I n t e r n a t i o n a l   Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n   U n i o n                                   Measuring      ...
, Q W H U Q D W L R Q D O   7 H O H F R P P X Q L F D W L R Q   8 Q L R Q                                     0HDVXULQJ   ...
‹  ,78                                   ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ 8QLRQ                                            ...
Foreword, DP SOHDVHG WR SUHVHQW WKH  HGLWLRQ RI 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW (DFK HDU WKLV SXEOLFDWLRQ IHDWXUHVWKH ODW...
DQG ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,3%
² WZR EHQFKPDUNLQJ WRROV WR PRQLWRU LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW GHYHORSPHQWV ZRUOGZLGH :KLOH WKH ,, FDSWXUHV SURJUHVV PDGH LQ UHJDU...
DQG WKRVH ZLWK ORZHU VSHHGFDSDFLWTXDOLW DFFHVV DV LV WKH FDVH LQ PDQ ORZLQFRPH FRXQWULHV
:KLOH WKH SRWHQWLDO GHYHORSPHQW LPSDFW RI EULQJLQJ SHRSOH IURP GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV RQOLQHYLD ZLUHOHVV DFFHVV LV HQRUPRXV ...
GLYLGH UXQV DORQJ JHQGHU HGXFDWLRQ LQFRPH DQG DJH OLQHV DQG WKHUH DUH VLJQLÀFDQW GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ SHRSOHOLYLQJ LQ UXUDO...
,QWHUQDWLRQDO 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ 8QLRQ                                                          iv
Acknowledgements7KH  HGLWLRQ RI 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW ZDV SUHSDUHG E WKH ,7 DWD DQG 6WDWLVWLFV LYLVLRQ ZLWKLQWK...
9DQHVVD *UD (VSHUDQ]D 0DJSDQWD RULV 2ODD ,YDQ 9DOOHMR DQG 6RQD %XUDFRQG GXULQJ KHU LQWHUQVKLS DW ,78
KULVWRSK 6WRUN FRQVXOWDQW WR ,78
SURYLGHG VXEVWDQWLYH LQSXWV WR KDSWHU  RI WKH UHSRUW 2OLYLHU 3RXSDHUW1DWKDOLH 5ROOHW DQG (NDWHULQD %RQDFKHYD GXULQJ KHU LQ...
FRQWULEXWHG WR WKH GDWD FROOHFWLRQ DQG0LFKDHO 0LQJHV FRQVXOWDQW WR ,78
FRPSLOHG DQG SUHSDUHG WKH GDWD VHW RQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK +HOSIXOFRPPHQWV DQG VXJJHVWLRQV ZHUH UHFHLYHG IURP ...
DQG 6HUJLR %XRQRPR ,78%5
DV ZHOODV FROOHDJXHV LQ WKH ,78 5HJLRQDO 2IÀFH IRU $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF 7KH ZRUN ZDV FDUULHG RXW XQGHU WKH RYHUDOO GLUHFWLR...
Table of contents)RUHZRUG LLL$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV YKDSWHU  ,QWURGXFWLRQ  KDSWHU  7KH ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
,QWURGXFWLRQ         *OREDO ,, DQDOVLV         ,, EUHDNGRZQ E VXELQGLFHV        5HJLRQDO ,, DQDOVLV KDSWHU  7KH ,7 3ULFH %...
,QWURGXFWLRQ         ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW PHWKRGRORJ        ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW UHVXOWV DQG DQDOVLV        ,3% VXEEDVNHW UHVXOWV DQ...
PHWKRGRORJ$QQH[  ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,3%
PHWKRGRORJ$QQH[  0HWKRGRORJLFDO DVSHFWV UHODWHG WR KRXVHKROG VXUYH UHVXOWV $QQH[  6WDWLVWLFDO WDEOHV RI LQGLFDWRUV XVHG WR...
List of charts *OREDO ,7 GHYHORSPHQWV  SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
0RELOHFHOOXODU VXEVFULSWLRQV  ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
)L[HGEURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV  ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
0RELOHEURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV  ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
,QWHUQHW XVHUV  ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
+RXVHKROGV ZLWK ,QWHUQHW DFFHVV  ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
,, E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW   ,, DFFHVV VXELQGH[ E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW  ,, XVH VXELQGH[ E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW  ,, VNLOOV V...
EURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV E VSHHG VHOHFWHG HFRQRPLHV    )DVWHVW EURDGEDQG VSHHGV DGYHUWLVHG E WKH LQFXPEHQW WHOHFRPPXQLFDWLR...
E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW  ,QWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK ELWV SHU XVHU
E UHJLRQ  DQG                                                                                      viii
3HUFHQWDJH RI FRXQWULHV FROOHFWLQJ GDWD RQ ,QWHUQHW XVDJH WRWDO DQG E UHJLRQ 3HUFHQWDJH RI LQGLYLGXDOV DJHG  WR  XVLQJ ,QW...
3HUFHQWDJH RI LQGLYLGXDOV DJHG  RU ROGHU XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW E KLJKHVW HGXFDWLRQDO OHYHO DWWDLQHG    VHOHFWHG $IULFDQ FRXQW...
DQG     DW KRPH ULJKW
VHOHFWHG FRXQWULHV ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU 3URSRUWLRQ RI LQGLYLGXDOV XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW E DJH JURXS ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU
List of figures 7KUHH VWDJHV LQ WKH HYROXWLRQ WRZDUGV DQ LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW  ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ LQGLFDWRUV DQG ZHLJKWV  6...
DQG ZLUHOHVVEURDGEDQG WHFKQRORJLHV ² VSHHG YHUVXV PRELOLW  List of boxes 7KH FKDOOHQJHV RI PHDVXULQJ PRELOH EURDGEDQG   ,Q...
0RELOH ,QWHUQHW LQ 0RURFFR   2PDQ·V VXFFHVV LQ FRQQHFWLQJ VFKRROV WR WKH ,QWHUQHW   0RELOHFHOOXODU SHQHWUDWLRQ UHDFKLQJ WR...
JXLGHOLQHV RQ DGYHUWLVLQJ    PRELOHEURDGEDQG VSHHGV   $IULFD MRLQV WKH JOREDO LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW  6RFLDO QHWZRUNLQJ DV D N...
DQG    0RVW GQDPLF FRXQWULHV WRS WHQ
² FKDQJHV EHWZHHQ ,,  DQG   RXQWU JURXSV EDVHG RQ GLIIHUHQW ,, OHYHOV  $GYDQFHPHQW RI FRXQWULHV EHWZHHQ ,, JURXSV
/LVW RI HFRQRPLHV E ,, OHYHOV DQG LQFRPH   ,, DFFHVV VXELQGH[  DQG   7RS WHQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW  FKDQJH LQ WKH ,,...
DQG UDQN FKDQJH ULJKW
,, XVH VXELQGH[  DQG   7RS WHQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW  FKDQJH LQ WKH ,, XVH VXELQGH[ E DEVROXWH YDOXH     FKDQJH OHIW
DQG UDQN FKDQJH ULJKW
,, VNLOOV VXELQGH[  DQG    7KH WRS ÀYH LQ HDFK UHJLRQ DQG WKHLU UDQNLQJ LQ WKH JOREDO ,,   ,, UDQJHV  DQG                 ...
,, ² $IULFD  ,, ² $UDE 6WDWHV  ,, ² $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF   ,, ² ,6   ,, ² (XURSH   ,, ² $PHULFDV   ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW DQG VXEE...
DQG   7HQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW  GHFUHDVH LQ WKH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW E UHODWLYH FKDQJH    LQ  OHIW
DQG DEVROXWH YDOXH FKDQJH ULJKW
)L[HGWHOHSKRQH VXEEDVNHW  DQG    0RELOHFHOOXODU VXEEDVNHW  DQG   7HQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW  GHFUHDVH LQ WKH PRELOHFH...
DQG UHODWLYH FKDQJH LQ  ULJKW
)L[HGEURDGEDQG VXEEDVNHW  DQG   7HQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW  GHFUHDVH LQ À[HGEURDGEDQG SULFHV E DEVROXWH    YDOXH FKDQ...
DQG UHODWLYH FKDQJH LQ  ULJKW
0RELOHEURDGEDQG DQG À[HGEURDGEDQG PRQWKO SULFHV DQG VSHHGV FRPSDUHG VHOHFWHG HFRQRPLHV  3HUFHQWDJH RI WKH SRSXODWLRQ FRYHU...
)DFHERRN SHQHWUDWLRQ VHOHFWHG FRXQWULHV
$XJXVW                                                                                           [L
Measuring the Information Society 2011Chapter 1. Introduction2YHU WKH SDVW HDU WKH ZRUOG KDV ZLWQHVVHG FRQWLQX            ...
WULHV PRELOHFHOOXODU WHOHSKRQ KDV UHDFKHG VDWXUDWLRQOHYHOV WRR UHFRUGLQJ SHQHWUDWLRQ UDWHV RI RYHU  SHU                   ...
ZLWK QR VLJQ RI D VORZGRZQ WKXV FRQÀUPLQJ WKH FRQ                                           :LUHOHVVEURDGEDQG DFFHVV LQFOX...
EURDGEDQG LV PXVKURRPLQJ LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV                                                                          ...
Chapter 1. Introduction Chart 1.2: Mobile-cellular subscriptions, 2000-2010, world and by level of development, penetratio...
ZHUH VHW LQ  DQG ZDV LQ LWV                                                               ODXQFKHG LQ  ZLWK WKH PLVVLRQ WR...
FRQFOXGHG LQ  $W WKH VDPH WLPH                                                              RSLQJ FRXQWULHV 7KH RPPLVVLRQ ...
Measuring the Information Society 2011 Chart 1.4: Mobile-broadband subscriptions, 2007-2010, world and by level of develop...
0RELOHFHOOXODU QHWZRUN FRYHU                WKH ,QWHUQHW KDYH GHPRQVWUDWHG WKH SRZHU RI FRPPXDJH DOUHDG VWDQGV DW QHDUO  S...
DUH DFWLYHO HQJDJLQJ ² HWLQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DUH KLJK DQG DEVROXWH QXPEHUV                   DQRWKHU PDQLIHVWDWLRQ RI ...
*RRG SURJUHVV KDV DOVR EHHQ PDGH                       HVSLWH WKHVH HQFRXUDJLQJ WUHQGV DV DW HQG  LQ EULQJLQJ ,QWHUQHW DFF...
ZHUH QRWVFKRROV KRVSLWDOV PXVHXPV OLEUDULHV DQG DUFKLYHV DW                  HW XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW DQG HYHQ IHZHU YLD D EU...
ZKHUH DURXQG  SHU FHQW RI KRXVHKROGV                      KLJKVSHHG ,QWHUQHW                                              ...
Chapter 1. Introduction Chart 1.5: Internet users, 2000-2010, world and by level of development, penetration (left) and an...
DQG WKRVH ZLWK ORZHUSKRQHV DQG WDEOHW FRPSXWHUV
LV FHUWDLQO DFFHOHUDWLQJ                                   VSHHGFDSDFLWTXDOLW DFFHVV DV LV WKH FDVH LQ PDQWKLV SURFHVV EXW...
FRXQWULHV DQG WKHUH LV D QHHG WR GHYHORS PRUH DIIRUGDEOH PRGHOV DQG GHYLFHV )XUWKHUPRUH WKH XVH DQG                       ...
Measuring the Information Society 2011IXWXUH SROLF DFWLRQ QHHGV WR DGGUHVV LVVXHV QRW RQO RI        *1, SHU FDSLWD DQG SUH...
DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ KDSWHU DQDOVLV RI NH ,7 LQGLFDWRUV LW FRQVWLWXWHV D PDMRU          )LUVW WKH PDLQ SXUSRVH RI WKH ,3% LV H...
DQG WKH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW            DUH DOVR VKRZQ LQ 86 DQG 333 GROODUV 7KH FKDSWHU,3%
7KH ODWHVW UHVXOWV IRU WKHVH WZR PHWULFV ZLOO KHOS       KLJKOLJKWV FRXQWULHV UHFRUGLQJ WKH KLJKHVW GHFUHDVHSROLFPDNHUV PR...
7KLV          À[HGEURDGEDQG WDULIIVHGLWLRQ ZLOO WKXV IHDWXUH WKH ,, DQG ,3% IRU WKH WZRHDUV  DQG  DV ZHOO DV GHWDLOHG HQG ...
,QWHUQHWOHFWHG E ,78 FRPSOHPHQWHG E GDWD UHFHLYHG IURP               EDQGZLGWK DYDLODEOH LQ FRXQWULHVUHJLRQV DQG KRZ WKHVH...
WKH 81(62 ,QVWLWXWH IRU 6WDWLVWLFV 8,6
DQG GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV 7KH FKDSWHU KLJKOLJKWV UHFHQWVWDWLVWLFV RQ OLWHUDF DQG VFKRRO HQUROPHQW
WKH :RUOG        QDWLRQDO EURDGEDQG SROLFLHV DQG PDNHV VXJJHVWLRQV RQ%DQN GDWD RQ *1, SHU FDSLWD DQG 333 GROODUV
:LUHOHVV         KRZ SROLFPDNHUV FRXOG IXUWKHU HQKDQFH EURDGEDQG,QWHOOLJHQFH GDWD RQ PRELOH EURDGEDQG
DQG 5HVHDUFK            LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV,7 $IULFD KRXVHKROG VXUYH GDWD RQ $IULFD
)LQDOO KDSWHU  ORRNV EHRQG DFFHVV DQG FRQQHFWLYLWKDSWHU  IHDWXUHV WKH PDLQ UHVXOWV IRU WKH ODWHVW ,7          DQG SURYLGHV...
FRPSDULQJ WKH HDUV                HUV DQG XVDJH EDVHG RQ GDWD DYDLODEOH IURP KRXVHKROGDQG  $IWHU LQWURGXFLQJ WKH PDLQ REMH...
HVSHFLDOO DPRQJ WKH GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV ,W           WLRQ ,W DOVR ORRNV DW VRPH RI WKH NH HPHUJLQJ DFWLYLWLHVDOVR ORRNV D...
Chapter 1. IntroductionGLVFXVVHV KRZ LQ WKH OLJKW RI WKRVH GLYLGHV PRUH SHRSOH          7KH SXEOLFDWLRQ HQGV ZLWK D OLVW R...
Measuring the Information Society 2011Chapter 2. The ICT DevelopmentIndex (IDI)2.1 Introduction                           ...
LV D FRPSRVLWH LQGH[              WU·V WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ WR EHFRPLQJ DQ LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHWFRPELQLQJ  LQGLFDWRUV LQWR RQH EHQF...
LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG FRPPXQLFDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ ,7
DFURVV FRXQWULHV 7KH ,, ZDV GHYHORSHG E ,78 LQ                    ‡ VWDJH  ,7 UHDGLQHVV UHÁHFWLQJ WKH OHYHO RI DQG ÀUVW SU...
LQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW ,78
,W ZDV HVWDEOLVKHGLQ UHVSRQVH WR ,78 0HPEHU 6WDWHV· UHTXHVW WR GHYHORS                 ‡ VWDJH  ,7 LQWHQVLW UHÁHFWLQJ WKH ...
EULHÁ GHVFULEHV WKH PDLQ REMHFWLYHV FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN DQG PHWKRGRORJ RI WKH ,,                                    ‡ VWD...
7KH PDLQ REMHFWLYHV RI WKH ,, DUH WR PHDVXUH                                                                  $GYDQFLQJ WK...
VNLOOV GHWHUPLQH WKH     ZLWK GLIIHUHQW OHYHOV RI ,7 GHYHORSPHQW                    HIIHFWLYH XVH WKDW LV PDGH RI ,7V DQG ...
RI WKH ,7 GHLI DSSOLHG DQG XVHG DSSURSULDWHO LV FULWLFDO WR FRXQWULHV       YHORSPHQW SURFHVV WKXV UHTXLULQJ WKH FRQVWUXFW...
Chapter 2. The ICT Development Index (IDI)  Figure 2.1: Three stages in the evolution towards an information society      ...
+RZHYHU LQ WKH IXWXUH LW PD EH     WHOHSKRQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK               FRPH HVVHQWLDO DQG EH PRYHG WR ...
ZKLOH DQRWKHU QHZ WHFKQRORJ     ZLWK ,QWHUQHW
PD DSSHDU LQ VWDJH    ‡ 8VH VXELQGH[ 7KLV VXELQGH[ FDSWXUHV ,7 LQWHQ          Methodology     VLW DQG LQFOXGHV WKUHH ,7 LQ...
EURDG            7KH ,, LQFOXGHV  LQGLFDWRUV )LJXUH
$ GHWDLOHG     EDQG DQG PRELOH EURDGEDQG
GHÀQLWLRQ RI HDFK LQGLFDWRU LV SURYLGHG LQ $QQH[    ‡ 6NLOOV VXELQGH[ 7KLV VXELQGH[ FDSWXUHV ,7              6HOHFWLRQ RI ...
DQG WKHUHIRUH LV JLYHQ OHVV                  IUDPHZRUN RI WKH ,, )RU H[DPSOH WKH VHOHFWHG     ZHLJKW LQ WKH FRPSXWDWLRQ RI...
Measuring the Information Society 2011       WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH VLQJOH LQGH[ ZHUH WDNHQ                       *LYHQ WK...
GDWD ZLWK PRUH GDWD     HVSHFLDOO DW WKH KRXVHKROG OHYHO LQ WKH PDMRULW                     EDVHG RQ QDWLRQDO KRXVHKROG VX...
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Measuring The Information Society by ITU
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Measuring The Information Society by ITU

2.701 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Measuring The Information Society by International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

0 Kommentare
2 Gefällt mir
Statistik
Notizen
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Keine Downloads
Aufrufe
Aufrufe insgesamt
2.701
Auf SlideShare
0
Aus Einbettungen
0
Anzahl an Einbettungen
2
Aktionen
Geteilt
0
Downloads
134
Kommentare
0
Gefällt mir
2
Einbettungen 0
Keine Einbettungen

Keine Notizen für die Folie

Measuring The Information Society by ITU

  1. 1. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n U n i o n Measuring the Information Society 2011
  2. 2. , Q W H U Q D W L R Q D O 7 H O H F R P P X Q L F D W L R Q 8 Q L R Q 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW
  3. 3. ‹ ,78 ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ 8QLRQ 3ODFH GHV 1DWLRQV + *HQHYD 6ZLW]HUODQG 2ULJLQDO ODQJXDJH RI SXEOLFDWLRQ (QJOLVK$OO ULJKWV UHVHUYHG 1R SDUW RI WKLV SXEOLFDWLRQ PD EH UHSURGXFHG VWRUHG LQ D UHWULHYDO VVWHP RU WUDQVPLWWHGLQ DQ IRUP RU E DQ PHDQV HOHFWURQLF PHFKDQLFDO SKRWRFRSLQJ UHFRUGLQJ RU RWKHUZLVH ZLWKRXW WKH SULRU SHUPLVVLRQ RI WKH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ 8QLRQ ,6%1 LL
  4. 4. Foreword, DP SOHDVHG WR SUHVHQW WKH HGLWLRQ RI 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW (DFK HDU WKLV SXEOLFDWLRQ IHDWXUHVWKH ODWHVW ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  5. 5. DQG ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,3%
  6. 6. ²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À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À[HGWHOHSKRQ PRELOHFHOOXODU WHOHSKRQ DQG À[HGEURDGEDQG ,QWHUQHW VHUYLFHVDW JOREDO DQG UHJLRQDO OHYHOV DQG KLJKOLJKWV WKH GLIIHUHQFH LQ SULFHV EHWZHHQ GHYHORSHG DQG GHYHORSLQJ UHJLRQVRYHULQJ HFRQRPLHV LW LV WKH RQO SULFH EDVNHW WR PRQLWRU WKH DIIRUGDELOLW RI ,7 VHUYLFHV ZRUOGZLGH 7KHUHVXOWV VKRZ WKDW ,7 SULFHV FRQWLQXH WR IDOO LQ SDUWLFXODU À[HGEURDGEDQG SULFHV ZKLFK GURSSHG E PRUH WKDQ SHU FHQW RYHU WKH SDVW WZR HDUV :KLOH WKLV LV H[WUHPHO HQFRXUDJLQJ EURDGEDQG LV VWLOO WRR H[SHQVLYH LQ PDQGHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV ZKHUH LW FRVWV RQ DYHUDJH PRUH WKDQ SHU FHQW RI PRQWKO LQFRPH FRPSDUHG ZLWK SHU FHQW LQ GHYHORSHG FRXQWULHV RXQWULHV ZLWKRXW DIIRUGDEOH EURDGEDQG DFFHVV UXQ WKH ULVN RI IDOOLQJ EHKLQGLQ WKH JOREDO LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW DQG , KRSH WKDW WKLV UHSRUW ZLOO SURPSW SROLFPDNHUV WR ORRN LQWR ZDV RIORZHULQJ ,7 SULFHV7KH ,7 IRU GHYHORSPHQW GHEDWH LV ZLWQHVVLQJ DQ REYLRXV VKLIW WKH IRFXV LV QR ORQJHU RQ WKH PRELOHFHOOXODUPLUDFOH EXW RQ WKH QHHG IRU KLJKVSHHG EURDGEDQG ,QWHUQHW DFFHVV 7KH UHSRUW VKRZV WKDW ZLUHOHVVEURDGEDQG,QWHUQHW DFFHVV LV WKH VWURQJHVW JURZWK VHFWRU ZLWK SUHSDLG PRELOH EURDGEDQG PXVKURRPLQJ LQ PDQ GHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHV DQG ,QWHUQHW XVHUV VKLIWLQJ IURP À[HG WR ZLUHOHVV FRQQHFWLRQV DQG GHYLFHV 7KH HPHUJHQFH RI QHZ PRELOHGHYLFHV VXFK DV VPDUWSKRQHV DQG WDEOHW FRPSXWHUV LV DFFHOHUDWLQJ WKLV SURFHVV EXW WKH DUH VWLOO WRR H[SHQVLYHLQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DQG WKHUH LV D QHHG WR GHYHORS PRUH DIIRUGDEOH PRGHOV DQG SURGXFWV )XUWKHUPRUH WKHDYDLODELOLW RI EDQGZLGWK DQG FDSDFLW ZLOO LQFUHDVLQJO GHWHUPLQH WKH XVH DQG EHQHÀFLDO LPSDFW RI ,7V $V WKLVUHSRUW VKRZV D GLJLWDO GLYLGH LV XQIROGLQJ EHWZHHQ WKRVH ZLWK KLJKVSHHGFDSDFLWTXDOLW DFFHVV DV LV WKH FDVHLQ PDQ KLJKLQFRPH FRXQWULHV
  7. 7. DQG WKRVH ZLWK ORZHU VSHHGFDSDFLWTXDOLW DFFHVV DV LV WKH FDVH LQ PDQ ORZLQFRPH FRXQWULHV
  8. 8. :KLOH WKH SRWHQWLDO GHYHORSPHQW LPSDFW RI EULQJLQJ SHRSOH IURP GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV RQOLQHYLD ZLUHOHVV DFFHVV LV HQRUPRXV KLJKHQG XVHUV IURP WKH EXVLQHVV VHFWRU DQG SXEOLF DQG SULYDWH RUJDQL]DWLRQVFRQWLQXH WR UHO RQ KLJKVSHHG À[HGEURDGEDQG FRQQHFWLRQV 3ROLFPDNHUV VKRXOG DFW VZLIWO WR IDFLOLWDWH WKHVSUHDG RI EURDGEDQG DQG HQVXUH WKDW EURDGEDQG VHUYLFHV DUH IDVW UHOLDEOH DQG DIIRUGDEOH7KH SROLF IRFXV LV RIWHQ RQ HQKDQFLQJ ,7 LQIUDVWUXFWXUH DQG DFFHVV 7KH IXOO ,7 GHYHORSPHQW LPSDFW ZLOO RQOEH IHOW KRZHYHU RQFH SHRSOH DUH XVLQJ WKH WHFKQRORJLHV HIIHFWLYHO $V PRUH DQG PRUH FRXQWULHV FROOHFW ,QWHUQHWXVHU GDWD WKH SURYLGH YDOXDEOH LQVLJKWV LQWR ZKR LV FXUUHQWO RQOLQH 7KH UHSRUW VKRZV WKDW WKH ,QWHUQHW XVDJH LLL
  9. 9. GLYLGH UXQV DORQJ JHQGHU HGXFDWLRQ LQFRPH DQG DJH OLQHV DQG WKHUH DUH VLJQLÀ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²RQFH VWXGHQWV KDYH VWDUWHG XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW WKH ZLOO VWULYH WR FRQWLQXH WR GR VR LUUHVSHFWLYH RI WKHLU DJH JHQGHULQFRPH RU ÀQDO VFKRRO TXDOLÀFDWLRQ7R HQVXUH WKDW WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW ZLOO EH WUXO JOREDO DQG LQFOXVLYH PXFK QHHGV WR EH GRQH WR EULQJ LWVEHQHÀWV WR WKH SRRUHVW LQ RXU VRFLHWLHV 7KLV PHDQV WKDW IXWXUH SROLF DFWLRQ QHHGV WR DGGUHVV LVVXHV WKDW DUHUHODWHG QRW RQO WR DFFHVV EXW DOVR WR ‡ SULFH ‡ EDQGZLGWK ‡ VSHHG DQG TXDOLW RI VHUYLFH ‡ VNLOOV ‡ FRQWHQW DQG ODQJXDJH DQG ‡ DSSOLFDWLRQV WDUJHWHG WR ORZHQG XVHUV,Q RUGHU WR HIIHFWLYHO PRQLWRU WUHQGV DQG DVVHVV SURJUHVV WKHUH LV QHHG IRU FRQWLQXRXV GHYHORSPHQW RI UHOLDEOHLQGLFDWRUV 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW LV D NH FRQWULEXWLRQ WR WKLV SURFHVV , WUXVW WKDW WKH GDWD DQGDQDOVLV SURYLGHG ZLOO EH XVHIXO WR SROLFPDNHUV WKH ,7 LQGXVWU DFDGHPLD PDUNHW DQDOVWV DQG RWKHUV ZKRDUH PRQLWRULQJ JOREDO ,7 GHYHORSPHQWV %UDKLPD 6DQRX LUHFWRU 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ HYHORSPHQW %XUHDX %7
  10. 10. ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ 8QLRQ iv
  11. 11. Acknowledgements7KH HGLWLRQ RI 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW ZDV SUHSDUHG E WKH ,7 DWD DQG 6WDWLVWLFV LYLVLRQ ZLWKLQWKH 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ HYHORSPHQW %XUHDX RI ,78 7KH WHDP LQFOXGHG 6XVDQ 7HOWVFKHU +HDG RI LYLVLRQ
  12. 12. 9DQHVVD *UD (VSHUDQ]D 0DJSDQWD RULV 2ODD ,YDQ 9DOOHMR DQG 6RQD %XUDFRQG GXULQJ KHU LQWHUQVKLS DW ,78
  13. 13. KULVWRSK 6WRUN FRQVXOWDQW WR ,78
  14. 14. SURYLGHG VXEVWDQWLYH LQSXWV WR KDSWHU RI WKH UHSRUW 2OLYLHU 3RXSDHUW1DWKDOLH 5ROOHW DQG (NDWHULQD %RQDFKHYD GXULQJ KHU LQWHUQVKLS DW ,78
  15. 15. FRQWULEXWHG WR WKH GDWD FROOHFWLRQ DQG0LFKDHO 0LQJHV FRQVXOWDQW WR ,78
  16. 16. FRPSLOHG DQG SUHSDUHG WKH GDWD VHW RQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK +HOSIXOFRPPHQWV DQG VXJJHVWLRQV ZHUH UHFHLYHG IURP 0DUWLQ $GROSK ,7876%
  17. 17. DQG 6HUJLR %XRQRPR ,78%5
  18. 18. DV ZHOODV FROOHDJXHV LQ WKH ,78 5HJLRQDO 2IÀFH IRU $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF 7KH ZRUN ZDV FDUULHG RXW XQGHU WKH RYHUDOO GLUHFWLRQRI RVPDV =DYD]DYD KLHI DL 3URMHFW 6XSSRUW DQG .QRZOHGJH 0DQDJHPHQW HSDUWPHQW 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQHYHORSPHQW %XUHDX7KH UHSRUW LQFOXGHV GDWD UHFHLYHG IURP (XURVWDW WKH 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV 3RSXODWLRQ LYLVLRQ DQG :LUHOHVV ,QWHOOLJHQFH DV ZHOO DV SXUFKDVLQJ SRZHU SDULW FRQYHUVLRQ IDFWRUV UHFHLYHG IURP WKH :RUOG %DQN DQG ÀEUHRSWLF DFFHVVGDWD SURYLGHG E WKH )LEHUWRWKH+RPH RXQFLO ZKLFK LV JUHDWO DFNQRZOHGJHG,78 DOVR DSSUHFLDWHV WKH FRRSHUDWLRQ RI FRXQWULHV WKDW KDYH SURYLGHG GDWD LQFOXGHG LQ WKH ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[DQG ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW7KH UHSRUW ZDV HGLWHG E WKH ,78 (QJOLVK 7UDQVODWLRQ 6HFWLRQ OHG E $QWKRQ 3LWW 7KH GHVNWRS SXEOLVKLQJ ZDVFDUULHG RXW E 1DWKDOLH 5ROOHW DQG WKH FRYHU ZDV GHVLJQHG E 6LPRQ GH 1LFROD $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VXSSRUW ZDV SURYLGHG E +HUDZDVLK DVDQGLNXVXPD Y
  19. 19. Table of contents)RUHZRUG LLL$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV YKDSWHU ,QWURGXFWLRQ KDSWHU 7KH ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  20. 20. ,QWURGXFWLRQ *OREDO ,, DQDOVLV ,, EUHDNGRZQ E VXELQGLFHV 5HJLRQDO ,, DQDOVLV KDSWHU 7KH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,3%
  21. 21. ,QWURGXFWLRQ ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW PHWKRGRORJ ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW UHVXOWV DQG DQDOVLV ,3% VXEEDVNHW UHVXOWV DQG DQDOVLV RPSDULQJ PRELOHEURDGEDQG SULFHV ² KLJK VSHHG OLPLWHG YROXPH KDSWHU 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ EURDGEDQG DGGUHVVLQJ LVVXHV RI FDSDFLW VSHHG DQG TXDOLW RI VHUYLFH ,QWURGXFWLRQ )URP QDUURZEDQG WR EURDGEDQG %URDGEDQG UHYLVLWHG WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI FDSDFLW VSHHG DQG TXDOLW RQFOXVLRQV DQG UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV KDSWHU ,QFUHDVLQJ ,QWHUQHW XVH WKH UROH RI HGXFDWLRQ LQFRPH JHQGHU DJH DQG ORFDWLRQ ,QWURGXFWLRQ )URP YRLFH WR GDWD WUDIÀF (GXFDWLRQ PDWWHUV 7KH JHQGHU GLYLGH 7KH XUEDQUXUDO GLYLGH )URP HPDLO WR VRFLDO QHWZRUNV GULYHUV RI ,QWHUQHW XVH RQFOXVLRQV /LVW RI UHIHUHQFHV $QQH[ ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  22. 22. PHWKRGRORJ$QQH[ ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,3%
  23. 23. PHWKRGRORJ$QQH[ 0HWKRGRORJLFDO DVSHFWV UHODWHG WR KRXVHKROG VXUYH UHVXOWV $QQH[ 6WDWLVWLFDO WDEOHV RI LQGLFDWRUV XVHG WR FRPSXWH WKH ,, $QQH[ 6WDWLVWLFDO WDEOHV RI WDULIIV XVHG WR FRPSXWH WKH ,3% YLL
  24. 24. List of charts *OREDO ,7 GHYHORSPHQWV SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
  25. 25. DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
  26. 26. 0RELOHFHOOXODU VXEVFULSWLRQV ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
  27. 27. DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
  28. 28. )L[HGEURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
  29. 29. DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
  30. 30. 0RELOHEURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
  31. 31. DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
  32. 32. ,QWHUQHW XVHUV ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
  33. 33. DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
  34. 34. +RXVHKROGV ZLWK ,QWHUQHW DFFHVV ZRUOG DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW SHQHWUDWLRQ OHIW
  35. 35. DQG DQQXDO JURZWK ULJKW
  36. 36. ,, E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW ,, DFFHVV VXELQGH[ E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW ,, XVH VXELQGH[ E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW ,, VNLOOV VXELQGH[ E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW ,, DQG *1, SHU FDSLWD ,, DQG *1, SHU FDSLWD E UHJLRQ ,, DQG *1, SHU FDSLWD E UHJLRQ ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW 5HODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ DQG WKH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW DQG )L[HGWHOHSKRQH VXEEDVNHW E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW DQG )L[HGWHOHSKRQH VXEEDVNHW E UHJLRQ DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW 0RELOHFHOOXODU VXEEDVNHW E UHJLRQ DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW 0RELOHFHOOXODU VXEEDVNHW E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW DQG )L[HGEURDGEDQG VXEEDVNHW E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW DQG )L[HGEURDGEDQG VXEEDVNHW E UHJLRQ DQG E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW ,7 SULFH VXEEDVNHWV E UHJLRQ DQG %URDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV E WHFKQRORJ 8QLWHG 6WDWHV -XQH (FRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH KLJKHVW SHQHWUDWLRQ RI ÀEUHWRWKHKRPHEXLOGLQJ /$1 %URDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV LQ WKH 2( E WHFKQRORJ HFHPEHU )L[HG ZLUHG
  37. 37. EURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV E VSHHG VHOHFWHG HFRQRPLHV )DVWHVW EURDGEDQG VSHHGV DGYHUWLVHG E WKH LQFXPEHQW WHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ RSHUDWRU 0ELWV DOO WHFKQRORJLHV 2( DQG VHOHFWHG QRQ2( FRXQWULHV $YHUDJH GRZQORDG VSHHG IRU 0ELWV SDFNDJHV -DQXDU0DUFK %DKUDLQ 7RWDO LQWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK LQ 7%LWV
  38. 38. E OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW ,QWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK ELWV SHU XVHU
  39. 39. E UHJLRQ DQG viii
  40. 40. 3HUFHQWDJH RI FRXQWULHV FROOHFWLQJ GDWD RQ ,QWHUQHW XVDJH WRWDO DQG E UHJLRQ 3HUFHQWDJH RI LQGLYLGXDOV DJHG WR XVLQJ ,QWHUQHW DQG FRPSXWHU ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU 3HUFHQWDJH RI LQGLYLGXDOV DJHG WR XVLQJ D PRELOH SKRQH ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU 3HUFHQWDJH RI LQGLYLGXDOV DJHG RU ROGHU RZQLQJ D PRELOH SKRQH DQG XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW VHOHFWHG $IULFDQ FRXQWULHV 3HUFHQWDJH RI LQGLYLGXDOV XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW E KLJKHVW HGXFDWLRQDO OHYHO DWWDLQHG ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU
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
  42. 42. DQG DW KRPH ULJKW
  43. 43. VHOHFWHG FRXQWULHV ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU 3URSRUWLRQ RI LQGLYLGXDOV XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW E DJH JURXS ODWHVW DYDLODEOH HDU
  44. 44. List of figures 7KUHH VWDJHV LQ WKH HYROXWLRQ WRZDUGV DQ LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ LQGLFDWRUV DQG ZHLJKWV 6SLGHU FKDUWV VHOHFWHG GQDPLF FRXQWULHV DQG ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ YDOXH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW PHWKRGRORJ ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW YDOXH 7KH ULVH RI * FRXQWULHV WKDW RIIHU ** VHUYLFHV FRPPHUFLDOO )L[HG ZLUHG
  45. 45. DQG ZLUHOHVVEURDGEDQG WHFKQRORJLHV ² VSHHG YHUVXV PRELOLW List of boxes 7KH FKDOOHQJHV RI PHDVXULQJ PRELOH EURDGEDQG ,QWHUQHW DFFHVV D OHJDO ULJKW LQ )LQODQG $UPHQLD·V VXUJH LQ ,QWHUQHW XVH .HQD ² $IULFD·V IDVWHVW JURZLQJ ,QWHUQHW PDUNHW L[
  46. 46. 0RELOH ,QWHUQHW LQ 0RURFFR 2PDQ·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À[HGEURDGEDQG VHUYLFHV LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV HÀQLQJ EURDGEDQG ² D PRYLQJ WDUJHW 7KH VSHFWUXP FULVLV VWUXJJOLQJ WR NHHS XS WKH VSHHG FDSDFLW DQG TXDOLW RI PRELOH VHUYLFHV 6UL /DQND 7HOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQV 5HJXODWRU RPPLVVLRQ·V 756/
  47. 47. JXLGHOLQHV RQ DGYHUWLVLQJ PRELOHEURDGEDQG VSHHGV $IULFD MRLQV WKH JOREDO LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW 6RFLDO QHWZRUNLQJ DV D NH GULYHU IRU EULGJLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW GLYLGH LQ 1DPLELD +RZ DFFXUDWH DUH )DFHERRN XVHU VWDWLVWLFVList of tables ,, FKDQJHV ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  48. 48. DQG 0RVW GQDPLF FRXQWULHV WRS WHQ
  49. 49. ² FKDQJHV EHWZHHQ ,, DQG RXQWU JURXSV EDVHG RQ GLIIHUHQW ,, OHYHOV $GYDQFHPHQW RI FRXQWULHV EHWZHHQ ,, JURXSV
  50. 50. /LVW RI HFRQRPLHV E ,, OHYHOV DQG LQFRPH ,, DFFHVV VXELQGH[ DQG 7RS WHQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW FKDQJH LQ WKH ,, DFFHVV VXELQGH[ E DEVROXWH YDOXH FKDQJH OHIW
  51. 51. DQG UDQN FKDQJH ULJKW
  52. 52. ,, XVH VXELQGH[ DQG 7RS WHQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW FKDQJH LQ WKH ,, XVH VXELQGH[ E DEVROXWH YDOXH FKDQJH OHIW
  53. 53. DQG UDQN FKDQJH ULJKW
  54. 54. ,, VNLOOV VXELQGH[ DQG 7KH WRS ÀYH LQ HDFK UHJLRQ DQG WKHLU UDQNLQJ LQ WKH JOREDO ,, ,, UDQJHV DQG x
  55. 55. ,, ² $IULFD ,, ² $UDE 6WDWHV ,, ² $VLD DQG WKH 3DFLÀF ,, ² ,6 ,, ² (XURSH ,, ² $PHULFDV ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW DQG VXEEDVNHWV DQG ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW DQG VXEEDVNHWV DYHUDJHV
  56. 56. DQG 7HQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW GHFUHDVH LQ WKH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW E UHODWLYH FKDQJH LQ OHIW
  57. 57. DQG DEVROXWH YDOXH FKDQJH ULJKW
  58. 58. )L[HGWHOHSKRQH VXEEDVNHW DQG 0RELOHFHOOXODU VXEEDVNHW DQG 7HQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW GHFUHDVH LQ WKH PRELOHFHOOXODU VXEEDVNHW E DEVROXWH YDOXH FKDQJH OHIW
  59. 59. DQG UHODWLYH FKDQJH LQ ULJKW
  60. 60. )L[HGEURDGEDQG VXEEDVNHW DQG 7HQ HFRQRPLHV ZLWK WKH JUHDWHVW GHFUHDVH LQ À[HGEURDGEDQG SULFHV E DEVROXWH YDOXH FKDQJH OHIW
  61. 61. DQG UHODWLYH FKDQJH LQ ULJKW
  62. 62. 0RELOHEURDGEDQG DQG À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
  63. 63. )DFHERRN SHQHWUDWLRQ VHOHFWHG FRXQWULHV
  64. 64. $XJXVW [L
  65. 65. Measuring the Information Society 2011Chapter 1. Introduction2YHU WKH SDVW HDU WKH ZRUOG KDV ZLWQHVVHG FRQWLQX QHWZRUNV $YDLODEOH GDWD VKRZ WKDW À[HGEURDGEDQGRXV JURZWK LQ ,7 VHUYLFHV DQG XSWDNH ZRUOGZLGH $V VXEVFULSWLRQV KDYH PRUH WKDQ GRXEOHG RYHU WKH SDVWSRVWFULVLV GDWD EHFRPH DYDLODEOH WKH FRQÀUP WKH ÀYH HDUV 7KH GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV· VKDUH LV LQFUHDVLQJVXVWDLQHG JURZWK RI WKH WHOHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ DQG ,QWHUQHW UDSLGO EXW WKHUH LV VWLOO D KXJH GLYLGH ZKHQ LW FRPHV WRPDUNHW RYHUDOO DOEHLW ZLWK VRPH QRWDEOH YDULDWLRQV À[HGEURDGEDQG DFFHVV :KLOH À[HGEURDGEDQG SHQHWUD WLRQ LQ GHYHORSHG FRXQWULHV KDG FOLPEHG WR DOPRVW SHU)L[HG WHOHSKRQ FRQWLQXHV WR GHFOLQH DV LW KDV GRQH FHQW E HQG DQG JURZWK LV VORZLQJ VXJJHVWLQJ WKDWVLQFH HVSHFLDOO LQ GHYHORSHG FRXQWULHV ZKHUH VDWXUDWLRQ OHYHOV DUH EHLQJ UHDFKHG LW VWDQGV DW RQO D VDWXUDWHG À[HGOLQH PDUNHW KDV EHHQ RYHUWDNHQ E SHU FHQW LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV ZLWK PDMRU GLIIHUHQFHVPRELOHFHOOXODU WHOHSKRQ 7RGD LQ GHYHORSHG FRXQ DPRQJ FRXQWULHV DQG UHJLRQV KDUW
  66. 66. WULHV PRELOHFHOOXODU WHOHSKRQ KDV UHDFKHG VDWXUDWLRQOHYHOV WRR UHFRUGLQJ SHQHWUDWLRQ UDWHV RI RYHU SHU :LUHOHVVEURDGEDQG ,QWHUQHW DFFHVV UHPDLQV WKH VWURQJFHQW DQG D JURZWK RI RQO RQH SHU FHQW GXULQJ WKH SDVW HVW JURZWK VHFWRU ,QGHHG WKH VLQJOH PRVW GQDPLF ,7HDU ,Q GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV E FRQWUDVW JURZWK LQ GHYHORSPHQW RYHU WKH SDVW HDU KDV EHHQ WKH VXUJH LQPRELOH VXEVFULSWLRQV LV VWLOO EXRDQW DW SHU FHQW PRELOHEURDGEDQG VXEVFULSWLRQV KDUWV DQG
  67. 67. ZLWK QR VLJQ RI D VORZGRZQ WKXV FRQÀUPLQJ WKH FRQ :LUHOHVVEURDGEDQG DFFHVV LQFOXGLQJ SUHSDLG PRELOHWLQXDWLRQ RI WKH ´PRELOH PLUDFOHµKDUWV DQG
  68. 68. EURDGEDQG LV PXVKURRPLQJ LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DQG ,QWHUQHW XVHUV DUH VKLIWLQJ PRUH DQG PRUH IURP3ROLFPDNHUV DQG LQYHVWRUV KDYH EHHQ GLUHFWLQJ FRQ À[HG WR ZLUHOHVV FRQQHFWLRQV DQG GHYLFHV 7KH SRWHQWLDOVLGHUDEOH DWWHQWLRQ WRZDUGV WKH GLIIXVLRQ RI EURDGEDQG GHYHORSPHQW LPSDFW RI EULQJLQJ SHRSOH IURP GHYHORS Chart 1.1: Global ICT developments, 2000-2010, penetration (left) and annual growth (right) Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions % Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions 100 140 Internet users Internet users 90 Fixed-telephone lines 120 Fixed-telephone lines 80 Active mobile-broadband subscriptions 78.0 Active mobile-broadband subscriptions Per 100 inhabitants 100 70 Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions 80 60 60 50 40 40 30 29.7 20 20 17.2 0 12.6 10 -20 7.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -1 0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. 1
  69. 69. Chapter 1. Introduction Chart 1.2: Mobile-cellular subscriptions, 2000-2010, world and by level of development, penetration (left) and annual growth (right) Developed % 50 Developed World World 120 Developing 114.2 40 Developing 100 Per 100 inhabitants 30 80 78.0 70.1 60 20 40 10 20 0 20 1 20 2 20 3 4 5 20 6 20 7 8 20 9 0 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -1 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 20 20 20 20 Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. Chart 1.3: Fixed-broadband subscriptions, 2000-2010, world and by level of development, penetration (left) and annual growth (right) Developed % 160 Developed 30 World 140 World Developing 25 120 Developing Per 100 inhabitants 23.6 100 20 80 15 60 10 40 7.6 20 5 4.2 0 1 2 3 9 0 8 4 5 6 7 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -1 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 00 01 02 08 09 07 03 04 05 06 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.LQJ FRXQWULHV RQOLQH YLD ZLUHOHVV DFFHVV LV HQRUPRXV PHQW RI LQWHUQDWLRQDOO DJUHHG GHYHORSPHQW JRDOV 7KHDQG SROLFPDNHUV DUH DZDUH RI WKH QHHG WR DFW VZLIWO UHFRJQLWLRQ RI ,7V DV D WRRO WR JHQHUDWH LQFRPH DQGLQ RUGHU WR IDFLOLWDWH WKLV SURFHVV HPSORPHQW WR SURYLGH DFFHVV WR EXVLQHVV DQG KHDOWK LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG WR HQDEOH HOHDUQLQJ DQG IDFLOLWDWH H0RELOH ,QWHUQHW ² DW EURDGEDQG VSHHGV ² ZDV SUDFWLFDOO JRYHUQPHQW LV QRZ ZHOO HVWDEOLVKHG 7KLV LV ZK WKHQRQH[LVWHQW DW WKH WLPH ZKHQ WKH 0LOOHQQLXP HYHORS %URDGEDQG RPPLVVLRQ IRU LJLWDO HYHORSPHQW ZDVPHQW *RDOV 0*V
  70. 70. ZHUH VHW LQ DQG ZDV LQ LWV ODXQFKHG LQ ZLWK WKH PLVVLRQ WR SURPRWH WKH DGRSLQIDQF ZKHQ WKH :RUOG 6XPPLW RQ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ WLRQ RI EURDGEDQGHQDEOLQJ SROLFLHV HVSHFLDOO LQ GHYHO6RFLHW :6,6
  71. 71. FRQFOXGHG LQ $W WKH VDPH WLPH RSLQJ FRXQWULHV 7KH RPPLVVLRQ WKXV FRPSOHPHQWVWKH PRELOH UHYROXWLRQ ² LQFOXGLQJ WKH HPHUJLQJ PRELOH RWKHU GHYHORSPHQW SURFHVVHV E DGYRFDWLQJ WKH UROH RIEURDGEDQG ,QWHUQHW ² LV D NH HQDEOHU IRU WKH DFKLHYH EURDGEDQG LQ DFFHOHUDWLQJ DFKLHYHPHQW RI WKH 0*V 2
  72. 72. Measuring the Information Society 2011 Chart 1.4: Mobile-broadband subscriptions, 2007-2010, world and by level of development, penetration (left) and annual growth (right) % Developed Developed 180 50 160 World World 46.2 Developing Developing 140 40 120 Per 100 inhabitants 100 30 80 20 60 40 12.6 10 20 5.3 0 9 0 8 0 -0 -1 -0 08 09 07 2007 2008 2009 2010 20 20 20 Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.,Q WKH UXQXS WR ² ZKLFK LV LQ OHVV WKDQ ÀYH HDUV· KDG DFFHVV WR WKH ,QWHUQHW DW HQG DV DJDLQVW SHUWLPH ² D VWURQJ LQWHUHVW DQG DQ XUJHQF WR DFW FDQ EH FHQW LQ GHYHORSHG FRXQWULHVREVHUYHG LQ WKH LQWHUQDWLRQDO FRPPXQLW WR ZRUN WRZDUGV WKH LQWHUQDWLRQDO GHYHORSPHQW JRDOV ,78·V :6,6 %HVLGHV WKH UROH RI ,7V LQ DFKLHYLQJ GHYHORSPHQWPLGWHUP UHYLHZ LQ KDV VKRZQ WKDW JRRG SURJUHVV JRDOV UHFHQW HYHQWV VXFK DV WKH $UDE VSULQJ DQG WKHKDV EHHQ PDGH LQ WHUPV RI FRQQHFWLQJ SHRSOH YLD PRELOH SXEOLFDWLRQ RI FRQÀGHQWLDO SROLWLFDO LQIRUPDWLRQ RQWHFKQRORJLHV ,78 D
  73. 73. 0RELOHFHOOXODU QHWZRUN FRYHU WKH ,QWHUQHW KDYH GHPRQVWUDWHG WKH SRZHU RI FRPPXDJH DOUHDG VWDQGV DW QHDUO SHU FHQW RI WKH SRSXODWLRQ QLFDWLRQ DQG FRQQHFWHGQHVV DQG HQRUPRXVO LQFUHDVHGDQG WKHUH LV HYHU FKDQFH LW ZLOO ULVH WR DOPRVW SHU FHQW SROLWLFDO LQWHUHVW LQ WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW 7KH VSUHDGE 6LPLODUO EDVLF UDGLR DQG 79 VHUYLFHV DUH ZLGHO RI ,7V LQ VRFLHWLHV ZKHUH FRPPXQLFDWLRQ DQG DFFHVVDYDLODEOH DQG FRXOG UHDFK WKH PDMRULW RI WKH ZRUOG·V WR LQIRUPDWLRQ KDV KLWKHUWR EHHQ YHU OLPLWHG LV PDNLQJSRSXODWLRQ E SURYLGHG WKDW WKH ODFN RI HOHFWULFLW ,7V DQ HYHQ PRUH SRZHUIXO WRRO WKDQ HYHUDQG EURDGFDVW FRQWHQW DUH SURSHUO DGGUHVVHG 6RFLDO QHWZRUNLQJ DQG XVHUFUHDWHG FRQWHQW DUH QRZ0RVW UHPDUNDEO WKH QXPEHU RI ,QWHUQHW XVHUV KDV DPRQJ WKH PDLQ RQOLQH DFWLYLWLHV LQ ZKLFK RXQJ SHRSOHGRXEOHG RYHU WKH SDVW ÀYH HDUV DQG WKHUH DUH QRZ PRUH HVSHFLDOO ZKR FRQVWLWXWH WKH PDMRULW RI WKH SRSXODWKDQ WZR ELOOLRQ ,QWHUQHW XVHUV ZRUOGZLGH *URZWK UDWHV WLRQ LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV
  74. 74. DUH DFWLYHO HQJDJLQJ ² HWLQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DUH KLJK DQG DEVROXWH QXPEHUV DQRWKHU PDQLIHVWDWLRQ RI WKH FRQWLQXRXV WUDQVIRUPDWLRQDUH GULYHQ E ODUJH FRXQWULHV VXFK DV KLQD %UD]LO ,QGLD WRZDUGV LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG GLJLWDO VRFLHWLHV ZKHUH HYHQWX1LJHULD DQG WKH 5XVVLDQ )HGHUDWLRQ % HQG DURXQG DOO PRVW RI VRFLDO DQG ZRUNLQJ OLIH ZLOO KDYH D VWURQJ SHU FHQW RI WKH ZRUOG·V SRSXODWLRQ ZDV RQOLQH ² XS RQOLQH FRPSRQHQWIURP DURXQG SHU FHQW LQ DQG VL[ SHU FHQW LQ KDUW
  75. 75. *RRG SURJUHVV KDV DOVR EHHQ PDGH HVSLWH WKHVH HQFRXUDJLQJ WUHQGV DV DW HQG LQ EULQJLQJ ,QWHUQHW DFFHVV WR FHQWUDO JRYHUQPHQWV SHU FHQW RI WKH ZRUOG·V SRSXODWLRQ DQG QHDUO SHUUHVHDUFK DQG VFLHQWLÀF LQVWLWXWLRQV DQG WR VRPH H[WHQW FHQW RI WKH GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV· SRSXODWLRQ
  76. 76. ZHUH QRWVFKRROV KRVSLWDOV PXVHXPV OLEUDULHV DQG DUFKLYHV DW HW XVLQJ WKH ,QWHUQHW DQG HYHQ IHZHU YLD D EURDGEDQGOHDVW LQ WKH PDMRU FLWLHV RI GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV 7KH FRQQHFWLRQ ,Q PRVW GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV KRXVHKROGVSURSRUWLRQ RI KRXVHKROGV ZLWK DFFHVV WR WKH ,QWHUQHW LV VFKRROV KRVSLWDOV DQG RWKHU SXEOLF LQVWLWXWLRQV ORFDWHGJURZLQJ VWHDGLO HVSHFLDOO LQ WKH GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV RXWVLGH WKH PDMRU XUEDQ DUHDV DUH QRW HW FRQQHFWHG WRKDUW
  77. 77. ZKHUH DURXQG SHU FHQW RI KRXVHKROGV KLJKVSHHG ,QWHUQHW 3
  78. 78. Chapter 1. Introduction Chart 1.5: Internet users, 2000-2010, world and by level of development, penetration (left) and annual growth (right) 80 % Developed 60 68.8 Developed 70 World 50 World Developing Per 100 inhabitants 60 Developing 40 50 30 40 29.7 30 20 20 10 21.1 10 0 20 1 20 2 20 3 20 9 0 20 8 4 20 05 20 6 20 7 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -1 -0 -0 -0 -0 - 00 01 02 08 09 07 03 04 05 06 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 20 20 Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database. Chart 1.6: Households with Internet access, 2002-2010, world and by level of development, penetration (left) and annual growth (right) % % 30 Developed 100 Developed World 90 25 World Developing 80 Developing 20 70 65.6 60 15 50 40 10 30 29.5 5 20 15.8 10 0 0 3 9 0 8 4 5 6 7 -0 -0 -1 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 02 08 09 07 03 04 05 06 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010* 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Note: * Estimates. Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database.7KH UHYROXWLRQ H[SHULHQFHG WKURXJK WKH PRELOH WHOH FDSDFLW $ GLJLWDO GLYLGH LV XQIROGLQJ EHWZHHQ WKRVHSKRQH QHHGV WR EH UHSOLFDWHG WR EULQJ SHRSOH RQOLQH ZLWK KLJKVSHHGFDSDFLWTXDOLW DFFHVV DV LV WKH FDVH7KH HPHUJHQFH RI QHZ PRELOH GHYLFHV VXFK DV VPDUW LV PDQ KLJKLQFRPH FRXQWULHV
  79. 79. DQG WKRVH ZLWK ORZHUSKRQHV DQG WDEOHW FRPSXWHUV
  80. 80. LV FHUWDLQO DFFHOHUDWLQJ VSHHGFDSDFLWTXDOLW DFFHVV DV LV WKH FDVH LQ PDQWKLV SURFHVV EXW WKH DUH VWLOO WRR H[SHQVLYH LQ GHYHORSLQJ ORZLQFRPH FRXQWULHV
  81. 81. FRXQWULHV DQG WKHUH LV D QHHG WR GHYHORS PRUH DIIRUGDEOH PRGHOV DQG GHYLFHV )XUWKHUPRUH WKH XVH DQG 7R HQVXUH WKDW WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW ZLOO EH WUXO JORKHQFH WKH EHQHÀFLDO LPSDFW RI ,7V ZLOO LQFUHDVLQJO EDO DQG LQFOXVLYH PXFK UHPDLQV WR EH GRQH WR EULQJ LWVEH GHWHUPLQHG E WKH DYDLODELOLW RI EDQGZLGWK DQG EHQHÀWV WR WKH SRRUHVW LQ RXU VRFLHWLHV 7KLV PHDQV WKDW 4
  82. 82. Measuring the Information Society 2011IXWXUH SROLF DFWLRQ QHHGV WR DGGUHVV LVVXHV QRW RQO RI *1, SHU FDSLWD DQG SUHVHQWV ,, UHVXOWV E OHYHO RIDFFHVV EXW DOVR RI SULFH EDQGZLGWK VSHHG DQG TXDOLW GHYHORSPHQW DQG E JURXSV RI FRXQWULHV ZLWK GLIIHUHQWRI VHUYLFH VNLOOV FRQWHQW DQG ODQJXDJH DQG DSSOLFDWLRQV ,, OHYHOV DQG LQFRPHV 7KLV LV IROORZHG E DQ DQDOVLVWDUJHWLQJ ORZHQG XVHUV 7R DVVHVV SURJUHVV ZLOO UHTXLUH RI WKH WKUHH ,, VXELQGLFHV WKH DFFHVV VXELQGH[ WKHFRQWLQXRXV PRQLWRULQJ EDVHG RQ UHOLDEOH LQGLFDWRUV 7KLV XVH VXELQGH[ DQG WKH VNLOOV VXELQGH[ DOVR KLJKOLJKWSXEOLFDWLRQ LV D NH FRQWULEXWLRQ WR WKLV SURFHVV LQJ NH SHUIRUPHUV LQ HDFK FDVH )LQDOO ,, UHVXOWV DUH SUHVHQWHG IRU VL[ UHJLRQV EULHÁ GHVFULELQJ WKHOverview of this publication PDLQ ÀQGLQJV 7KH HQWLUH FKDSWHU LV VXSSOHPHQWHG E FRQFUHWH FRXQWU H[DPSOHV KLJKOLJKWLQJ EHVW SUDFWLFHV7KH PDLQ REMHFWLYH RI WKLV UHSRUW LV WR LQIRUP SROLF DQG GLVWLOOLQJ OHVVRQV OHDUQHGPDNHUV LQYHVWRUV DQG DQDOVWV DERXW WKH PDLQ GHYHORSPHQWV LQ WKH GLIIXVLRQ DQG XSWDNH RI ,7V ERWK JOREDOO 7KH UHVXOWV IRU WKH VHFRQG NH EHQFKPDUNLQJ WRRO WKHDQG DW WKH FRXQWU OHYHO % SURYLGLQJ D FRPSUHKHQVLYH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW ,3%
  83. 83. DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ KDSWHU DQDOVLV RI NH ,7 LQGLFDWRUV LW FRQVWLWXWHV D PDMRU )LUVW WKH PDLQ SXUSRVH RI WKH ,3% LV H[SODLQHG DORQJLQSXW WR WKH SROLF GHEDWH HVSHFLDOO LQ GHYHORSLQJ ZLWK DQ RYHUYLHZ RI WKH ,3% PHWKRGRORJ 7KLV LV IROFRXQWULHV ORZHG E DQ DQDOVLV RI WKH PDLQ UHVXOWV IRU WKH ,3% FRPSDULQJ DQG WDULIIV :KLOH WKH ,3% LV7KH UHSRUW IHDWXUHV WZR ,7 EHQFKPDUNLQJ WRROV WKH GHWHUPLQHG DV D SHUFHQWDJH RI *1, SHU FDSLWD GDWD,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  84. 84. DQG WKH ,7 3ULFH %DVNHW DUH DOVR VKRZQ LQ 86 DQG 333 GROODUV 7KH FKDSWHU,3%
  85. 85. 7KH ODWHVW UHVXOWV IRU WKHVH WZR PHWULFV ZLOO KHOS KLJKOLJKWV FRXQWULHV UHFRUGLQJ WKH KLJKHVW GHFUHDVHSROLFPDNHUV PRQLWRU WUHQGV LGHQWLI DUHDV IRU SROLF LQ SULFHV HVSHFLDOO LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV ,W DOVRDFWLRQ DQG EHQFKPDUN WKHLU ,7 GHYHORSPHQWV DJDLQVW ORRNV DW WKH FRUUHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH ,3% DQG WKH ,,RWKHU PDUNHWV LGHQWLILQJ RXWOLHUV 7KHUHDIWHU HDFK ,3% VXEEDVNHW LV DQDOVHG LQ WXUQ WKH À[HGWHOHSKRQH VXEEDVNHW WKH7KLV LV WKH WKLUG HGLWLRQ RI WKH 0HDVXULQJ WKH ,QIRUPD PRELOHFHOOXODU VXEEDVNHW DQG WKH À[HGEURDGEDQGWLRQ 6RFLHW UHSRUW :KHUHDV WKH DQG HGLWLRQV VXEEDVNHW 7KH UHVXOWV DUH VKRZQ DW WKH JOREDO OHYHO EZHUH UHOHDVHG LQ 0DUFK LW ZDV GHFLGHG WR FKDQJH WKH OHYHO RI GHYHORSPHQW DV ZHOO DV DFURVV GLIIHUHQW UHJLRQVSURGXFWLRQ VFKHGXOH DV IURP WKLV HGLWLRQ DQG WR UHOHDVH LQ WHUPV RI *1, SHU FDSLWD 86 DQG 333 GROODUV 7KHWKH UHSRUW LQ 6HSWHPEHU 7KLV GHFLVLRQ ZDV WDNHQ LQ FKDSWHU DOVR LQWURGXFHV PRELOHEURDGEDQG WDULIIV ZLWKUHVSRQVH WR YLHZV H[SUHVVHG E WKH UHDGHUVKLS ZKR H[DPSOHV QRWDEO IRU SUHSDLG ZLUHOHVVEURDGEDQG WDULIIVDUH NHHQ IRU WKH UHSRUW WR IHDWXUH PRUH UHFHQW GDWD WKH LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DV ZHOO DV D FRPSDULVRQ ZLWKUHIHUHQFH GDWH LV HFHPEHU RI WKH SUHYLRXV HDU
  86. 86. 7KLV À[HGEURDGEDQG WDULIIVHGLWLRQ ZLOO WKXV IHDWXUH WKH ,, DQG ,3% IRU WKH WZRHDUV DQG DV ZHOO DV GHWDLOHG HQG GDWD ,Q YLHZ RI WKH FRQWLQXRXV GHFOLQH RI QDUURZEDQG FRQIRU D UDQJH RI ,7 LQGLFDWRUV QHFWLRQV DQG WKH VKLIW WRZDUGV EURDGEDQG ,QWHUQHW KDSWHU WDNHV D FORVHU ORRN DW WKH GLIIHUHQW EURDGEDQG7KH GDWD XVHG LQ WKH UHSRUW DUH SULPDULO VWDWLVWLFV FRO VSHHGV EURDGEDQG TXDOLW DQG LQWHUQDWLRQDO
  87. 87. ,QWHUQHWOHFWHG E ,78 FRPSOHPHQWHG E GDWD UHFHLYHG IURP EDQGZLGWK DYDLODEOH LQ FRXQWULHVUHJLRQV DQG KRZ WKHVHWKH 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV 3RSXODWLRQ LYLVLRQ SRSXODWLRQ IDFWRUV LPSDFW RQ EURDGEDQG XSWDNH LQ ERWK GHYHORSHGVWDWLVWLFV
  88. 88. WKH 81(62 ,QVWLWXWH IRU 6WDWLVWLFV 8,6
  89. 89. DQG GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV 7KH FKDSWHU KLJKOLJKWV UHFHQWVWDWLVWLFV RQ OLWHUDF DQG VFKRRO HQUROPHQW
  90. 90. WKH :RUOG QDWLRQDO EURDGEDQG SROLFLHV DQG PDNHV VXJJHVWLRQV RQ%DQN GDWD RQ *1, SHU FDSLWD DQG 333 GROODUV
  91. 91. :LUHOHVV KRZ SROLFPDNHUV FRXOG IXUWKHU HQKDQFH EURDGEDQG,QWHOOLJHQFH GDWD RQ PRELOH EURDGEDQG
  92. 92. DQG 5HVHDUFK LQ GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV,7 $IULFD KRXVHKROG VXUYH GDWD RQ $IULFD
  93. 93. )LQDOO KDSWHU ORRNV EHRQG DFFHVV DQG FRQQHFWLYLWKDSWHU IHDWXUHV WKH PDLQ UHVXOWV IRU WKH ODWHVW ,7 DQG SURYLGHV D PRUH LQGHSWK DQDOVLV RI ,QWHUQHW XVHYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  94. 94. FRPSDULQJ WKH HDUV HUV DQG XVDJH EDVHG RQ GDWD DYDLODEOH IURP KRXVHKROGDQG $IWHU LQWURGXFLQJ WKH PDLQ REMHFWLYHV DQG LQGLYLGXDO VXUYHV ,W SUHVHQWV WKH PDLQ FKDUDFWHULVWLFVPHWKRGRORJ RI WKH ,, LW JRHV RQ WR DQDOVH WKH ,, RI WKH PDMRULW RI ,QWHUQHW XVHUV WRGD DQG LGHQWLÀHVDW WKH JOREDO OHYHO KLJKOLJKWLQJ NH SHUIRUPHUV DQG WKH PDLQ GLYLGHV DORQJ GLPHQVLRQV VXFK DV JHQGHU DJHPRVW GQDPLF FRXQWULHV LH WKRVH ZLWK KLJKHVW JURZWK HGXFDWLRQDO EDFNJURXQG LQFRPH DQG XUEDQUXUDO ORFDUDWHV
  95. 95. HVSHFLDOO DPRQJ WKH GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV ,W WLRQ ,W DOVR ORRNV DW VRPH RI WKH NH HPHUJLQJ DFWLYLWLHVDOVR ORRNV DW WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH ,, DQG HVSHFLDOO WKRVH UHODWHG WR VRFLDO QHWZRUNLQJ 7KH FKDSWHU 5
  96. 96. Chapter 1. IntroductionGLVFXVVHV KRZ LQ WKH OLJKW RI WKRVH GLYLGHV PRUH SHRSOH 7KH SXEOLFDWLRQ HQGV ZLWK D OLVW RI UHIHUHQFHV WKUHHFDQ EH EURXJKW RQOLQH PDNLQJ WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW PHWKRGRORJLFDO DQQH[HV DQG FRXQWUOHYHO VWDWLVWLFDOPRUH LQFOXVLYH $ ODUJH SDUW RI WKH DQDOVLV IRFXVHV RQ WDEOHV IHDWXULQJ WKH GDWD XVHG LQ WKH ,, DQG ,3%$IULFDQ FRXQWULHV GUDZLQJ RQ WKH UHVXOWV RI XVHU VXUYHVFDUULHG RXW E 5HVHDUFK ,7 $IULFDEndnotes )RU PRUH LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH %URDGEDQG RPPLVVLRQ IRU LJLWDO HYHORSPHQW VHH KWWSZZZEURDGEDQGFRPPLVVLRQRUJ 6
  97. 97. Measuring the Information Society 2011Chapter 2. The ICT DevelopmentIndex (IDI)2.1 Introduction EDVHG VRFLHWLHV DQG LV FHQWUDO WR WKH ,,·V FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN 7KH ,7 GHYHORSPHQW SURFHVV DQG D FRXQ7KH ,7 HYHORSPHQW ,QGH[ ,,
  98. 98. LV D FRPSRVLWH LQGH[ WU·V WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ WR EHFRPLQJ DQ LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHWFRPELQLQJ LQGLFDWRUV LQWR RQH EHQFKPDUN PHDVXUH FDQ EH GHSLFWHG XVLQJ WKH IROORZLQJ WKUHHVWDJH PRGHOWKDW VHUYHV WR PRQLWRU DQG FRPSDUH GHYHORSPHQWV LQ )LJXUH
  99. 99. LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG FRPPXQLFDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ ,7
  100. 100. DFURVV FRXQWULHV 7KH ,, ZDV GHYHORSHG E ,78 LQ ‡ VWDJH ,7 UHDGLQHVV UHÁHFWLQJ WKH OHYHO RI DQG ÀUVW SUHVHQWHG LQ WKH HGLWLRQ RI 0HDVXU QHWZRUNHG LQIUDVWUXFWXUH DQG DFFHVV WR ,7V
  101. 101. LQJ WKH ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6RFLHW ,78
  102. 102. ,W ZDV HVWDEOLVKHGLQ UHVSRQVH WR ,78 0HPEHU 6WDWHV· UHTXHVW WR GHYHORS ‡ VWDJH ,7 LQWHQVLW UHÁHFWLQJ WKH OHYHO RI XVHD ´VLQJOH LQGH[µ DQG SXEOLVK LW UHJXODUO 7KLV VHFWLRQ RI ,7V LQ WKH VRFLHW
  103. 103. EULHÁ GHVFULEHV WKH PDLQ REMHFWLYHV FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN DQG PHWKRGRORJ RI WKH ,, ‡ VWDJH ,7 LPSDFW UHÁHFWLQJ WKH UHVXOWRXWFRPH RI HIÀFLHQW DQG HIIHFWLYH ,7 XVH
  104. 104. 7KH PDLQ REMHFWLYHV RI WKH ,, DUH WR PHDVXUH $GYDQFLQJ WKURXJK WKHVH VWDJHV GHSHQGV RQ D FRPELQD ‡ 7KH OHYHO DQG HYROXWLRQ RYHU WLPH RI ,7 GHYHORS WLRQ RI WKUHH IDFWRUV WKH DYDLODELOLW RI ,7 LQIUDVWUXFWXUH PHQWV LQ FRXQWULHV DQG UHODWLYH WR RWKHU FRXQWULHV DQG DFFHVV D KLJK OHYHO RI ,7 XVDJH DQG WKH FDSDELOLW WR XVH ,7V HIIHFWLYHO $FFRUGLQJO WKH ÀUVW WZR VWDJHV ‡ 3URJUHVV LQ ,7 GHYHORSPHQW LQ ERWK GHYHORSHG OLVWHG DERYH FRUUHVSRQG WR WZR PDMRU FRPSRQHQWV RI DQG GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV WKH LQGH[ VKRXOG EH JOREDO WKH ,, ,7 DFFHVV DQG ,7 XVH DQG UHÁHFW FKDQJHV WDNLQJ SODFH LQ FRXQWULHV DW GLIIHUHQW OHYHOV RI ,7 GHYHORSPHQW 5HDFKLQJ WKH ÀQDO VWDJH DQG PD[LPL]LQJ WKH LPSDFW RI ,7V FUXFLDOO GHSHQGV RQ WKH WKLUG FRPSRQHQW RI ‡ 7KH GLJLWDO GLYLGH LH GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ FRXQWULHV WKH ,, ,7 VNLOOV ,7 DQG RWKHU
  105. 105. VNLOOV GHWHUPLQH WKH ZLWK GLIIHUHQW OHYHOV RI ,7 GHYHORSPHQW HIIHFWLYH XVH WKDW LV PDGH RI ,7V DQG DUH FULWLFDO WR OHYHUDJLQJ WKH IXOO SRWHQWLDO RI ,7V IRU VRFLRHFRQRPLF ‡ 7KH GHYHORSPHQW SRWHQWLDO RI ,7V RU WKH H[WHQW WR GHYHORSPHQW (FRQRPLF JURZWK DQG GHYHORSPHQW ZLOO ZKLFK FRXQWULHV FDQ PDNH XVH RI ,7V WR HQKDQFH UHPDLQ EHORZ SRWHQWLDO LI HFRQRPLHV DUH QRW FDSDEOH RI JURZWK DQG GHYHORSPHQW EDVHG RQ DYDLODEOH H[SORLWLQJ QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV DQG UHDSLQJ WKHLU EHQHÀWV FDSDELOLWLHV DQG VNLOOV 7KHUHIRUH WKH ,, LQFOXGHV D PHDVXUH RI WKH FDSDELOLW WR XVH ,7V HIIHFWLYHOConceptual framework $ VLQJOH LQGLFDWRU FDQQRW WUDFN SURJUHVV LQ DOO WKUHH7KH UHFRJQLWLRQ WKDW ,7V FDQ EH D GHYHORSPHQW HQDEOHU FRPSRQHQWV DFFHVV XVDJH DQG VNLOOV
  106. 106. RI WKH ,7 GHLI DSSOLHG DQG XVHG DSSURSULDWHO LV FULWLFDO WR FRXQWULHV YHORSPHQW SURFHVV WKXV UHTXLULQJ WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQWKDW DUH PRYLQJ WRZDUGV LQIRUPDWLRQ RU NQRZOHGJH RI D FRPSRVLWH LQGH[ VXFK DV WKH ,, 7KH ,, DLPV 7
  107. 107. Chapter 2. The ICT Development Index (IDI) Figure 2.1: Three stages in the evolution towards an information society ICT Readiness ICT Use ICT Impact (infrastructure, (intensity) (outcomes) access) ICT ICT Capability Development (skills) Index Source: ITU.WR FDSWXUH WKH HYROXWLRQ RI WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW DV IRUPDWLRQ WR WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VRFLHW 7KHUHIRUH WKHLW JRHV WKURXJK LWV GLIIHUHQW VWDJHV RI GHYHORSPHQW LQGLFDWRUV LQ HDFK VXELQGH[ PD FKDQJH RYHU WLPH WRWDNLQJ LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ FRQYHUJHQFH DQG UHÁHFW WHFKQRORJLFDO GHYHORSPHQWV UHODWHG WR ,7V DQGWKH HPHUJHQFH RI QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV DV PRUH DQG EHWWHU GDWD EHFRPH DYDLODEOH )RU H[DPSOH ZKDW ZDV FRQVLGHUHG EDVLF LQIUDVWUXFWXUH LQ WKH SDVW ²%DVHG RQ WKLV FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN WKH ,, LV GLYLGHG VXFK DV À[HGWHOHSKRQH OLQHV ² LV IDVW EHFRPLQJ OHVVLQWR WKH IROORZLQJ WKUHH VXELQGLFHV UHOHYDQW LQ WKH OLJKW RI LQFUHDVLQJ À[HG WR PRELOH VXE VWLWXWLRQ 6LPLODUO EURDGEDQG LV FXUUHQWO FRQVLGHUHG ‡ $FFHVV VXELQGH[ 7KLV VXELQGH[ FDSWXUHV ,7 DQ DGYDQFHG WHFKQRORJ FKDUDFWHUL]LQJ LQWHQVH ,QWHUQHW UHDGLQHVV DQG LQFOXGHV ÀYH LQIUDVWUXFWXUH DQG XVH DQG LV WKHUHIRUH LQFOXGHG LQ VWDJH DV DQ LQGLFDWRU DFFHVV LQGLFDWRUV IL[HGWHOHSKRQ PRELOH LQ WKH XVH VXELQGH[
  108. 108. +RZHYHU LQ WKH IXWXUH LW PD EH WHOHSKRQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO ,QWHUQHW EDQGZLGWK FRPH HVVHQWLDO DQG EH PRYHG WR VWDJH DV DQ LQGLFDWRU KRXVHKROGV ZLWK FRPSXWHUV DQG KRXVHKROGV LQ WKH DFFHVV VXELQGH[
  109. 109. ZKLOH DQRWKHU QHZ WHFKQRORJ ZLWK ,QWHUQHW
  110. 110. PD DSSHDU LQ VWDJH ‡ 8VH VXELQGH[ 7KLV VXELQGH[ FDSWXUHV ,7 LQWHQ Methodology VLW DQG LQFOXGHV WKUHH ,7 LQWHQVLW DQG XVDJH LQGLFDWRUV ,QWHUQHW XVHUV À[HG ZLUHG
  111. 111. EURDG 7KH ,, LQFOXGHV LQGLFDWRUV )LJXUH
  112. 112. $ GHWDLOHG EDQG DQG PRELOH EURDGEDQG
  113. 113. GHÀQLWLRQ RI HDFK LQGLFDWRU LV SURYLGHG LQ $QQH[ ‡ 6NLOOV VXELQGH[ 7KLV VXELQGH[ FDSWXUHV ,7 6HOHFWLRQ RI WKH LQGLFDWRUV ZDV EDVHG RQ FDSDELOLW RU VNLOOV DV LQGLVSHQVDEOH LQSXW LQGL FDWRUV ,W LQFOXGHV WKUHH SUR[ LQGLFDWRUV DGXOW ‡ 7KH UHOHYDQFH RI D SDUWLFXODU LQGLFDWRU IRU FRQWUL OLWHUDF JURVV VHFRQGDU HQUROPHQW DQG JURVV EXWLQJ WR WKH PDLQ REMHFWLYHV DQG FRQFHSWXDO WHUWLDU HQUROPHQW
  114. 114. DQG WKHUHIRUH LV JLYHQ OHVV IUDPHZRUN RI WKH ,, )RU H[DPSOH WKH VHOHFWHG ZHLJKW LQ WKH FRPSXWDWLRQ RI WKH ,, FRPSDUHG LQGLFDWRUV QHHG WR EH UHOHYDQW WR ERWK GHYHORSHG ZLWK WKH RWKHU WZR VXELQGLFHV DQG GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DQG VKRXOG UHÁHFW ² DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH ² WKH IUDPHZRUN·V WKUHH FRP7KH FKRLFH RI LQGLFDWRUV LQFOXGHG LQ HDFK RI WKH WKUHH SRQHQWV GHVFULEHG DERYH ,Q WKLV FRQWH[W WKHVXELQGLFHV UHÁHFWV WKH FRUUHVSRQGLQJ VWDJH RI WUDQV UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV PDGH E H[SHUWV LQ UHODWLRQ WR 8
  115. 115. Measuring the Information Society 2011 WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH VLQJOH LQGH[ ZHUH WDNHQ *LYHQ WKH GQDPLF QDWXUH RI WKH ,7 VHFWRU DQG UHODWHG LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ GDWD DYDLODELOLW WKH WSHV RI LQGLFDWRUV WR EH LQFOXGHG LQ WKH ,, DQG LWV VXELQGLFHV DUH XQGHU UHJXODU GLVFXV ‡ DWD DYDLODELOLW DQG TXDOLW DWD DUH UHTXLUHG IRU VLRQ LQ ,78 LQ FRQVXOWDWLRQ ZLWK H[SHUWV $ PDMRU D ODUJH QXPEHU RI FRXQWULHV DV WKH ,, LV D JOREDO FRQVLGHUDWLRQ LV HYHQWXDOO WR UHSODFH VRPH RI WKH LQGH[ 7KHUH LV UHODWLYH SDXFLW RI ,7UHODWHG GDWD VXEVFULSWLRQEDVHG VXSSOVLGH
  116. 116. GDWD ZLWK PRUH GDWD HVSHFLDOO DW WKH KRXVHKROG OHYHO LQ WKH PDMRULW EDVHG RQ QDWLRQDO KRXVHKROG VXUYHV GHPDQGVLGH RI GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV ,Q SDUWLFXODU WKH WKUHH LQGLFDWRUV

×