The Power of Open Educational Resources
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The Power of Open Educational Resources

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Keynote address delivered to the Maryland Distance Learning Association (MDLA), March 2014.

Keynote address delivered to the Maryland Distance Learning Association (MDLA), March 2014.

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  • Dear David,

    Many thanks for sharing this presentation. On slide 71, it appears an increase on the passing rate of around 12%. Which were the factors behind this increase with the OER adoption?
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie...
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Dear David,

    Many thanks for sharing this presentation. On slide 71, it appears an increase on the passing rate of around 12%. Which were the factors behind this increase with the OER adoption?
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie...
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • ok i prepare money
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie...
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
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  • 1. The  Power  of     Open  Educa2onal  Resources   David  Wiley,  PhD   Chief  Academic  Officer,  Lumen  Learning   Scholar  in  Residence,  University  of  Utah  
  • 2. Nice  and  Open   Meanings  maGer  
  • 3. “Nice”  -­‐  late  13c.   "foolish,  stupid"  
  • 4. “Nice”  -­‐  late  20c.   "kind,  thoughRul"  
  • 5. What  If…   an  educator  revived  the  old  meaning?  
  • 6. “Nice  people  are  certain     to  fail  my  course.”   Which  “nice”?     How  might  the  student  success   conversa2on  change?  
  • 7. “Open”  –  Early  70s   “no  admission  requirements”  
  • 8. “Open”  –  Late  00s   Evolved  into  a  much  more  nuanced,   specific  meaning  
  • 9. Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   Any  kind  of  teaching  materials  –   textbooks,  syllabi,  lesson  plans,   videos,  readings,  exams  
  • 10. Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   1.  Free  and  unfeGered  access,  and   2.  Free  permission  to  engage  in  the     “5R  ac2vi2es”  
  • 11. •  Make and own copies Retain •  Use in a wide range of ways Reuse •  Adapt, modify, and improve Revise •  Combine two or more Remix •  Share with others Redistribute The  5Rs  
  • 12. What  If…   an  educator  revived  the  old  meaning?  
  • 13. “I’m  teaching  an     open  online  course  this  fall.”   Which  “open”?     How  might  the  affordability   conversa2on  change?  
  • 14. Genuine  Confusion   Open  =  free?     Open  =  free  +  5Rs  
  • 15. Why  Does  It  MaGer?   Open  is  extremely  powerful     “Faux-­‐pen”  is  not  
  • 16. Educa2on  is  Sharing   Faculty  with  students   Students  with  teachers  
  • 17. Faculty  Share  With  Students   Knowledge  and  skills   Feedback  and  cri2cism     Encouragement  
  • 18. Students  Share  With  Faculty   Ques2ons  in  Class   Assignments   Exams  
  • 19. Successful  Educators   Share  most  compeltely   with  the  most  students  
  • 20. 2008  Professor  in  Southern  US   Claimed  (c)  of  his  class  lectures,     declared  student  notes  deriva2ve  works,   and  asserted  control  over  their  use  
  • 21. “Demented  with  the  mania  of  owning  things”   Walt  Whitman  
  • 22. If  there  is  no  sharing…   there  is  no  educa2on.  
  • 23. Interlude:  A  Riddle   What  can  you  give  without  giving  it  away?  
  • 24. Ideas  are  Magical  (Non-­‐rival)   Can  be  given  without  being  given  away  
  • 25. “He  who  receives   ideas  from  me,   receives  instruc2on   himself  without   lessening  mine;  as  he   who  lights  his  taper   at  mine  receives  light   without  darkening   me.”   Thomas  Jefferson  
  • 26. Physical  Expressions  Are  Not   To  give  a  book  you  must  give  it  away  
  • 27. Expressions  Are  Different   To  give  a  book  you  must  give  it  away  
  • 28. When  Expressions  Are  Digital   They  also  become  magical  
  • 29. Unprecedented  Capacity   We  can  share  (and  educate)     as  never  before  
  • 30. Except  We  Can’t   ©  regulates  copying,  adap2ng,   and  distribu2ng  those  copies  
  • 31. Internet   Enables   What  to  do?   Copyright   Forbids  
  • 32. Use  copyright  to  enable  sharing  
  • 33. Features of copyright today • aGaches  any2me  “original  work  of  authorship   fixed  in  tangible  medium  of  expression”   • is  automa2c   • applies  to  published/unpublished  works   • lasts  a  long  2me  (typically  life  of  author  +  50   or  70  years)   • “bundle  of  rights”  =  reproduce,  deriva2ve   works,  distribute,  public  performance  
  • 34. Features of copyright today • copyright  infringement  expensive  (in  U.S.   $750-­‐$150,000/work)   • public  domain  =  not  protected  by  copyright   • copyright  =  “all  rights  reserved”;  public   domain  =  “no  rights  reserved”   • you  have  to  ask  permission  
  • 35. But how to ask permission?
  • 36. How to support those that just want to share?
  • 37. A simple, standardized, legally robust way to grant copyright permissions to creative works (and data).
  • 38. “Lowers transaction costs”
  • 39. CC’s legal infrastructure: (1) copyright licenses (2) public domain tools
  • 40. (1) CC copyright licenses
  • 41. How do CC licenses work? • built  on  tradi2onal  copyright  law   • works  within  exis2ng  system  by  allowing   movement  from  “all  rights  reserved”  to   “some  rights  reserved”   • gives  creators  a  choice  about  which  freedoms   to  grant  and  which  rights  to  keep   • minimizes  transac2on  costs  by  gran2ng  the   public  certain  permissions  beforehand  
  • 42. Step 1: Choose Conditions" Attribution" ShareAlike" NonCommercial" NoDerivatives"
  • 43. Step 2: Receive a License"
  • 44. (2) CC public domain tools
  • 45. CC0 Public Domain Dedication • read  “CC  Zero”   • universal  waiver,  permanently  surrenders   copyright  and  related  rights,  placing  the  work   as  nearly  as  possible  into  the  worldwide   public  domain  
  • 46. Public Domain Mark • not  legally  opera2ve,  but  a  label  to  be  used   by  those  with  knowledge  that  a  work  is   already  in  the  public  domain   • useful  for  very  old  works  where  we  know  it  is   in  the  public  domain   • only  intended  for  use  with  works  in   worldwide  public  domain  
  • 47. Over  500M  OER!     Over  half  a  billion  pieces  of  content   use  Crea2ve  Commons  licenses  
  • 48. hGp://crea2vecommons.org/  
  • 49. Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   Any  kind  of  teaching  materials  –   textbooks,  syllabi,  lesson  plans,   videos,  readings,  exams  
  • 50. Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   1.  Free  and  unfeGered  access,  and   2.  Free  permission  to  engage  in  the     “5R  ac2vi2es”  
  • 51. •  Make and own copies Retain •  Use in a wide range of ways Reuse •  Adapt, modify, and improve Revise •  Combine two or more Remix •  Share with others Redistribute The  5Rs  
  • 52. Open  =  Use  a  CC  License   The  de  facto  way  to  make  something  OER  
  • 53. Internet   Enables   OER   Allows   Leveraging  the  full  technical  capability   of  the  internet  
  • 54. Decreasing  Cost     and  Increasing  Learning   Prac2cal  benefits  of  OER  
  • 55. Tui2on  Is  Very  Poli2cal   Textbook  adop2ons  are  less  poli2cal  
  • 56. Textbook  Costs   $1229  year  ($3131  tui2on)   60%  some2mes  skip   23%  regularly  skip  
  • 57. “Displacing  Adop2ons”   Make  the  required  textbook  cost  $0  
  • 58. Kaleidoscope  Open  Course  Ini2a2ve   NGLC  /  Gates  funding   8  community  colleges  /  OA  colleges  
  • 59. Core  Ac2vi2es   Defining  and  aggrega2ng  outcomes   Finding  and  aligning  OERs  to  outcomes   Crea2ng  100%  OER  textbook  replacements  
  • 60. X-­‐Ins2tu2onal  Collabora2on  Goals   Cover  10  GE  courses  and  4,000  students   Drop  required  textbook  cost  by  50%  
  • 61. Phase  1  Results   Covered  11  GE  courses  and  9,000  students   Dropped  required  textbook  cost  to  $0   Increased  success  rate  by  ~  10%  
  • 62. Developmental Math Results" Percentage passing with C or better 48.40% 60.18% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER n=2,842
  • 63. Phase  2  Now  Underway   Cover  35  GE  courses   28  Ins2tu2onal  partners  
  • 64. Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  
  • 65. Open  Course  Frameworks   •  Start  from  learning  outcomes,   •  curated  collec2ons  of  OER,   •  openly  licensed  with  detailed  aGribu2on,   •  organized  in  a  way  that  looks  and  feels  like   an  online  course,   •  intended  to  be  modified  before  use,   •  compa2ble  with  our  con2nuous   improvement  analy2cs  service.  
  • 66. Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  
  • 67. Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  
  • 68. Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  
  • 69. Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  
  • 70. “Textbook  Zero”     En2re  degree  program  based  on  OER   Up  to  30%  off  the  cost  to  graduate  
  • 71. “Textbook  Zero”     Opened  Fall  2013  at  Tidewater  CC   Finalist  for  Bellwether  Innova2on  Award     Cost  $112k  to  launch   Each  graduate  saves  ~  $3000  
  • 72. The  Daily  Divide   The  difference  between  OER  and  Fauxpen  
  • 73. Analog  ⇒  Digital   Music,  Phones,  TV,  Newspapers,   Movies,  Journals,  &c.  
  • 74. Tethered  ⇒  Mobile   Phones,  Internet  Access,   Employment    
  • 75. Concealing  ⇒  Sharing   Photos,  Videos,  Journal  Entries  
  • 76. Isolated  ⇒  Connected   People,  Content,  Systems  
  • 77. Generic  ⇒  Personal   Cars,  Computers,  Mobile  Phones  
  • 78. Consuming  ⇒  Crea2ng   Newspapers  /  Blogs     Movies  &  TV  /  YouTube  
  • 79. Closed  ⇒  Open   Research  (Ar2cles,  Journals)   Data  (Government,  Weather,  GIS)     Content  (Open  Educa2onal  Resources)  
  • 80. Then  vs  Now   Analog   ⇒   Digital   Tethered   ⇒   Mobile   Concealing   ⇒   Sharing   Isolated   ⇒   Connected   Generic   ⇒   Personal   Consuming   ⇒   Crea2ng   Closed   ⇒   Open  
  • 81. Educa2on  vs  Everyday   Analog   ⇒   Digital   Tethered   ⇒   Mobile   Concealing   ⇒   Sharing   Isolated   ⇒   Connected   Generic   ⇒   Personal   Consuming   ⇒   Crea2ng   Closed   ⇒   Open  
  • 82. “Daily  Divide”   (As  opposed  to  the  digital  divide)  
  • 83. “Academic”   (This  is  where  the  common  usage  derives)  
  • 84. “Academic”   (This  is  where  the  common  usage  derives)  
  • 85. What  About  Online  Learning?  
  • 86. What  About  Online  Learning?   Very  innova2ve  in  1994!  
  • 87. Online  Learning   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  
  • 88. What  About  MOOCs?  
  • 89. MOOCs   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing(?)   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  
  • 90. “You  may  not  take  any  Online   Course  offered  by  Coursera  or  use   any  Statement  of  Accomplishment   as  part  of  any  tui2on-­‐based  or  for-­‐ credit  cer2fica2on  or  program  for   any  college,  university,  or  other   academic  ins2tu2on  without  the   express  wriGen  permission  from   Coursera.”  
  • 91. Open  is  Fundamental   Why?  
  • 92. •  Make and own copies Retain •  Use in a wide range of ways Reuse •  Adapt, modify, and improve Revise •  Combine two or more Remix •  Share with others Redistribute The  5Rs  
  • 93. Online  Learning   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  
  • 94. Online  Learning   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  
  • 95. Connec2ng   It’s  “hard”  to  connect  to  something  if   you  don't  have  access  to  it  
  • 96. Personalizing   It’s  “hard”  to  personalize  something   if  you  don't  have  permission  to  modify  it  
  • 97. Crea2ng  and  Sharing   It’s  “hard”  to  make  and  share  things  when   you’re  constantly  worried  about  being  sued  
  • 98. When  You  Can  Assume  “Open”   These  problems  disappear  
  • 99. OER-­‐based  Courses   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea:ng   Closed   or   Open  
  • 100. Divide  is  Growing  Apart  -­‐  Fast   Moving  both  direc2ons  at  once  
  • 101. Expensive  ⇒  Affordable   Music,  Movies,  TV  Shows  
  • 102. Affordable  ⇒  Expensive   Textbooks  (+800%)  
  • 103. Content  Affordability   Provider   Cost   Ne?lix  –  20,000  Movies  (and  TV)   $7.99  /  month   Hulu  Plus  –  45,000  TV  (and  Movies)   $7.99  /  month   Spo:fy  –  15M  Songs   $9.99  /  month       CourseSmart  –  1  Biology  Textbook   $20.25  /  month  
  • 104. Content  Affordability   Provider   Cost   Ne?lix  –  20,000  Movies  (and  TV)   $7.99  /  month   Hulu  Plus  –  45,000  TV  (and  Movies)   $7.99  /  month   Spo:fy  –  15M  Songs   $9.99  /  month       CourseSmart  –  1  Biology  Textbook   $20.25  /  month   OpenStax  –  1  Open  Bio  Textbook   $0.00  /  month  
  • 105. Impacts  of  Open  on:   Pedagogy   Assessment   Tenure  and  Promo2on   Research   Scholarship   Business  Model    
  • 106. Organizing  and  Transforming  (0.85)   “Overt  or  covert  rearrangement  of   instruc2onal  materials  to  improve  learning.   (e.g.,  making  an  outline  before  wri2ng  a   paper)....  The  types  of  strategies  included  in   this  category  (such  as  summarizing  and   paraphrasing)  promote  a  more  ac3ve   approach  to  learning  tasks.”     Ha}e,  p.  190-­‐191   hGp://pm4id.org/    
  • 107. But  Where  Are  All  These  OER?!?   Demo  2me!  
  • 108. OER  +  Analy2cs   Con2nuous  improvement  
  • 109. OER   Give  you  permission  to  make  changes     But  don’t  tell  you  what  to  change  
  • 110. Analy2cs   Tell  you  what  to  change     But  don’t  give  you  permission  to  make  changes    
  • 111. OER  +  Analy2cs   Con2nuous  improvement  
  • 112. Faculty  Feedback   “I  wish  I  had  this  for  every  class  I   teach,  for  every  module!  The   feedback  and  recommenda2ons  are   posi2ve,  specific  and  are  changes  that   I  can  implement  quickly  with  minimal   effort  on  my  part.”  
  • 113. Conclusion   (Finally!)  
  • 114. Genuine  Open  Moves  Us  Forward   Increase  learning   Decrease  costs   Enable  new  pedagogies   Empower  faculty   Facilitate  con2nuous  improvement  
  • 115. Fauxpen  Takes  Us  Backward   Free  but  not  open   None  of  the  benefits  of  open    
  • 116. Lumen  Learning   It’s  all  open     Full  set  of  services  enabling  open  learning   (e.g.,  training,  licensing,  ID,  hos2ng,  support,  CI)    
  • 117. Discussion   hGp://lumenlearning.com/   hGp://davidwiley.org/   @opencontent