Catalogue for Autocon II 400

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Catalogue for Autocon II 400

  1. 1. (QGR:RUOG 81,76 ( -#4. 5614 #761%10Š ++ *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ 5WTIGT[ 7PKVU
  2. 2. 6JG PGY #761%10Š ++ *( 7PKV r )GPGTCN UWTIGT[ r )[PGEQNQI[ r 7TQNQI[ r )CUVTQGPVGTQNQI[ r /KPKOCNN[ +PXCUKXG 5WTIGT[ /+5 r 2NCUVKE UWTIGT[ r 6JQTCEKE UWTIGT[ r 0GWTQUWTIGT[ r #TVJTQUEQR[ r %CTFKQXCUEWNCT UWTIGT[ r 2PGWOQNQI[ r 'CT PQUG CPF VJTQCV UWTIGT[ r 2GFKCVTKE UWTIGT[ r 1TCN CPF OCZKNNQHCEKCN UWTIGT[ #RRNKECVKQP r (QT KPVGTFKUEKRNKPCT[ WUG DQVJ KP GPFQUEQR[ CPF KP QRGP UWTIGT[ r (KTUV *( WPKV YKVJ WUGTHTKGPFN[ OWNVKEQNQT CPF UKORNGVQFKUKPHGEV VQWEJ UETGGP r GRGPFKPI QP VJG WPKV XGTUKQP VJG WPKV EQOGU YKVJ DKRQNCT QT OQPQRQNCT *( QWVRWVU r GHKDTKNNCVQTUCHG %( QWVRWVU HQT OCZKOWO RCVKGPV CPF WUGT UCHGV[ r 2GTOCPGPV UCHGV[ VJCPMU VQ EQPVKPWQWU OQPKVQTKPI QH VJG EQPVCEV SWCNKV[ HTQO VJG PGWVTCN GNGEVTQFG VQ VJG RCVKGPV FWTKPI OQPQRQNCT CRRNKECVKQPU r GRGPFKPI QP VJG OQFG *( GPGTI[ ECP DG CEVKXCVGF CWVQOCVKECNN[ D[ JCPF QT D[ HQQV r 5GNHVGUV HQT OCZKOWO RCVKGPV CPF WUGT UCHGV[ r 7PKV XGTUKQPU HQT UVCPFCTF CRRNKECVKQP DKRQNCT TGUGEVKQP CPF VJGTOQHWUKQP QH YKFGNWOGP XGUUGNU CEEQTFKPI VQ VJG KPFKXKFWCN CRRNKECVKQP TGSWKTGOGPVU r 'ZVTGOGN[ UKORNG WPKV QRGTCVKQP YKVJ WR VQ RTGRTQITCOOGF RTQEGFWTGU HQT C OWNVKVWFG QH URGEKCNKCVKQPU # VQVCN QH OGOQT[ NQECVKQPU CTG CXCKNCDNG KPENWFKPI VJQUG HQT KPFKXKFWCN RTQITCOOKPI r 'ZVTGOGN[ UKORNG JCPFNKPI YKVJ CWVQOCVGF OQFG UGNGEVKQP VJG WPKV TGEQIPKGU VJG KPUVTWOGPVECDNG EQODKPCVKQP WUGF
  3. 3. unipolar bipolar bipolar NaCl BiVascularSafe
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Š ++ WPKV KU CEJKGXGF D[ WUKPI VJG NCVGUV CPF HCUVGUV OKETQRTQEGUUQT CPF UGPUQT VGEJPQNQI[ YJKEJ GPCDNGU VJG WPKV VQ ECRVWTG CNN VJG KORQTVCPV RCTCOGVGTU UWEJ CU XCTKCDNG KPEKUKQP URGGF IGQOGVT[ QH VJG CEVKXG GNGEVTQFG FKHHGTGPV KORGFCPEG DGJCXKQT QH DKQNQIKECN VKUUWG V[RGU CPF HNWKFU CPF VTCPUKVKQP CPF EQPVCEV TGUKUVCPEGU 6JKU FCVC KU VJGP WUGF VQ CFLWUV VJG *( RQYGT QWVRWV CPF *( XQNVCIG 6JKU OGCPU VJCV VJG QRGTCVQT KU PQV TGUVTKEVGF KP JKU YQTM QT QDNKIGF VQ CFCRV VQ VJG *( WPKV 1P VJG EQPVTCT[ VJG *( WPKV CFCRVU QRVKOCNN[ VQ CNN VJG WUGToU CRRNKECVKQP CPF UWTIKECN RTQEGFWTGU 5CHGV[ #URGEVU CPF /CKP (GCVWTGU QH VJG #761%10Š ++ *( 7PKV 'SWKRRGF YKVJ DKRQNCT QT OQPQRQNCT *( QWVRWVU
  5. 5. 219'4 %76 OQFG YKVJ EQPUVCPV *( XQNVCIG CPF RQYGT 6JKU OQFG GPUWTGU C WPKHQTO UWTIKECN GHHGEV CPF EQPUKUVGPV EWVVKPI GHHKEKGPE[ QXGT C YKFG KORGFCPEG TCPIG CPF OCP[ FKHHGTGPV VKUUWG V[RGU 4#/ U[UVGO s 4GVWTP 'NGEVTQFG #RRNKECVKQP /QPKVQTKPI 6JKU UCHGV[ U[UVGO EQPVKPWQWUN[ OQPKVQTU VJG EQPVCEV SWCNKV[ DGVYGGP VJG PGWVTCN GNGEVTQFG CPF VJG RCVKGPVoU UMKP CPF CFFKVKQPCNN[ KPFKECVGU VJKU YKVJ U[ODQNU +H VJG EQPVCEV UWTHCEG CTGC FGETGCUGU VJG UCHGV[ U[UVGO IKXGU CP GCTN[ XKUWCN CPF CEQWUVKE CNCTO VJWU RTGXGPVKPI C DWTP WPFGT VJG CRRNKECVKQP UKVG QH VJG RCVKGPV GNGEVTQFG 6Q KPETGCUG RCVKGPV UCHGV[ VJG WUGT ECP RTGXGPV VJG CRRNKECVKQP QH UKPINGHCEGF GNGEVTQFGU )#5641 %76 CPF 2#2+..1 %76 6JGUG VYQ PGY TGUGEVKQP OQFGU YJKEJ YGTG URGEKCNN[ FGXGNQRGF D[ -#4.|5614 HQT WUG KP HNGZKDNG GPFQUEQR[ RGTOKV C HTCEVKQPCVGF CPF EQPVTQNNGF EWV YKVJ PQ DNGGFKPI 6JG URGEKCN *( IGPGTCVQT VGEJPQNQI[ CNNQYU EQPVTQNNGF QWVRWV QH EWVVKPI CPF EQCIWNCVKQP RWNUG EWTTGPV $QVJ VJG RWNUG UGSWGPEG CPF VJG RWNUG URGGF ECP DG UGV UGRCTCVGN[ CPF URGEKHKECNN[ HQT GCEJ OQFG #(*( NGCMCIG EWTTGPVU 6JG #(*( NGCMCIG EWTTGPVU CPF VJG CUUQEKCVGF TKUM QH DWTPU CTG OKPKOKGF D[ FGUKIP OGCUWTGU 5%$ CPF 146/ EQORCVKDNG 6JG WPKVU CTG FGUKIPGF HQT KPVGITCVKQP YKVJKP VJG -#4.|5614 %QOOWPKECVKQP $WU 5%$ (WNN KPVGITCVCDKNKV[ QH VJG *( WPKV KP VJG PGVYQTMGF CPF GXGP URGGEJEQPVTQNNGF QRGTCVKPI TQQO QH VJG HWVWTG KU CNTGCF[ C UVCPFCTF HGCVWTG U[UVGO TGSWKTGOGPV 47+ UQHVYCTG TGNGCUG QT NCVGT *( WPKV YKVJ VQWEJ UETGGP HQT WUGTHTKGPFN[ QRGTCVKQP
  6. 6. %%76Š OQFG CPF .#2 %%76Š OQFG VJG +PVGTOKVVGPV %QCIWNCVKQP %WVVKPI OQFG YKVJ #761%10Š ++ 6JG GNGEVTKE EWTTGPV FGUKIPGF HQT DNQQFHTGG EWVVKPI FWTKPI NCRCTQUEQR[ QT YJGP WUKPI KTTKICVKQP NKSWKFU KU URGEKCNN[ OQFWNCVGF CPF QHHGTU C TGRTQFWEKDNG EQCIWNCVKQP EWTTGPV YKVJ JKIJ EWVVKPI GHHKEKGPE[ 6JKU OCMGU VKOGEQPUWOKPI UWDUGSWGPV EQCIWNCVKQP C VJKPI QH VJG RCUV 7UKPI VJG %%76Š OQFG VJWU TGFWEGU VJG PGGF HQT DNQQF VTCPUHWUKQPU CPF UCXGU UWTIGT[ VKOG 6JG TGUWNV KU CP QXGTCNN TGFWEVKQP KP QRGTCVKPI EQUVU CPF HQT VJG RCVKGPV KV OGCPU CFFKVKQPCN RTQVGEVKQP CICKPUV VJG 674 U[PFTQOG VJCV QEEWTU KP WTQNQI[ $KRQNCT IGPGTCVQT YKVJ 9 *( RQYGT 6JKU QWVUVCPFKPI RGTHQTOCPEG TCPIG CNNQYU VJG WPKV VQ DG WUGF KP EQPLWPEVKQP YKVJ PGYN[ FGXGNQRGF DKRQNCT URGEKCN CPF UVCPFCTF CEEGUUQTKGU 6JKU JKIJGPF WPKV KU GXGP UWKVCDNG HQT KPFKECVKQPU WUKPI KTTKICVKQP NKSWKFU YJKEJ KP VJG RCUV EQWNF QPN[ DG RGTHQTOGF YKVJ URGEKCNRWTRQUG *( U[UVGOU %QPUGSWGPVN[ GXGP RTGXKQWU UVCPFCTF OQPQRQNCT KPVGTXGPVKQPU ECP DG RGTHQTOGF YKVJ VJG UCHGV[ QH -#4.|5614 DKRQNCT VGEJPQNQI[ TGPFGTKPI PGWVTCN GNGEVTQFG CRRNKECVKQP UWRGTHNWQWU /QPQRQNCT IGPGTCVQT YKVJ 9 *( RQYGT 9KVJ C RGCM RQYGT QH YCVVU VJG #761%10Š ++ KU KFGCNN[ GSWKRRGF HQT OQPQRQNCT KPVGTXGPVKQPU KP CNN CTGCU QH WUG 2TGEKUG RQYGT UGVVKPI CPF RQYGT NKOKVCVKQP 'ZCEV HKPG VWPKPI KP 9 UVGRU KU RTQXKFGF HQT KPVGTXGPVKQPU TGSWKTKPI OCZKOWO RTGEKUKQP YKVJ XGT[ NQY RQYGT 7R VQ JGOQUVCVKE GHHGEVU +PFKXKFWCN UGNGEVKQP QH WR VQ JGOQUVCVKE GHHGEVU HQT OQPQRQNCT CPF DKRQNCT EWVVKPI RGTOKVU QRVKOCN EQPVTQN QH EQCIWNCVKQP CPF UWTIKECN GHHGEV KP GXGT[ UKVWCVKQP 5KORNG WRITCFG XKC C UGTXKEG RQTV
  7. 7. (QTEGRU CWVQUVCTV HWPEVKQP 9JGP VJG HQTEGRU VKRU EQPVCEV VJG VKUUWG DKRQNCT EQCIWNCVKQP KU CEVKXCVGF CWVQOCVKECNN[ CHVGT C HTGGN[ CFLWUVCDNG FGNC[ QH WR VQ UGEQPFU VQWEJ UETGGP 6JG EQNQT VQWEJ UETGGP OCMGU VJG #761%10Š ++ VJG HKTUV *( WPKV YKVJ VJKU PGY WUGT HTKGPFN[ QRGTCVKPI VGEJPQNQI[ +V CNUQ QHHGTU VJG KORQTVCPV CFXCPVCIG QH XGT[ GCU[ ENGC PKPI CPF YKRGFQYP FKUKPHGEVKQP RTQITCO OGOQTKGU 5KORNG RTQITCOOKPI QH VJG KPFKECVKQPTGNCVGF WPKV RCTCOGVGTU OCMGU VJG #761%10Š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Š ++ VQ DG GZRCPFGF GEQPQOKECNN[ HQT HWVWTG HQTOU QH *( VTGCVOGPV 6JKU GPUWTGU VJCV VJG #761%10Š ++ KU CNYC[U WRVQFCVG 0GY RTQEGFWTGU ECP CNUQ DG EQRKGF QPVQ VJG WPKV XKC 75$ QT FQYPNQCFGF
  8. 8. 9KVJ VJG DKRQNCT TGUGEVQUEQRG YKVJ PGY NQQR FGUKIP -#4.|5614 JCU TGXQNWVKQPKGF TGUGEVKQP KP UCNKPG KP VJG HKGNFU QH WTQNQI[ CPF I[PGEQNQI[ 5CHGV[ HQT RCVKGPVU CPF WUGTU # DKRQNCT CRRNKECVKQP UJQWNF CNYC[U DG IKXGP RTGHGTGPEG QXGT OQPQRQNCT WUG 5KPEG VJG *( EWTTGPV KP VJG DQF[ CPF DKQNQIKECN VKUUWG QPN[ HNQYU UJQTV FKUVCPEGU C NQYGT RQYGT QWVRWV KU TGSWKTGF +P RTKPEKRNG TGFWEGF RQYGT OGCPU C TGFWEGF TKUM $[ YQTMKPI KP UVCPFCTF UCNKPG UQNWVKQP VJG FCPIGT QH 674 U[PFTQOG KU UKIPKHKECPVN[ TGFWEGF (WTVJGTOQTG VJG WUG QH UCNKPG UQNWVKQP IGPGTCNN[ GPCDNGU NQPIGT QRGTCVKPI VKOGU KH VJKU KU PGEGUUCT[ (QT VJGUG TGCUQPU -#4.|5614 JCU FGXGNQRGF VJG DKRQNCT TGUGEVQUEQRG YJKEJ HGCVWTGU CP CEVKXG GNGEVTQFG CPF C PGWVTCN GNGEVTQFG YJKEJ IWKFGU VJG EWTTGPV DCEM DQVJ QH YJKEJ CTG EQORNGVGN[ GNGEVTKECNN[ KPUWNCVGF CICKPUV VJG UJGCVJ #U UWEJ VJG URGEKCNN[ QRVKOKGF # %QODKPCVKQP QH /CZKOWO 5CHGV[ CPF 2GTHQTOCPEG #761%10Š ++ CPF VJG $KRQNCT 4GUGEVQUEQRG HTQO -#4.|5614 TGUGEVKQP *( EWTTGPV HNQYU UCHGN[ CPF ENQUGN[ TGUVTKEVGF YKVJ QRVKOCN JGOQUVCUKU CETQUU VJG VKUUWG CPF VJG GNGEVTKECNN[ EQPFWEVKXG NKSWKF DCEM VQ VJG TGVWTP GNGEVTQFG 6JG 5CNKPG %%76Š 5CNKPG %QCI CPF 5CNKPG %%76Š 5CNKPG %QCI OQFGU QH VJG #761%10Š ++ JCXG DGGP URGEKCNN[ QRVKOKGF HQT TGUGEVKQP KP UCNKPG QHHGT KFGCN KPEKUKQP EQPFKVKQPU CPF FWG VQ QPN[ OKPKOCN JGOQTTJCIKPI TGSWKTG JCTFN[ CP[ VKOG EQPUWOKPI UWDUGSWGPV EQCIWNCVKQP 'ZVTGOGN[ GCU[ JCPFNKPI CPF EQORCVKDKNKV[ *CPFNKPI QH VJG PGY DKQRQNCT TGUGEVQUEQRG KU HCOKNKCT HTQO VJG OQPQRQNCT VGEJPKSWG UQ VJG WUGT FQGU PQV JCXG VQ URGPF VKOG IGVVKPI CEEWUVQOGF VQ VJKU PGY U[UVGO 6JCPMU VQ VJG EQORCVKDKNKV[ QH VJG DKRQNCT YQTMKPI GNGOGPV YKVJ CNN -#4.|5614 UVCPFCTF TGUGEVQUEQRG UJGCVJU CPF GPFQUEQRGU VJG TGNGXCPV UCHGV[ CFXCPVCIGU QH VJG DKQRQNCT VGEJPKSWG CTG CXCKNCDNG VQ CNN WUGTU s YKVJQWV OCLQT CFFKVKQPCN EQUVU #761%10Š ++ YKVJ TGUGEVKQP DQZ
  9. 9. /WNVKRNG RQUUKDNG CRRNKECVKQPU $[ WUKPI VJG UWTIKECN VGEJPKSWG KPXQNXKPI UGXGTCN NCVGTCNN[ QXGTNCRRKPI EQCIWNCVKQPU C OGVJQF YJKEJ JCU DGGP RTQXGP GHHGEVKXG KP OCP[ RNCEGU GXGP NCTIGT XGUUGNU CTG TGNKCDN[ VJGTOCNN[ UGCNGF RTKQT VQ XGUUGN FKUUGEVKQP YKVJQWV VJG NKICVKQP QT ENKRRKPI QH XGUUGNU YJKEJ KU PQTOCNN[ PGEGUUCT[ 6JKU VGEJPKSWG UCXGU DQVJ EQPUWOCDNGU CPF VKOG CU KV KU PQV PGEGUUCT[ VQ EJCPIG KPUVTWOGPVU 6JG QRVKQP QH UKOWNVCPGQWUN[ EQPPGEVKPI VYQ HQQVRGFCNU VQ VJG #761%10Š ++ HQT CUUKUVGF KPVGTXGPVKQPU OGCPU VJCV C HWTVJGT EQCIWNCVKQP OQFG ECP DG WUGF KP CFFKVKQP VQ VJG n$K8CUEWNCT5CHGo OQFG 6JG VGEJPKSWG )KXGP VJG RCTVKEWNCTN[ NQYTGUKUVCPEG KORGFCPEG CFLWUVOGPV QH VJG *( IGPGTCVQT KP VJG n$K8CUEWNCT5CHGo OQFG VJGTOCN GPGTI[ KU CNUQ RGTOCPGPVN[ CPF GHHGEVKXGN[ CRRNKGF DKRQNCTN[ FWTKPI FT[KPI QH VJG VKUUWG 6JG GPF RQKPV QH *( CRRNKECVKQP KU OGCUWTGF D[ RGTOCPGPV KORGFCPEG OGCUWTGOGPV QH VJG VKUUWG CNUQ FWTKPI *( CEVKXCVKQPU KPFKECVGF D[ CP CEQWUVKE UKIPCN CPF UKOWNVCPGQWUN[ GPFGF 6JG UYKVEJQHH ETKVGTKQP KU VJG KPETGCUG 1RGP 5WTIGT[ KP KORGFCPEG FWG VQ VJG FT[KPI QWV QH VJG VKUUWG CPF VJG EQPVTCT[ HCNNKPI *( EWTTGPV KPRWV QXGT VKOG 6JG KPUVTWOGPVU 9KVJ VJG PGY n$K8CUEWNCT%NCOR KPUVTWOGPVUo CPF VJG n$K8CUEWNCT5CHGo OQFG KP VJG #761%10Š ++ -#4. 5614 QHHGTU VJG QRVKOCN UQNWVKQP HQT VJKU VTKGF CPF VGUVGF UWTIKECN VGEJPKSWG s UCXKPI WUGTU DQVJ EQPUWOCDNGU CPF VKOG FWTKPI VJG KPVGTXGPVKQP
  10. 10. 1XGTXKGY QH WPKV XGTUKQPU #RRNKECVKQP 5VCPFCTF /QPQ$K *KIJ'PF 7PKV XGTUKQP 8#% 7 8#% 8#% 7 8#% 7PKV OCVGTKCN PWODGT Z Z DCUKE WPKV Z DCUKE WPKV KPEN TGUGEVKQP DQZ Z DCUKE WPKV KPEN $K8CUEWNCT5CHG OQFG Z DCUKE WPKV KPEN TGUGEVKQP DQZ CPF $K8CUEWNCT5CHG OQFG 7PKV UGV PWODGT Z Z 5QEMGV RQUKVKQP $KRQNCT EQODKPCVKQP $KRQNCT EQODKPCVKQP $KRQNCT EQODKPCVKQP $KRQNCT OWNVKHWPEVKQP 7PKRQNCT RKP CPF 'TDG 7PKRQNCT RKP CPF 'TDG 0' OO LCEM CPF RKP 0' OO LCEM CPF RKP #761%10Š ++| 4GEQOOGPFGF 5VCPFCTF 5GV ZZ #761%10Š ++ 5%$ RQYGT UWRRN[ s 8#% * KPENWFKPI /CKPU %QTF 5%$ %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG NGPIVJ EO Z7Z #761%10Š ++ 5%$ RQYGT UWRRN[ 8#% * KPENWFKPI /CKPU %QTF 5%$ %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG NGPIVJ EO
  11. 11. #761%10Š ++| 1RVKQPCN #EEGUUQTKGU
  12. 12. 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG QH EQPFWEVKXG UKNKEQPG YKVJ |TWDDGT VKGU HQT CVVCEJOGPV EQPVCEV UWTHCEG #|||EO HQT WUG YKVJ %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG HQT 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFGU CPF ' NGPIVJ EO 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG HQT UKPING WUG EQPVCEV|UWTHCEG FKXKFGF KPVQ VYQ #|||EO RCEMCIG QH %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG TGSWKTGF 'NGEVTQFG *CPFNG YKVJ DWVVQPU HQT CEVKXCVKPI VJG WPKRQNCT IGPGTCVQT [GNNQY DWVVQP WPKRQNCT|EWVVKPI DNWG DWVVQP WPKRQNCT EQCIWNCVKQP %CDNG TGSWKTGF 6JTGG2GFCN (QQVUYKVEJ YKVJ UYKVEJ HWPEVKQP HQT UYKVEJKPI DGVYGGP OQFG NGXGNU # CPF $ HQT WUG YKVJ HQT *( IGPGTCVQT #761%10Š ++ 6YQ2GFCN (QQVUYKVEJ HQT WUG YKVJ #761%10Š ++ CPF #761%10Š ++ 1PG2GFCN (QQVUYKVEJ HQT CEVKXCVKPI EQCIWNCVKQP HQT WUG YKVJ #761%10Š ++ CPF #761%10Š ++ 'NGEVTQFG *CPFNG YKVJQWV DWVVQPU YKVJ KPVGITCVGF EQPPGEVKPI ECDNG NGPIVJ EO *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %CDNG HQT 'NGEVTQFG *CPFNG NGPIVJ EO %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG HQT EQPPGEVKPI 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG NGPIVJ||EO 74 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG %QPPGEVKPI %CDNG HQT 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG
  13. 13. #761%10Š ++| 1RVKQPCN #EEGUUQTKGU
  14. 14. $K8CUEWNCT %NCOR VQVCN NGPIVJ EO YKVJ EQTTWICVGF LCYU HQT QRGP UWTIGT[ KPVGITCVGF /( ECDNG NGPIVJ O HQT WUG YKVJ #761%10Š ++ HTQO IGPGTCVQT UQHVYCTG $K8CUEWNCT %NCOR VQVCN NGPIVJ EO YKVJ VJGTOCN KPUWNCVKQP HQT QRGP UWTIGT[ YKVJ KPVGITCVGF /( ECDNG NGPIVJ O HQT WUG YKVJ #761%10Š ++ HTQO IGPGTCVQT UQHVYCTG $ 'ZVGTPCN *CTFYCTG 7RITCFG #761%10Š ++ XGTUKQP *KIJ 'PF HQT pDKRQNCT TGUGEVKQPq HWPEVKQP KPENWFKPI 'ZVGTPCN #WZKNKCT[ /QFWNG $KRQNCT *( %CDNG #UUGODN[ *QNFGT #WZKNKCT[ /QFWNG 8CNKF HQT FGXKEGU YKVJ 5QHVYCTG )GPGTCVQT EQPVTQN CPF CDQXG XGTUKQP
  15. 15. %QORCVKDKNKV[ NKUV UGG RCIG $K8CUEWNCT %NCOR VQVCN NGPIVJ EO YKVJ VJGTOQKPUWNCVKQP HQT QRGP UWTIGT[ KPVGITCVGF /( ECDNG NGPIVJ O HQT WUG YKVJ #761%10Š ++ HTQO IGPGTCVQT UQHVYCTG
  16. 16. 5WTIGT[ 'NGEVTQFGU 5GV KPENWFKPI %QPVCKPGT YKVJ .KF CPF 5VGTKNKKPI +PUGTV HQT GNGEVTQFGU YKVJ FKCOGVGT OO 9KTG 5PCTG |OO 9KTG 5PCTG |OO 4KDDQP 5PCTG |OO -+45%*0'4 5RCVWNC 'NGEVTQFG UVTCKIJV /#)'0#7 -PKHG 'NGEVTQFG CPINGF FQYPYCTFU 5COG NCPEGVUJCRGF $CNN 'NGEVTQFG |OO 5COG |OO 5COG |OO 0GGFNG 'NGEVTQFG (NCV 'NGEVTQFG |Z||OO 5COG |Z||OO unipolarunipolar #EEGUUQTKGU 5WTIGT[ 5GV (QT WUG YKVJ 'NGEVTQFG *CPFNGU
  17. 17. #EEGUUQTKGU 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU HQT WUG YKVJ 9QTMKPI 'NGOGPV ' 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU HQT WUG YKVJ c 7PKRQNCT +PUVTWOGPVU 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU HQT WUG YKVJ 9QTMKPI 'NGOGPVU %' ' ' ' CPF '4 2NGCUG PQVG 6JG UVCPFCTF ECDNG NGPIVJ QH VJG JKIJ HTGSWGPE[ EQTF KU EO 5JQWNF [QW TGSWKTG C NGPIVJ QH EO RNGCUG CFF VJG NGVVGT . VQ VJG CTVKENG PWODGT KP SWGUVKQP GI /. .8. 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT OQFGNU -#4. 5614 CPF 'TDG V[RG 6 QNFGT OQFGNU NGPIVJ |EO # 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT OQFGNU $GTEJVQNF CPF /CTVKP NGPIVJ EO -' 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT OQFGNU -#4. 5614 CPF 'TDG +%% NGPIVJ EO / 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT OQFGNU -#4. 5614 'TDG V[RG 6 QNFGT OQFGNU CPF 'NNOCP NGPIVJ EO / 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT OQFGNU $GTEJVQNF CPF /CTVKP NGPIVJ EO / 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT -#4.|5614 CPF 'TDG +%% WPKVU NGPIVJ |EO -' 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT #761%10Š ++ 5%$ #761%10Š ++ #761%10Š ++ -#4. 5614 #761%10Š UGTKGU CPF 'TDG V[RG +%% NGPIVJ EO # 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT OQFGNU $GTEJVQNF CPF /CTVKP NGPIVJ EO 7PKRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ OO RNWI HQT -#4. 5614 CPF 'TDG V[RG 6 QNFGT OQFGNU NGPIVJ |EO unipolar *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ 5WTIGT[ 7PKVU -#4. 5614 KPUVTWOGPV
  18. 18. #EEGUUQTKGU $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU HQT WUG YKVJ 4Q$KŠ KPUVTWOGPVU .' $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF HQT #761%10Š ++ 5%$ U[UVGO #761%10Š ++ #761%10Š ++ -#4. 5614 %QCIWNCVQT $% $% $% $% #761%10Š U[UVGO 'TDG%QCIWNCVQT 6 CPF +%% UGTKGU NGPIVJ EO ./ $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF HQT /CTVKP CPF $GTEJVQNF EQCIWNCVQTU NGPIVJ EO . $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ Z||OO DCPCPC RNWI HQT -#4.|5614 %QCIWNCVQT :#:$ NGPIVJ |EO .# $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF YKVJ Z||OO DCPCPC RNWI HQT -#4.|5614 EQCIWNCVQT |:#:$ CPF 8CNNG[NCD NGPIVJ |EO .8 $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF HQT -#4. 5614 #761%10Š ++ 5%$ U[UVGO CPF 8CNNG[NCD EQCIWNCVQTU NGPIVJ EO .'$ $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTF HQT -#4. 5614 #761%10Š ++ 5%$ U[UVGO NGPIVJ EO HQT WUG YKVJ -#4. 5614 DKRQNCT TGUGEVQUEQRGU .'$. 5COG NGPIVJ EO bipolar bipolar NaCl *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ 5WTIGT[ 7PKVU -#4. 5614 KPUVTWOGPV $KRQNCT *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %QTFU HQT $KRQNCT 4GUGEVQUEQRGU HQT WUG KP UCNKPG UQNWVKQP
  19. 19. #WVQEQP ++ #TVKMGNPWOOGT %CV 7PKRQNCT r r r r r r r r 74 r r r r 75 r r r r r r r r r r r r $ r r r r r r r -' r r r r r r r r -' r r r / r r r r r / r r r r $KRQNCT .' r r r r .8 r r r r $KRQNCT /WNVK HWPEVKQP QPN[ 8GTUKQP QPN[ 8GTUKQP .'$ r r r r r r r #761%10Š ++ %#6 01 %#$.' 1XGTXKGY 2QUUKDNG 7UGU HQT VJG *KIJ (TGSWGPE[ %CDNG QP VJG #761%10Š ++
  20. 20. *(6TQNNG[ 5*146' 6JG PGY *( VTQNNG[ KU QRVKOKGF HQT -#4. 5614 *( FGXKEGU CPF CNNQYU [QW VQ HTGGN[ OQXG VJG *( FGXKEG VQ VJG UVGTKNG CTGC CPF RNCEG KV KP CP GTIQPQOKE RQUKVKQP PGCT VJG RCVKGPV 6JG VQR UJGNH HGCVWTGU C JQQM HQT PGCVN[ UVQTKPI CEEGUUQTKGU UWEJ CU VJG ECDNG HQT VJG PGWVTCN GNGEVTQFG #PQVJGT UJGNH QT CP GSWKROGPV TCKN ECP DG CFFKVKQPCNN[ CVVCEJGF (QQV RGFCN JQNFGTU URGEKƂECNN[ FGUKIPGF HQT HQQV RGFCNU QH -#4. 5614 *( FGXKEGU ECP DG OQWPVGF VQ VJKU GSWKROGPV TCKN UQ VJCV VJG HQQV RGFCNU CTG UVQTGF UGEWTGN[ CPF CTG CNYC[U YKVJKP TGCEJ
  21. 21. *( 6TQNNG[ 5*146' %QPUKUVKPI QH r (QWT CPVKUVCVKE ECUVGTU VYQ GSWKRRGF YKVJ NQEMKPI DTCMGU r %CDNG EQPFWKV KPVGITCVGF KP VJG EGPVTCN DQQO r %CDNG TGGN r *( UJGNH HQT #761%10Š ++ YKVJ JQQM r /CZKOWO NQCF ECRCEKV[ MI KOGPUKQPU r 6TQNNG[ Z Z OO Y Z J Z F r *( UJGNH Z OO Y Z F r %CUVGT FKCOGVGT OO *(6TQNNG[ 5*146'
  22. 22. %QORCVKDNG #EEGUUQTKGU 'SWKROGPV 4CKN HQT OQWPVKPI QP VJG EGPVTCN DGCO QH *( %CTV CPF /QDKNG 5VCPF KPEN KPUVCNNCVKQP CEEGUUQTKGU FKOGPUKQPU Z Z OO Y Z J Z F *(* QWDNG 2GFCN *QNFGT UWURGPFGF HQT OQWPVKPI VQ PQTOCN TCKNU HQT WUG YKVJ (QQVUYKVEJ|| CPF *(' 5KPING 2GFCN *QNFGT UWURGPFGF HQT OQWPV KPI VQ PQTOCN TCKNU HQT WUG YKVJ 1PG2GFCN (QQVUYKVEJ (* *QNFGT HQT 6JTGG2GFCN (QQVUYKVEJ HQT OQWPVKPI VQ GSWKROGPV TCKN HQT WUG YKVJ (QQVUYKVEJ CPF '(* 5KPING 2GFCN *QNFGT HQT OQWPVKPI VQ GSWKROGPV TCKN HQT WUG YKVJ (QQVUYKVEJ | CPF 5JGNH HQT *( %CTV CPF /QDKNG 5VCPF KPEN KPUVCNNCVKQP CEEGUUQTKGU OCZ NQCF ECRCEKV[ MI FKOGPUKQPU Z OO Y Z F #- 9KTG $CUMGV HQT CEEGUUQTKGU HQT OQWPVKPI VQ GSWKROGPV TCKN FKOGPUKQPU Z Z OO Y Z J Z F
  23. 23. ³ ³ +'% %' VQ|/ #WVQOCVKE 5GNH6GUV /CNFQUCIG 0GWVTCN 'NGEVTQFG 5CHGV[ 5[UVGO F[PCOKE VYQRCTV QPG CPF VYQRCTV 0' .(*(.GCMCIG %WTTGPV /QPKVQT #EVKXCVKQP 6KOG GCEVKXCDNG *( ZZ s 8#% * Z7Z s 8#% * 2QYGT 5WRRN[ KOGPUKQPU 9 ³ * ³ OO 9GKIJV MI %GTVKHKGF VQ 5RGEKHKECVKQPU 5CHGV[ 5[UVGOU #761%10Š ++ s 5RGEKHKECVKQPU
  24. 24. 7PKVU YKVJ 4GUGEVKQP $QZ QPN[ *(/QFK 'HHGEVU 2 OCZ CV 1JO 82 OCZ CV 1JO %TGUV (CEVQT #TE %QPVTQN 8QNVCIG %QPVTQN /QFGN 8 8 7PKRQNCT 612%WV ● s ● ● 219'4%WV s ● ● ● %%WVŠ s ● ● ● .#2%%WV s s ● ● ● )CUVTQ%WV s ● ● ● 2CRKNNQ%WV s ● ● ● 5VCPFCTF %QCI CV 1JO s ● ● ● (QTEGF %QCI s ● ● ● 5RTC[ %QCI s ● ● ● $KRQNCT $KRQNCT%WV s ● ● ● 5CNKPG%%WV s ● s ● 5CNKPG6KOG %%WV VKOG |U s ● s ● 5CNKPG% %WV 5CNKPG 6KOG%%WV
  25. 25. VKOG |U CV 1JO s ● s ● 5CNKPG %QCI CV 1JO s ● s ● 5CNKPG6KOG %QCI VKOG |U CV 1JO s ● s ● 5CNKPG %QCI 5CNKPG6KOG %QCI
  26. 26. VKOG U CV 1JO s ● s ● $KRQNCT 5QHV %QCI CV 1JO s ● ● ● $KRQNCT 5QHV YKVJ #WVQ5VQR CV 1JO s ● ● ● $K8CUEWNCT 5CHG QRVKQPCN CV 1JO s ● s ●
  27. 27. 0QVGU
  28. 28. 0QVGU
  29. 29. 0QVGU
  30. 30. ZZZNDUOVWRU]FRP A'970+65 -#4.|5614 )OD* %Q -) /KVVGNUVTC»G 6WVVNKPIGP )GTOCP[ 2QUVDQZ 6WVVNKPIGP )GTOCP[ 2JQPG (CZ '/CKN KPHQMCTNUVQTFG YYYMCTNUVQTEQO -#4.|5614 'PFQUEQR[#OGTKEC +PE 'CUV )TCPF #XGPWG 'N 5GIWPFQ %# 75# 2JQPG 2JQPG VQNN HTGG 75 QPN[ (CZ (CZ VQNN HTGG 75 QPN[ '/CKN KPHQMUGCEQO (QGR:RUOGŠ

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