OPENDecreasing Costs, Improving Access,and Increasing Quality of Education     David Wiley, Shuttleworth / Lumen / BYU
“Socially Responsible Research”        For the love of Pete -        MAKE A DIFFERENCE
Overview• The Why and What of “open”• Sharing at scale, and when sharing isn’t• The Displacing Adoption and the Golden Rat...
WHAT and WHY
Education is Sharing
Education is Sharing  Faculty with students Students with teachers
Faculty Share With Students      Knowledge and skills     Feedback and criticism        Encouragement
Students Share With Faculty       Questions in Class         Assignments            Exams
Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
If there is no sharing…   there is no education.
Interlude: A RiddleWhat can you give without giving it away?
Ideas are NonrivalrousCan be given without being given away
Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
When Expressions Are Digital   They also become nonrivalrous
Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
Except We Can’t© regulates copying, adapting,and distributing those copies
Internet                 CopyrightEnables                   Forbids           What to do?
Use copyright to enforce sharing
The 4Rs    Reuse – copy verbatim    Revise – adapt and editRemix – combine with other OERRedistribute – share with others
What to Watch Forhttp://creativecommons.org/
What are Open Educational   Resources (OER)?(1) Any kind of teaching materials –  textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans,      v...
What are Open Educational   Resources (OER)?(2) Are free for anyone to access, and(3) Include free permission to engage   ...
Internet                     OEREnables                     AllowsLeveraging the full technical capability            of t...
Sharing at ScaleWhen Sharing Isn’t
Well Over 500M CC License Uses       Over half a billion OER
OpenCourseWare Consortium
When Is Sharing Not Sharing?      When it is only offering
Publishing (Offering) is Prestigious            Reusing is not
Vice VersaWe need to change the way     reuse is valued
The Displacing Adoption  and why it matters
Tuition and Fees are Political  What about textbook adoptions?
Textbook CostsThe lowest hanging fruit
e.g., Developmental Math    $180, MyMathLab, and     a financial aid check
Displacing AdoptionsMake the required textbook cost $0
The Golden Ratio
Education’s Golden RatioDollars spent per learning outcome
Open High School of UtahPublic, fully online charter school  400 students in grades 9-12  Adding 7-8 in Fall 2013-2014
Open High School of Utah Charter mandates use of OER 76% whole school proficiency    (Ranked 31st in Utah)
% Proficient Content + LMS Proficiency        on CRT         Cost      per DollarOther    58%           $380         0.15O...
% Proficient Content + LMS Proficiency        on CRT     + Teacher Cost per DollarOther    58%            $800        0.07...
ResultsShaping the Trend Line
Utah Open Textbook Project        Hewlett funding  Secondary science classrooms    Adapt CK12.org textbooks
Utah Open Textbook Project3 years, 6000 students, 30 teachers      Very few digital devices
Utah Open Textbook Project   $4.99 per book ($80/$11.43)
MethodQuasi-experimental design with:• Treatment and Control Group• Pre and Post Test• Dependent variable: 2012 science CR...
Propensity Score MatchingConditional probability of assignment  Increased group balance by 98%
Results• IRT scaled scores +0.8 for  participants, significant at p < .001• Multiple r squared of .635  (variance in score...
Utah Open Textbook Project         Saves money      Improves outcomes           Period
Utah Open Textbook Project  Winter 2012: USOE goal of 6-12Fall 2013: 75,000 students in science         Math and ELA next ...
Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative               NGLC funding     8 community colleges / OA colleges Aggregate OER-based ...
Kaleidoscope     10 GE courses; 9,000 students Dropped required textbook cost to $0Average change was +14% in success rate
908070605040302010 0     Historical Success   Kaleidoscope
Why?OER mean full access to all course content     for every student from day 1
Student ratings of quality of open texts                            Number of StudentsWorse quality         3% Same qualit...
Student preference for Kaleidoscope                      courses                         Number of Students  No preference...
KaleidoscopeRenewal funding from NGLCExpanding to 28 institutions
Textbook Zero   Tidewater Community CollegeAssociates of Business Administration           Opens Fall 2013
Textbook Zero100% OER pathway through degree Decreases cost of degree by 25%+
Continuous Improvement (ImprovOER)                     OER and                    Assessment                     Redesign ...
By Fall 2013           OHSU + TCC100% OER pathway from 7 - Associates
By Fall 2015   100% OER options for6-12 science, math, and ELA
By Fall 2015 (?)    100% OER options forGeneral Education requirements
By Fall 2016 (?)100% OER pathway through a     Bachelors degree
Driving Questions  How inexpensive can we make it?How broadly can we expand access and            participation?How high c...
Driving Questions     If I only have 25 years left,is there something more important       I should be working on?
Discussionhttp://davidwiley.org/
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education
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Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education

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While "open educational resources" initiatives like MIT OpenCourseWare generated media buzz during the 2000s, a new wave of initiatives is leveraging OER to dramatically decrease the cost, improve access, and increase the quality of secondary and higher education for the average student. This presentation demonstrates how "open" is shaping the field of education, and what is coming in the future.

This talk was delivered at the University of Georgia during March, 2013.

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  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • CC licensedphoto http://www.flickr.com/photos/62693815@N03/6277209256/
  • http://measuringup2008.highereducation.org/commentary/callan.php
  • http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303812904577295930047604846.html
  • http://www.urbanohio.com/forum2/index.php?topic=25321.0
  • http://www.urbanohio.com/forum2/index.php?topic=25321.0
  • Open: Decreasing Costs, Improving Access, and Increasing Quality of Education

    1. 1. OPENDecreasing Costs, Improving Access,and Increasing Quality of Education David Wiley, Shuttleworth / Lumen / BYU
    2. 2. “Socially Responsible Research” For the love of Pete - MAKE A DIFFERENCE
    3. 3. Overview• The Why and What of “open”• Sharing at scale, and when sharing isn’t• The Displacing Adoption and the Golden Ratio• Results, and shaping the trend line
    4. 4. WHAT and WHY
    5. 5. Education is Sharing
    6. 6. Education is Sharing Faculty with students Students with teachers
    7. 7. Faculty Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
    8. 8. Students Share With Faculty Questions in Class Assignments Exams
    9. 9. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
    10. 10. If there is no sharing… there is no education.
    11. 11. Interlude: A RiddleWhat can you give without giving it away?
    12. 12. Ideas are NonrivalrousCan be given without being given away
    13. 13. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
    14. 14. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
    15. 15. When Expressions Are Digital They also become nonrivalrous
    16. 16. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
    17. 17. Except We Can’t© regulates copying, adapting,and distributing those copies
    18. 18. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
    19. 19. Use copyright to enforce sharing
    20. 20. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatim Revise – adapt and editRemix – combine with other OERRedistribute – share with others
    21. 21. What to Watch Forhttp://creativecommons.org/
    22. 22. What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?(1) Any kind of teaching materials – textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, readings, exams
    23. 23. What are Open Educational Resources (OER)?(2) Are free for anyone to access, and(3) Include free permission to engage in the 4R activities
    24. 24. Internet OEREnables AllowsLeveraging the full technical capability of the internet
    25. 25. Sharing at ScaleWhen Sharing Isn’t
    26. 26. Well Over 500M CC License Uses Over half a billion OER
    27. 27. OpenCourseWare Consortium
    28. 28. When Is Sharing Not Sharing? When it is only offering
    29. 29. Publishing (Offering) is Prestigious Reusing is not
    30. 30. Vice VersaWe need to change the way reuse is valued
    31. 31. The Displacing Adoption and why it matters
    32. 32. Tuition and Fees are Political What about textbook adoptions?
    33. 33. Textbook CostsThe lowest hanging fruit
    34. 34. e.g., Developmental Math $180, MyMathLab, and a financial aid check
    35. 35. Displacing AdoptionsMake the required textbook cost $0
    36. 36. The Golden Ratio
    37. 37. Education’s Golden RatioDollars spent per learning outcome
    38. 38. Open High School of UtahPublic, fully online charter school 400 students in grades 9-12 Adding 7-8 in Fall 2013-2014
    39. 39. Open High School of Utah Charter mandates use of OER 76% whole school proficiency (Ranked 31st in Utah)
    40. 40. % Proficient Content + LMS Proficiency on CRT Cost per DollarOther 58% $380 0.15OHSU 76% $18 4.22
    41. 41. % Proficient Content + LMS Proficiency on CRT + Teacher Cost per DollarOther 58% $800 0.07OHSU 76% $34 2.24
    42. 42. ResultsShaping the Trend Line
    43. 43. Utah Open Textbook Project Hewlett funding Secondary science classrooms Adapt CK12.org textbooks
    44. 44. Utah Open Textbook Project3 years, 6000 students, 30 teachers Very few digital devices
    45. 45. Utah Open Textbook Project $4.99 per book ($80/$11.43)
    46. 46. MethodQuasi-experimental design with:• Treatment and Control Group• Pre and Post Test• Dependent variable: 2012 science CRT score• Independent variable: Textbook condition• Covariates: age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race
    47. 47. Propensity Score MatchingConditional probability of assignment Increased group balance by 98%
    48. 48. Results• IRT scaled scores +0.8 for participants, significant at p < .001• Multiple r squared of .635 (variance in scores accounted for in our model)
    49. 49. Utah Open Textbook Project Saves money Improves outcomes Period
    50. 50. Utah Open Textbook Project Winter 2012: USOE goal of 6-12Fall 2013: 75,000 students in science Math and ELA next State partnerships
    51. 51. Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative NGLC funding 8 community colleges / OA colleges Aggregate OER-based textbook replacements
    52. 52. Kaleidoscope 10 GE courses; 9,000 students Dropped required textbook cost to $0Average change was +14% in success rate
    53. 53. 908070605040302010 0 Historical Success Kaleidoscope
    54. 54. Why?OER mean full access to all course content for every student from day 1
    55. 55. Student ratings of quality of open texts Number of StudentsWorse quality 3% Same quality 56% Better quality 41% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80• “It was very concise and aligned with exactly what we were working on in the class.”• “Having the textbook catered to us by our teacher was perfect.” Bliss, Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012)
    56. 56. Student preference for Kaleidoscope courses Number of Students No preference 13%Prefer traditional 13% Prefer Kscope 73% 0 20 40 60 80 100 • “I enjoy having online texts provided for me because Im poor. I spend the money I have left after rent on school, so having free online texts provided for me benefits me very much.” • “GREAT WAY TO DO ONLINE CLASSES!!!!” Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012) Bliss,
    57. 57. KaleidoscopeRenewal funding from NGLCExpanding to 28 institutions
    58. 58. Textbook Zero Tidewater Community CollegeAssociates of Business Administration Opens Fall 2013
    59. 59. Textbook Zero100% OER pathway through degree Decreases cost of degree by 25%+
    60. 60. Continuous Improvement (ImprovOER) OER and Assessment Redesign Students Use Determine OER and OER Assessments Effectiveness Assessment and Behavioral Student Data
    61. 61. By Fall 2013 OHSU + TCC100% OER pathway from 7 - Associates
    62. 62. By Fall 2015 100% OER options for6-12 science, math, and ELA
    63. 63. By Fall 2015 (?) 100% OER options forGeneral Education requirements
    64. 64. By Fall 2016 (?)100% OER pathway through a Bachelors degree
    65. 65. Driving Questions How inexpensive can we make it?How broadly can we expand access and participation?How high can we push the success rate?
    66. 66. Driving Questions If I only have 25 years left,is there something more important I should be working on?
    67. 67. Discussionhttp://davidwiley.org/
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