.
  • 87. Why use OER and Open Textbooks?
    Reduce the costs of education to learners
    Make education globally accessible
    Collaborate, share and partner to use and provide open content
    Recognize creators and authors
    Increase quality while localizing content
    Improve our competitive edge
    Avoid duplication of effort
    Change a culture
  • 88. Open Textbooks Benefits
    Customize to suit YOUR needs
    and your students
    Modular – use only the chapters
    YOU want
    Adapt to learning styles, cultures, geographies, and more
    Save paper, toner, and weight
    Collaborative - feedback from teachers and students to the creators (authors, illustrators, publishers, editors, technologists, etc.)
    Dynamic - Global textbook
    improvement
    Saves money
    Free for those with computers or readers and Internet access
    Low cost for printed and bound
    Even classes without open textbooks benefit because students can afford to take more classes
    Photo by Fragmented CC licensed 2008
    9/18/2010
    77
    77
  • 89. Introduction to Economic Analysis
    R. Preston McAfee, Caltech
    ISBN: 160049000X
    Used at:
    Harvard, NYU, Cal Poly, UC-Santa Barbara, Caltech, Oregon State, Claremont McKenna….
    www.introecon.com
    Online: Free
    PDF/Word: Free
    Hard copy: $11.10
  • 90. How to Select Open Textbooks
    Read the peer reviews; talk to other adopters
    Compare your selections on quality, fit, interoperability, accessibility, printability, cost for printing, cost for bound copies
    Select the best fit & remember: you can make it fit better!
    For reuse by sp3ccylad's photostream
    9/18/2010
    79
    79
  • 91. Discover, but not this way
     Results 1 - 10 of about 130,000,000 for chemistry
    9/18/2010
    80
    80
  • 92. Discover open textbooks this way…
    9/18/2010
    81
  • 93. Connexions website:cnx.org
    9/18/2010
    82
  • 94. Collaborative Statistics
    By Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean
    cnx.org/content/col10522
  • 95. Download PDF or print
    Read online version
    Purchase printed copy
  • 96. Purchasing a hard copy through print on demand publisher QOOP
    Inside an Open Textbook
  • 97. Key term links to definition
    Click here to print out
    Navigate table of contents
  • 98. Start here with the peer reviews..
    Full review available with comments and ratings for each chapter
    9/18/2010
    87
  • 99.
  • 100.
  • 101.
  • 102. What Our Institution Can Do
    Colleges can offer support to faculty interested in adopting or writing open textbooks.
  • 103. Instructors can seek & consider open textbooks, and use other cost reducing practices.
  • 104. What else can Instructors do?
    Start small by identifying usable content already available in the library or in an OER project
    Develop collaborative relationships within and external to the institution
    Communicate with students, administration, colleagues
    Advocate for faculty development opportunities
    Sign the statement of intent
    Write a textbook review (some $ available)
    Spread the word
    Learn, explore
  • 105. 9/18/2010
    94
    Steps to Adopt an Open Textbook
    Discover
    Select
    Adopt
    Use
    San Miguel stairs creative commons licensed by larry&flo 2007
    94
  • 106. How you can Use the Open Textbook
    Use for reading and homework only
    Use in classroom
    via laptops
    Linkin Learning Management System
    Remediation
    Lifelong learning
    9/18/2010
    95
    95
  • 107. Adopt and Use
    Plan the class
    Choose the parts of the textbook that fit
    Add other open resources
    Announce to the stakeholders – See next slide
    Labeled for reuse by wockerjabby's photostream
    9/18/2010
    96
    96
  • 108. The Downside…
    Can require organized, coordinated effort
    Books need reviewers
    There are not yet enough open texts
    Possible hidden infrastructure costs
  • 109. Stakeholders
    Curriculum Committee, Department, Dean or other group that approves textbook adoptions
    Restrictions on computer/internet access requirements
    Colleagues
    College Bookstore
    College Library
    Media center
    Print Shop
    Teaching assistants
    Students well in advance
    Counselors & DSS
    9/18/2010
    98
    98
  • 110. Thinking About Authoring Your Own Open Textbook
    OR
    Creating Own Version of Existing Open Text?
  • 111. Accessibility &
    ADA Section 508 Compliance
    11% undergraduates disabled
    P.O.U.R. acronym
    • Perceivable
    • 112. Operable
    • 113. Understandable
    • 114. Robust
    JAWS – screen reader software – authors need to make their texts compatible
  • 115.
  • 116. New Commercial Platforms
    DynamicBooks:
    the new generation of
    interactive textbooks
    http://www.dynamicbooks.com/
  • 117.
  • 118. Open Textbooks: Top Reasons
    Low-costbooks and supplements
    Use new editions on your terms
    Make book fit your course
    Doesn’t have to change your life very much
    Do change student’s – choice for the first time
    Level the playing field instantly – *IF* everyone has internetaccess
    No more access codes
    Integrate into your LMS
    Support a market-based solution.
  • 119. Learn more
    BTC Resources wiki: http://btcresources.wikispaces.com/
    Center for Open Sustainable Learning: http://cosl.usu.edu/
    Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/
    UNESCO: http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/focus/opensrc/opensrc_1.htm
    Open CourseWare Consortium: http://www.ocwconsortium.org/index.html
    Connexions: http://cnx.org
    Sakai: http://www.sakaiproject.org/
    Merlot: http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm
  • 120. Learn more
    Some Specific ExamplesA High School Biology Textbook
    Textbooks for the California Learning Resource Network – These textbooks have already undergone peer-review.
    Open Textbook CollectionsCommunity College Open Textbook Collaborative - This should be our first stop. I liked the amount of finished work represented by this project and the fact that they have English textbooks.
    OER Commons - There are a lot of textbooks here that will be of interest to us. Under recommended resources click on "textbooks.“
    Open Textbook Catalog: studentpirgs.org/open-textbooks
    Project Sites for OER and Open TextbooksSophia Open Content Initiative - This is from De Anza and a good example of a grant-driven project in California.
    Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources - This project site has a lot of useful links.
    Open Education Resources Center for California - This is a good site for more information and resources in California.
    Making Textbooks More Affordable: a report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance.
  • 121. Open textbooks…the wave of the futureCatch it.
    9/18/2010
    107
  • 122. Thank You
  • 123. This work was created and remixed by Vicky Frankfourth Moyle with original material and from:
    Geoff Cain, College of the Redwoods, California
    http://www.slideshare.net/geoffcain/open-textbookspresentation
    Nicole Allen for Student PIRGs
    www.studentpirgs.org/open-textbooks
    “Building a Global Teaching Profile” by Michael Paskevicius, Michelle Willmers and Cheryl Hodgkinson Williams of the University of Cape Town
    http://www.slideshare.net/mpaskevi/building-a-global-teaching-profile-showcasing-open-educational-resources-at-the-university-of-cape-town
    “How to Adopt an Open Textbook” by a grant from Open Textbook Advocates
    This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 USA License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/za/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.